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NYPL  RESEARCH  LIBRARIES 


3  3433  07954277  9 


HISTORY 


OP 


C  A  S  TI  l^E, 
PENOBSCOT,   AND   BEOOKSVILLE, 


lVtA.IN"E ; 


INCLUDING  THE  ANCIENT  SETTLEMENT 


liPeniaQoei  ^ 


•C^EORQE    ^uqUpTUp    "VyHEEI-ER,    ^.  ^JVl.,  ^.  J. 


"  One   of  those   old    Towns — zvith   a   History." — Holmes. 


BANGOF?: 

BURR    &    ROBINSON. 

187G, 


IV 

as  to  excellence,  are  due  solely  to  the  character  of  the  original  negatives,  and 
not  at  all  to  the  heliotj^pe  process.  The  wood-cut  of  the  Normal  School 
House  was  kindly  loaned  by  tlie  State  authorities.  The  wood-cuts  of  the 
Forts  were  made  by  an  amateur  engraver  of  this  town,  and  are  his  first 
attempts.  I  am,  with  regret,  obliged  to  omit  the  valuable  and  well-executed 
Plan  of  the  Cemetery,  prepared  by  Mr.  Alfred  Adams,  of  this  town.  The 
scale  upon  which  it  was  necessarily  drawn  is  so  large  that  when  reduced  to 
the  proper  size  for  a  book,  the  references  are  illegible.  I  am  in  hopes,  how- 
ever, that  the  citizens  of  the  town  will  have  it  furnished  to  them  in  a  more 
suitable  form  for  reference,  than  it  would  have  had  in  this  volume. 

To  the  friends  who  have  assisted  me  in  the  prosecution  of  this  work,  I  take 
the  present  opportunity  of  acknowledging  my  indebtedness.  I  have  received 
favors  from  too  many  individuals,  to  specify  them  all  by  name ;  but  it  affords 
me  great  pleasure  to  acknowledge  my  special  indebtedness  to  Mr.  Alexander 
W.  Longfellow,  of  the  U.  S.  Coast  Survey,  for  the  many  facilities  he  has  fur- 
nished me  in  this  undertaking;  to  Honorable  Joseph  Williamson,  of  Uelfast, 
for  his  almost  unexampled  generosity  in  furnishing  me  with  many  valuable 
documents  and  references,  relating  to  the  period  of  the  French  occupation  of 
this  territory — the  fruit  of  many  years  of  labor  on  his  part,  and  intended  for 
his  own  use ;  to  Mr,  G.  H.  Snelling,  and  Honorable  J.  Wingate  Thornton,  of 
Boston ;  and  Mr.  Hosea  B.  Wardwell,  of  Penobscot,  for  many  old  documents 
preserved  in  their  families;  and  to  Messrs.  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  M.  D.,  Samuel 
Adams,  Honorable  Charles  J.  Abbott,  George  H.  and  William  H.  Witherle, 
Samuel  T.  Noyes,  Charles  J.  Whiting,  Reverend  Alfred  E.  Ives,  and  Philip 
J.  Hooke,  of  this  town,  for  their  suggestions  and  aid. 

It  is  also  proper  that  I  should,  in  this  connection,  acknowledge  to  the  pub- 
lic the  great  obligations  that  I  have  been  under  to  my  brother, — the  late 
William  A.  Wheeler,  of  the  Boston  Public  Library.  It  is  in  no  slight. degree 
due  to  his  kindly  interest  that  I  have  been  led  to  persevere  in  my  somewhat 
laborious  employment,  and  his  assistance  and  advice  have  been  at  all  times 
freely  extended  to  me— as  they  were,  indeed,  to  all  who  sought  them.  Had 
he  lived,  this  volume  would  have  recieived,  in'  its  revision  as  it  went  through 
the  press,  the  benefit  of  his  experience  and  conscientious  care.  The  task  had 
but  just  been  commenced  when  his  earthly  career  was  terminated. 

In  preparing  this  History,  I  have  had  somewhat  in  view  the  benefit  such  a 
work  would  be  to  the  rising  generation  of  this  town.  I  trust  the  perusal  of 
its  pages  may  tend  to  increase  the  already  well  known  aflection  of  its  children 
for  the  place  of  their  nativity,  or  adoption.  Although  not  myself  "to  the 
manor  born,"  my  interest  in  the  town  in  which  I  have  taken  up  my  abode, 
can  hardly  be  surpassed. 

To  the  citizens  of  Castine,  therefore,  without  whose  liberality  this  book 
might  never  have  been  published,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  many  acts  of 
kindness,  and  around  whose  beautiful  town  cluster  so  many  ancient  and  inter- 
esting associations,  I  offer  this  volume  as  a  token  of  gratitude  and  respect. 

Casting,  Maine,  January  20, 1875. 

G.  A.  W. 


LIST  OF  AUTHORITIES  CONSULTED. 


Acadie — Murdock's. 
Acadie — Whipple's. 
Account  of  Capture  of  Castine — 

Sherbrook. 
Account  of  Centennial  Celebration  at 

Bangor,  Maine. 
Ancient  Dominions  of  Maine — Sewall. 
Annals  of  Warren — Eaton. 
America;     or    Description   of  New 

World— Ogilby. 
Belknap's  Biography. 
British  Plutarch . 
Boston  Journal,  November,  1850. 
Biographical  Sketches  of  Loyalists  of 

the  American  Revolution— Sabine. 
Castine  Newspapers,  Files  of 
Champlain's  Voyages. 
Courts  and  Lawyers  of  Maine— Willis. 
Collections  of  Maine  Historical  Society. 
Collections  of  Mass.  Historical  Society. 
Da  Costa's  Mount  Desert. 
Drake's  Book  of  the  Indians. 
Drake's  Dictionarv  of  American  Biog. 
Dwight's  Travels." 
Early  Settlement  of  Acadia  by  the 

Dutch— De  Peyster. 
Farmer's    Almanac,  1795 — Robert  B. 

Thomas. 
Field  Book  of  the  Revolutlon-Lossing. 
Field  Book  of  the  War  of  lS12-Lossing. 
Geological  Survey  of  Maine— Jackson. 
History — Botta's. 
Historv  of  Camden — Eaton. 
History  of  Hancock  Lodge,  F.  &  A.  M. 

Webster. 
History  of  Maine — Sullivan. 
History  of  Maine — Williamson. 
History  of  Mass. — Hutchinson. 
History  of  the  Navy — Pr>t(!rson. 
History  of  Newbury — Coffin. 


History  of  New  England — Coolidge 

and  Mansfield. 
History  (Geographical)  of  Nova  Scotia. 

London,  1749. 
History  of  Plymouth  Colonv-Bradford. 
History  of  Portland— Willis. 
History  of  Thomaston,  So.  Thomaston, 

and  Rockland — Eaton. 
History  of  Virginia — Smith. 
Historical  Magazine. 
Incidents  in  the  Life  of  Samuel  A. 

Whitney. 
Journal  of  the  Revolutionary  War — 

Thatcher. 
Journal  of  the  Siege  of  Penobscot — 

Calef. 
La  Hontan's  Voyages. 
Life  and  Writings  of  Washington — 

Appendix  3 — Sparks. 
Maine  Register,  1874. 
Memorials    of   English    and  French 

Commissaries, concerning  the  Lim- 
its of  Nova  Scotia  or  Acadia. 
New  France — Charlevoix. 
Niles's  Weekly  Register,  1814-15. 
Pennsylvania  .T()urii;il.  1775. 
Providence  Patriot.  lsl5. 
Remarks  upon  a  Copper  Plate — Read 

before  the  Am.    Antiq.   Soc.  by 

Charles  Folsom,  Esq, 
Reports  of  Adjutant  Genei'al  of  Maine, 

1861,  18G0. 
StatisticalViews  of  Maine— Greenleaf. 
State  Papers — Hutchinson. 
The  Dutch  at  North  Pole  and  in  Maine, 

De  Peyster. 
The  Neutral  French. 
Wintlirop's  Journal. 
Wisdom   and  Policy  of  the  French — 

London,  1704. 


IN   MANUSCRIPT. 

[In  State  Department  at  Boston.] 


Governor  Pownal's  Speech. 

Letter  to  Governor  Hancock,  1784,  bv 

Mr.  Cobb. 
Letter  to    the    Executive,    1811,    by 

Judge  Parker. 


Documents  collected  in  France,  by  B, 

IVrlcy  I'oorc. 
Massachusetts  T^ctter  Book, 
Massachusetts  Records,  Vols.  1  to  17. 
Penobscot  Hxpedil'n.  Vol.  in  regard  to 


VI 


[7?i  possession  of  Joseph   Williamson,  Esq.} 


William  Hutchins's  Narrative  of  the 

Siege  of  Penobscot,  tfcc. 
Lawrence's  Orderly  Book. 
Perham's  Letter  from  Colonel  Brewer. 
Account  of  Burton's  escape  from  Fort 

George. 


New  Ireland — original  paper. 
Topographical    Sketch   of  Castine— 
Wm.  Ballard. 


[Miscellajieous.} 


Church  Records  of  First  Parish. 
Church  Records  of  First  Trinitarian 

Church. 
Custom  House  Records. 
District  School  Records. 
Redhead's  Journal   of  the    Siege    of 

Penobscot. 


History  of  Methodism  in  Castine. 
Peters'    Field    Notes    of  Survey 

Penobscot. 
Records  of  Castine  Light  Infantry. 
Reports  of  School  Committees. 
Town  Records. 
Sundry  Letters  and  Memoranda. 


of 


vu 


CONTENTS. 


PART  I. 


Chap. 

I. 

Chap. 

II. 

Chap. 

III. 

Chap. 

IV. 

Chap. 

V. 

Chap. 

VI. 

PENTAGOET. 

Early  Explorations  and  Settlements. 

Occupation  by  the  French. 

BAftON  Castin  and  Family. 

French  Occupation  from  1671  to  1759. 

AVAR  OF  Revolution— American  Expedition. 

"War  of  Hevolution— American  Defeat. 


PART     II. 


Chap. 

I. 

Chap. 

II. 

Chap. 

III. 

Chap. 

IV. 

Chap. 

V. 

Chap. 

VI. 

Chap. 

VII. 

Chap. 

VIII. 

Chap. 

IX. 

Chap. 

X. 

Chap. 

XI. 

Chap. 

XII. 

CASTINE,    PENOBSCOT   AND   BPtOOKSVILLE. 

Topography,  Natural  History,  Climatology,  &c. 

Municipal  History  of  Penobscot. 

Municipal  History  of  Castine. 

General  and  Social  History  of  Castine. 

Ecclesiastical  History. 

Educational  History  ok  Castine. 

Military  History— Since  Incorporation  of  Penobscot. 

Commercial  History  of  Castine. 

Ancient  Buildings,  Forts,  Batteries,  &c. 

Biographical  Sketches. 

Municipal  History  of  Brooksville. 

Present  and  Future  of  the  three  Toavns. 


PART  III. 


DOCUMENTAEy. 

Section  I.  Documents  Rklatingto  thk  Ante-Rkvolutionary  Pkriod, 

Sec,      II.  Documents  Rklatixg  to  the  Rkvolutionary  Pkriod. 

Sec.     III.  Documents  Relating  to  the  Municipal  Period. 

Sue.     IV.  Appendix;. 


ix 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS. 

View  of  Castine  from  High  Head Frontispiece- 
Map  of  the  old  Forts  and  Batteries Page  42. 

Map  of  Castine,  Brooksville,  and  Penobscot "  54. 

Castine  Village  from  Kormal  School  House *.  "  84. 

Eastern  Normal  School  House "  148. 

SupposedPlan  of  Fort  Pentagoet "  187. 

Plan  of  Fort  George •*  188. 

Outline  of  Battery  Griffith "  191. 

Landing  Place  of  the  Americans,  1779 "  192. 

Facsimile  of  the  "Castine  Coins" "  194. 

Facsimile  of  the  "Copper  Plate" "  196. 

Portrait  of  William  Hutchings '•  203. 

Portraitof  Hon.  William  Abbott "  212. 

Portrait  of  Deacon  Samuel  Adams..*.. "  232. 


ADDITlO:s*S  AND  CORRECTIOIfS. 

l*age  14,  Hue  15,  from  bottom,  for  'Agoucy'  read  'Agoncy.' 
Page  19,  line  1,  from  bottom,  (also  on  Pages  37,  40,  and  43)  for  'Hutchins' 
«read  'Hutchings.' 

Page  35,  line  10,  from  top,  for  'Ones'  read  'One's.' 

Page  43,  line  3,  from  bottom,  for  'awaited  the  signal  to  retreat'  read  're- 
mained until  a  retreat  was  ordei-ed.' 
Page  55,  line  17,  from  bottom,  for  'Alemogin'  read  'Algemogin.' 
Page  60,  line  8,  from  bottom,  for  'were'  read  'was.' 
Page  74,  line  15,  from  top,  for  'town'  read  'village.' 
Page  92,  line  14,  from  top,  for  'Jothan'  read  'Jotham.' 
Page  '^9,  line  7,  from  bottom,  for  'Sopher's'  read  'Soper's.' 
Page  103,  line  2,  from  top,  for  'phthisis  pulmonalis  (consumption)'  read 
'Phthisis  Pulmonalis  (Consumption).' 

Page  103,  line  4,  for  'Stephens'  read  'Stevens.'     (Also  on  Page  143,  line  5, 
from  bottom.) 
Page  107,  several  lines,  and  page  108,  line  1,  for  'doctor' read  'Doctor.' 
Page  107,  line  21,  from  bottom,  for  'appoited'  read  'appointed.' 
Page  108,  line  17,  from  bottom,  for  'and  Doctor'  read  'and  of  Doctor.' 
Page  144,  line  15,  from  top,  for  'at'  read  'a.' 
Page  152,  line  10,  from  top,  for  'County'  read  'Country.' 
Page  166,  line  7,  from  bottom,  for  'Samuel'  read  'Seth.' 
Page  196,  line  9,  from  top,  for  'Damre'  read  'Domime.' 
Page  202,  line  16,  from  top,  for  'November  30, 1831,'  read  'August  5, 1833.' 
Page  204,  line  6,  from  bottom,  for  'union,'  read  'Union.' 
Page  306,  line  18,  from  bottom,  for  'constiution'  read  'constitution.' 
Page  369,  lines  1,  2,  and  3,  from  top.  Under  "  Co.,"  for  "  C  "  read  B." 
Page  373,  line  11,  from  bottom,  under  "  Regt.,"  for  "  11th"  read  "  18th." 


Note.— The  Portrait  of  Doctor  Joseph  L.  Stevens  has  been  heliotyped, 
and  it  was  expected  up  to  the  present  moment  that  it  would  appear  in  this 
book.  It  is  fuUv  as  good  as  the  other  illustrations,  but  on  account  of  their 
dissatisfaction  with  it— or  for  some  other  reason— the  parties  who  oft'ered  to 
furnish  it,  now  decline  to  do  so.  The  author  still  hopes  for  its  insertion— in 
which  case  it  will  be  found  on  Page  222. 


PART    I. 
PENTAGOET. 

'  One's  heart  felt  sorrow  that  it  had  ever  been  destroyed." 

Pownal. 


PENTAGOET. 


CHAPTER  I. 

Situation  and  Tereitoeial  Limits. — Aboriginal  In- 
habitants.— Advent  of  Europeans. — Early  Ex- 
plorations.— Meaning  of  the  Names  applied  to 
Localities. — Settlement  by  Plymouth  Colony. — 
Pillaged  by  the  French. — Attack  by  Aulney. 

Ancient  Pentagoet,  situated  upon  the  eastern  side  of 
Penobscot  bay  and  river,  may  be  said  to  have  embraced 
the  territory  now  comprised  in  the  three  towns  of  Penob- 
scot, Brooksyille  and  Castine.  It  comjDosed  a  part  of  the 
ancient  land  of  the  Etchemins,  and  was  occupied,  before 
the  advent  of  Europeans,  by  the  numerous  and  powerful 
tribe  of  Tarratines, — as  the  Penobscot  Indians  were  then 
called. 

The  Tarratines  are  described  as  of  elegant  stature  and 
of  agreeable  form.  They  are  said  to  have  been  as  tall  as 
the  Europeans,  and  much  better  proportioned.  After  the 
arrival  of  the  Europeans,  they,  like  all  other  Indian  tribes, 
adopted  the  vices  more  than  they  did  the  virtues  of  the 
white  men.  They  have  generally,  however,  been  repre- 
sented as  chaste,  constant  in  marriage,  and  as  much  more 
peaceable  than  the  other  tribes.  It  has  been  said  of  them, 
"  that  no  other  eastern  tribe  had  treated  the  English  with 
so  much  forbearance  and  honor,"  and  this  too,  thouo'h  their 
sympathies  and  predilections  must  doubtless  have  been  for 
the  French.  On  more  than  one  occasion  during  the  period 
of  the  Indian  troubles  in  New  England,  they  expressed 
themselves  earnestly  for  peace,  and  in  at  least  one  war 
against  them,  our  own  people  must  have  been  the  first 
aggressors.  Owing  to  the  labors  and  teachings  of  Fatlicr 
Lauvergat — who  was  a  missionary  to  them  about  the  year 
1721 — and  of  other  priests,  they  were  converted  to  the 
3 


14  '       PENTAGOET. 

Catholic  faith.  They  became  ultimately  the  wards  of  the 
State,  and  were  limited,  territorially,  to  the  islands  at  Old- 
town  and  in  the  river  above,  about  the  year  1796.  Note- 
worthy among  their  chieftains  Avas  Madocl^awando,  both 
on  account  of  his  disposition  and  personal  character,  and 
on  account  of  the  influence  he  exerted  over  other  sachems,, 
and  more  especially  for  having  been  the  father-in-law  of  the- 
Baron  de  St.  Castin.  All  historians  agree,  that,  though 
brave,  he  was  peaceably  inclined,  and  that  the  prisoners 
under  his  keeping  were  remarkably  well  treated.  He 
assisted  Pontneuf  at  the  capture  of  Casco  Fort,  in  May, 
1690.  He  was  also  in  the  attack  upon  Wells,  in  1692.  In 
1694,  he  went  with  Villieu  to  the  attack  at  Oyster  river, 
Piscataqua,  accompanied  by  two  hundred  and  fifty  Indians. 
They  killed  or  captured  nearly  one  hundred  prisoners,  and 
burned  tAventy  houses.  In  1786,  an  attempt  was  made  to 
prove,  by  a  deed  to  Avhich  his  signature  was  appended,  that 
he  was  not  a  sachem  of  the  Penobscots.  The  weight  of 
evidence  is,  however,  the  other  way.  He  died  in  1697,  and 
was  succeeded  by  Wenamouet,  or  Wenaggonet.  Orono, 
who  is  represented  as  being  a  man  of  very  exemplary  char- 
acter, and  who  is  reputed  to  have  been  a  son  of  the 
Baron  de  St.  Castin,  was  also  at  one  time  a  sachem  of  the 
tribe.  The  town  of  Orono,  in  Penobscot  County,  com- 
memorates his  name. 

The  eastern  section  of  Maine,  was  one  of  the  first  por- 
tions of  the  continent  visited  by  the  early  explorers. 
Penobscot  bay  and  river  will  be  found  quite  particularly, 
though  very  curiously,  delineated  upon  all  the  early  charts. 
It  went  by  the  various  names  of  Agoucy,  Norumbegue, 
Rio  Grande  (the  Great  River),  Rio  Hermoso  (the  Beauti- 
ful River),  Rio  de  las  Gamas  (Deer  River),  Rio  de  Gomez 
(River  of  Gomez),  and  Rio  Santa  Maria.  Its  appellation 
of  Penobscot  Avas  given  on  account  of  its  rocky  shores — 
penops^  in  the  Indian  dialect  signifying  rocky,  and  aulc^ 
place.  [Williamson  1,  p.  512.]  The  meaning  of  the  term 
PentagiJet,  called  by  the  Dutch  Pountegouycet  [De  Peyster, 
Dutch  in  Maine,  p.  73],  applied  originally  to  the  peninsula 
of  Majabagaduce  by  the  French,  is  not  knoAvn  AAdth  abso- 
lute certainty.  Dr.  J.  H.  Trumbull,  however,  is  inclined  to 
the  opinion  that  it  means  "  the  entrance  of  the  river."  He 
has  no  doubt  of  its  being  an  Indian  name  handed  doAvn 
through  the  French.  The  arm  of  the  sea  which  runs  up 
into  the   town  of    Penobscot,  between   Brooksville   and 


PENTAGOET.  15 

Castine,  and  whicli  dividfid  ancient  Pentagoet  into  two 
nearly  equal  parts,  and  which  now  goes  by  the  name  of 
Bagaduce  river,  was  in  former  times  called  by  the  name  of 
Matcheljiguatus.  Although  undoul^tedly  an  Indian  name, 
it  is  somewhat  singular  that  no  reference  can  be  found  to 
it  earlier  tlian  the  year  1644,  [Winthrop's  Journal,  Vol.  1, 
p.  220,  note],  and  that  no  such  name  is  to  be  found  in  any 
of  the  English  or  French  documents  relating  to  the  Castin 
family,  or  to  Pentagoet.  This  name  has  suffered  very 
singular  corruption,  unless,  as  is  possible  though  not  very 
probable,  two  separate  and  distinct  Indian  appellations 
have  been  confounded.  In  1760,  it  was  called  Baggadoose  ; 
during  the  Revolution,  Maja-bagaduce  and  Maja-bigaduce. 
[Me.  Hist.  Col.,  Vol.  VI,  Art.  Castine  Coins.]  Williamson 
says  in  his  History  of  Maine,  [Vol.  1,  p.  71,]  that  it  was 
named  for  a  French  officer  by  the  name  of  Major  Bigayduce. 
He  says  subsequently,  however,  that  it  is  derived  from 
Marche-l^agaduce,  an  Indian  word  meaning  "No  good 
cove."  Eaton  says,  also,  that  it  means  "  A  bad  harbor." 
[Annals  of  Warren,  p.  20,  note.]  A  tradition  exists, 
amongst  some  of  the  Penobscot  Indians,  that  the  upsetting 
of  a  canoe  full  of  Indians,  at  some  remote  period,  caused 
great  sorrow  and  distress,  and  hence  the  word  is  thought 
by  some  to  signify  "  a  place  of  sorrow."  Jacob  McGaw, 
Esq.,  of  Bangor,  has  stated  that  it  was  said  by  some  of  the 
old  Indians,  to  mean  "  a  river  having  large  coves  or  bays." 
A  Penobscot  Indian  told  Mr.  Alexander  W.  Longfellow, 
in  the  summer  of  1872,  that  it  was  called  by  them,  Ka-bag- 
a-duce,  the  meaning  of  wdaich  is,  "  your  daughter  is  floated 
out  by  the  tide."  Mr.  Longfellow  also  informs  us  that  he 
has  somewhere  seen  a  reference  to  an  Indian  of  the  Kenne- 
bec tribe  who  was  called  Bagadusett.  Doctor  J.  H. 
Trumbull,  of  Connecticut, — reputed  to  be  the  ablest  living 
student  of  the  Indian  dialects — says,  in  a  letter  to  the  au- 
thor:— "That  the  original  name  was  something  like  Matsi- 
abagawadoos-et,  (Matsi-anbaga  »  atirs-ek,  as  Rale  would 
have  written  it)  and  that  it  means  '  at  the  bad  shelter  place,' 
i.  e.  where  there  is  no  safe  harbor,  I  have  scarcely  a  doubt." 
Of  the  various  meanings  given  to  this  name,  the  latter  is 
probably  the  correct  one.  Yet  few  who  have  ever  sailed 
up  and  down  the  river,  even  in  canoes,  would  dream  of 
speaking  of  it  as  a  river  having  no  good  coves,  though  it 
was  doubtless  a  bad  place  for  the  landing  of  canoes  upon 
this  peninsula,  especially  in  an  easterly  wind. 


16  PENTAGOET. 

Champlain  is  commonly  supposed  to  have  been  the  first 
European  to  have  landed  (about  1604)  upon  these  shores. 
If,  however,  any  confidence  Avhatever  can  be  placed  in  the 
account  of  Thevet — who  is  not  considered  to  be  a  very 
trustworthy  authority — there  must  have  been  a  French 
fishing  or  trading  station,  prior  to  the  year  1556,  in  this 
vicinity,  if  not  within  the  limits  of  what  was  called  Pentag- 
oet.     [Me.  Hist.  Col.  (Doc.  Hist.),Vol.  1,  pp.  416  to  419.] 

1605.  The  river  and  bay  were  again  explored,  in  the 
year  1605,  by  James  Rozier,  the  companion  of  Weymouth, 
in  honor  of  whom  the  cape  at  the  southwestern  extremity 
of  the  town  of  Brooksville,  received  its  name.  [Me.  Hist. 
Col.,  Vol.  V,  p.  384,  note.]  The  Indian  name  of  this  cape 
was  Mose-ka-chick,  signifying  a  moose's  rump.  There  is 
an  interesting  legend  connected  with  this  name.  The  tale 
is,  that  as  an  Indian  was  pursuing  a  moose  over  the  pen- 
insula upon  which  Castine  is  situated,  it  came  to  the 
shore,  and  jumping  in,  swam  across  to  th^  other  side.  The 
dogs  of  the  Indian  were  unable  to  follow  the  game,  but 
the  Indian  himself  pursued  it  in  a  canoe,  and  succeeded  in 
killing  it  upon  the  023posite  shore.  Upon  his  return  he 
scattered  the  entrails  of  the  animal  in  the  water,  where 
they  may  be  seen — -in  the  shape  of  certain  rocks  strung 
along  at  intervals — even  to  this  day.  [Mr.  A.  W.  Long- 
fellow, U.  S.  Coast  Survey.] 

1613.  In  the  year  1613,  "a  new  project  was  formed  in 
France,  to  get  possession  of  Pentagoet,  a  river  which  lies 
thirty  leagues  S.  W.  from  St.  Croix:  with  this  view  a  col- 
ony duly  furnished  with  missionaries  was  transported 
thither."  This  colony  is,  however,  believed  to  have  settled 
at  Mount  Desert.  [Geog.  Hist,  of  Nova  Scotia,  London, 
1749,  p.  53.]  This  year  Captain  Argall,  of  Virginia,  was 
cast  ashore  here  while  on  a  fishing  cruise.  He  did  not  re- 
main any  length  of  time.  The  first  French  fort  was  prob- 
ably erected  here  about  this  time.   [Ogilby,  America,  p.  137.] 

1614.  In  the  year  1614,  Captain  John  Smith  explored 
this  coast,  and  refers  to  the  French  traders  being  in  this 
vicinity.     [Smith's  Journal  pp.  213-215.] 

1626.  The  first  permanent  settlement  of  much  conse- 
quence, however,  was  made  here  in  the  year  1626,  by  Isaac 
Allerton,  under  direction  of  the  Plymouth  Colony  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, who  established  here  a  trading  house  for  the 
purpose  of  bartering  for  furs  with  the  Indians.  This  trad- 
ing house,  like  all  others  of  that  period,  was  built  for  de- 


PEKTAGOET.  17 

fense,  and  was  probably  surrounded  by  a  stockade.  The 
Plymouth  Colony  retained  undisturbed  possession  of  it 
until  the  year  1632,  when  it  was  pillaged  by  the  French. 

1632.  Early  in  June  of  this  year,  a  French  vessel,  pilot- 
ed by  a  wily  and  treacherous  Scotchman,  and  commanded 
by  a  Frenchman  from  Nova  Scotia,  named  Rosillon,  visited 
the  place.  The  captain  pretended  he  had  put  into  the 
harbor  in  distress,  and  requested  permission  to  repair  his 
vessel  and  refresh  his  crew.  The  crew,  finding  that  the 
commander  of  the  station  was,  with  most  of  his  men,  on 
a  trip  to  the  westward  after  goods,  first  examined  the  arms 
of  the  fort  to  see  if  they  were  loaded,  and  then,  seizing 
their  swords  and  muskets,  compelled  the  surrender  of  the 
few  remaining  keepers  of  the  trading  house.  They  forced 
them,  moreover,  to  deliver  up  their  goods  and  help  put  them 
on  board  the  vessel.  After  taking  property  to  the  amount 
of  X500,  they,  upon  leaving,  said : — "  Tell  your  Master  to 
remember  the  Isle  of  Re,"  alluding  to  the  brilliant  suc- 
cesses of  the  French  at  the  Isle  of  Re,  in  France,  in  1627. 
[De  Peyster,  Dutch  in  Maine,  p.  50 — also,  Williamson's 
Hist,  of  Me.,  Vol.  1,  p.  249.] 

1635.  In  the  year  1635,  Charles  de  Menou  d'Aulney 
de  Charnissy,  who  was  a  subordinate  officer  under  General 
Razillai,  the  Governor  of  Acadia,  attacked  the  trading 
house  and  drove  off  its  occupants.  The  Plymouth  Colony 
soon  attempted  to  regain  possession,  and  Captain  Girling, 
of  the  Hope^  a  ship  hired  at  Ipswich,  Massachusetts,  ac- 
companied by  Miles  Standish,  attacked  the  place,  but  did 
not  force  a  surrender,  although  it  was  only  occupied  by 
eighteen  men.  Had  Captain  Girling  listened  to  the  advice  of 
Standish,  and  not  commenced  his  attack  until  he  got  close 
in,  he  might  have  succeeded.  He  actually,  however,  used 
up  all  his  powder  before  he  got  sufficiently  near  to  do  any 
harm.  [Bradford's  Hist,  of  Plymouth  Col.,  p.  333.]  From 
this  time  until  the  year  1654,  the  French  held  undisputed 
possession  of  the  place. 


18  PENTAGoET. 


CHAPTER   II. 

QUAHEEL    BETWEEN"   AlTLNEY  AND    La    ToUR. — SEVERE 

Earthquake. — La  Tour's  Attack  upon  Aulney's 
Men  at  Mill. — Attack  upon  Farm-House. — Wan- 
nerton  Killed. — Aulney's  Death. — La  Tour's 
Marriage  to  Aulney's  Widow. — La  Tour's  Com- 
iviand  of  the  fort. — capture  by  the  english. — 
Cromwell's  Patent  to  La  Tour. — Pentagoet  Sur- 
rendered TO  THE  French. 

1635o  General  Razillai,  commander  of  Acadia,  gave  the 
subordinate  command  of  all  the  country  to  the  eastward  of 
the  river  St.  Croix,  to  Charles  St.  Estienne  de  La  Tour, 
and  of  all  the  country  to  the  westward  of  that  river — 
as  far  as  the  French  claimed — to  Monsieur  Charles  de 
Menou  d'Aulney.  Pentagoet,  therefore,  came  under  the 
control  of  Aulney.*  After  the  death  of  Razillai,  which 
occurred  this  same  year,  Aulney  and  La  Tour  quarrelled 
in  regard  to  the  supreme  command  in  Acadia,  which  each 
claimed.  This  quarrel  lasted  many  years,  and  during  its 
continuance,  a  bitter  contest  was  waged,  with  varying  suc- 
cess, between  these  two  leaders  and  their  respective  adhe- 
rents. '  La  Tour  applied  for  assistance  to  the  government 
of  Massachusetts.  The  rulers  of  that  commonwealth  gave 
their  consent  to  his  hiring  ships  and  men  to  carry  on  his 
contest.  He  accordingly  hired  four  vessels,  and  with  eighty 
men  attacked  Aulney  at  St.  Croix,  who  fled  to  Penobscot. 
1638.  With  the  exception  of  the  "  Great  Earthquake," 
which  happened  June  1,  1638, — and  the  motion  of  which 
was  felt  for  twenty  days, — nothing  of  any  importance  oc- 
curred here  until  1643. 

1643.  In  this  year  La  Tour  attempted  the  capture  of 
the  place.  Although  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  ves- 
sels hired  at  Boston  could  not  be  persuaded  to  make  any 
assault  upon  Aulney,  j^et  thirty  of  the  New  England  men 
went  voluntarily  with  La  Tour's  men  and  drove  some  of 
Aulney's  force  from  a  mill  where  they  had  fortified  them- 
selves. Three  of  Aulney's  men  were  Idlled  in  this  conflict, 
*Commonly,  though  less  correctly,  -vvrittcu  D'Auluey. 


PENTAGOET.  19 

and  three  of  La  Tour's  men  were  wounded.  [Mass.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  5,  2d  Sec,  p.  483.]  They  set  the  mill  on 
fire,  and  burned  some  standing  corn.  They  received  a  fire 
from  Aulney,  however,  as  they  went  on  board  their  vessels. 
[Winthrop's  Journal,  p.  307.] 

1644.  In  the  summer  following.  La  Tour,  hearing  that 
the  fort  was  weakly  manned  and  in  want  of  victuals,  dis- 
patched Mr.  Wannerton,  of  Piscataqua,  and  some  other 
English  gentlemen  who  were  with  him  at  the  time,  together 
with  about  twenty  of  his  own  men,  to  take  Penobscot. 
They  went  to  a  farm  house  of  Aulney's,  situated  about  six 
miles  from  the  fort.*  Wannerton  and  two  of  his  men 
knocked  at  the  door  of  the  house.  One  of  the  inmates 
opened  the  door,  when  another  at  once  shot  Wannerton 
dead,  while  a  third  shot  one  of  Wannerton's  companions  in 
the  shoulder,  but  was  himself  immediately  shot  dead  in 
return.  Tha  rest  of  the  company  now  came  in,  took  pos- 
session of  the  house,  and  made  the  two  men  who  remained, 
prisoners.  After  killing  all  the  cattle,  they  burned  the 
house,  and  at  once  embarked  for  Boston. 

On  the  eighth  day  of  October,  articles  of  peace  were 
concluded  between  Aulney  and  John  Endicott,  Governor  of 
New  England.  Notwithstanding  this  treaty,  La  Tour  was 
allowed  to  hire  vessels  to  carry  supplies  to  his  fort  at  St. 
Croix.  This  gave  offense  to  Aulney,  who  became  trouble- 
some, and  seized  upon  all  the  vessels  he  could,  that  attempt- 
ed to  trade  with  La  Tour. 

1651.  Aulney  retained  quiet  possession  of  his  fort  from 
this  time  until  his  death,  which  took  place  in  the  year  1651. 
The  history  of  this  long-continued  and  bitter  quarrel  ends 
much  like  a  romance.  La  Tour  having  married  the  widow 
of  his  foe  within  one  year  after  the  death  of  the  latter. 
Aulney  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  teach  the  Indians 
in  this  region  the  use  of  fire-arms.  The  French  settlers  at 
this  time  were  very  ignorant  and  depraved,  and  were  also, 
excessive  bigots  in  their  religion.  The  government  of  the 
place  was  simply  a  military  despotism.  Under  such  auspi- 
ces no  great  progress  in  the  growth  of  the  place  could  be 
looked  for.  After  the  death  of  Aulney,  La  Tour  exercised 
authority  over  the  place  for  about  two  years.  He  was 
here  in  person  but  seldom,  however,  his  principal  residence 
being  at  St.  John,  N.  B. 

*Tliis  fiirin  house  was  probably  Hituatcd  at  the  head  of  Northern  Bay,  near 
what  was  subsequently  called  the  Winslow  farm.  It  was  between  the  sliore 
and  where  Mr.  Perkins'  store  now  stunds.-Sec  llutchins's  Narrative  in  Part  III. 


20  PBNTAGOET. 

1654.  Pentagoet  was  taken,  in  the  year  1654,  by  the 
English,  acting  under  orders  from  Cromwell.  They  re- 
tained undisturbed  possession  for  thirteen  years.  The 
place  was,  however,  still  occupied  by  the  French  settlers. 

1656.  In  the  year  1656,  Cromwell  issued  a  patent  to 
Stephen  de  La  Tour  (son  of  Charles  St.  Estienne),  Sir 
Thomas  Temple,  and  William  Crowne,  giving  to  them  the 
territory  called  Acadia,  which  included  Penobscot.  Sub- 
sequently Temple  and  Crowne  purchased  all  his  right  and 
title  to  the  territory  from  La  Tour. 

1662.  In  the  year  1662,  Colonel  Temple  left,  having 
surrendered  the  fort  to  Captain  Thomas  Bredion.  The 
latter  dismissed  Edward  Naylor,who  had  charge  of "Negew," 
in  Penobscot,  and  Lieutenant  Gardner,  in  charge  of  the  fort, 
together  with  all  tlie  officers  and  soldiers.  [Naylor's  De- 
position, Part  III.] 

1667.  As  a  result  of  the  war  between'  England  and 
France,  the  Pro\dnce  of  Nova  Scotia  was,  by  the  treaty  of 
Breda,  surrendered  to  the  French,  July  31,  1667. 

1668.  During  the  month  of  February,  1668,  another 
article  was  added  to  this  treaty,  ceding  the  whole  of  Acadia 
to  the  French,  and  specifying  "  Pentagoet,"  or  Penobscot, 
by  name. 

1670.  The  place  was  not,  however,  actually  given  up 
to  them  until  the  year  1670,  when  Captain  Richard  Walker 
made  a  formal  surrender  of  it  to  Monsieur  Hubert  d'An- 
digny.  Chevalier  de  Grandfontaine.  [Part  III,  Deed  of 
Surrender.] 

By  the  instructions  of  the  French  king,  and  according 
to  the  provisions  of  the  treaty,  the  inhabitants-  were  left 
entirely  free  to  remain,  or  to  leave  and  take  away  all  their 
property.  Grandfontaine  was  instructed  to  make  this  place 
his  head-quarters,  and  to  put  it  in  a  complete  state  of  de- 
fense. Also,  to  promote  business  and  traffic  along  the 
coast,  especially  the  fisheries  and  preparing  of  furs.  Stran- 
gers were  obliged  to  have  a  special  permit  from  the  king, 
in  order  to  do  business  here,  though  the  English  who  were 
here  were  allowed  to  remain,  upon  taking  an  oath  of  alle- 
giance to  the  French  crown.  Nearly  all  the  soldiers  de- 
sired to  settle  here.  The  Lieutenant  of  Grandfontaine,  at 
this  time  was  the  Sieur  de  Marson.  [French  Documents, 
Part  III.] 


PENTAGOET.  21 


CHAPTER  III. 

Arkival  of  the  Baron  Castin. — His  peeviotjs  Life. 
His  Character. — Description  of  his  Residence. — 
His  Marriage  to  Madockawando's  Daughter. — 
His  Family. — Description  of  Madaisie  Castin. — 
His  SiJB]\nssiON  to  the  English. — Departure  for 
France. — Account  of  his  Sons,  Anselm  and 
Joseph  Dabadis. — Departure  of  Anselm  for 
France. — Death  of  the  Baron. — Latest  account 
of  the  Family. 

*       *       *       *       One  whose  bearded  cheek 
And  white  and  wrinkled  brow  bespeak 

A  wanderer  from  the  shores  of  France. 
A  few  long  locks  of  scattering  snow 
Beneath  a  battered  morion  flow, 
And  from  the  rivets  of  his  vest, 
Which  girds  in  steel  his  ample  breast, 

The  slanted  sunbeams  glance. 
In  the  harsh  outlines  of  his  face 
Passion  and  sin  have  left  their  trace ; 
Yet,  save  worn  brow  and  thin  grey  hair. 
No  signs  of  weary  age  are  there. 

His  step  is  linn,  his  eye  is  keen, 
Nor  years  in  broil  and  battle  spent, 
Nor  toil,  nor  wounds,  nor  pain,  had  bent 

The  lordly  frame  of  old  Castiue. 

JVhittier. — Mogg  Ilegone. 

1667.  About  the  time  of  the  treaty  of  Breda,  Baron 
Jean  Vincent  cle  St.  Castin,*  came  from  Quebec  to  Penob- 
scot. The  Baron  Castin  was  born  at  Oleron,  France, — a 
town  situated  near  the  borders  of  the  Pyrenees.  He  is 
represented  as  a  man  of  good  abilities,  very  daring  and  en- 
terprising, of  very  fascinating  address  and  manners,  and  as 
possessing  a  competent  education.  He  was  liberal  and 
kindly  in  his  feelings,  but  a  devout  Catholic  in  his  religion. 
He  probably  possessed  a  fair  knowledge  of  the  military  arts 
of  that  period.  He  was  at  one  time  a  colonel  in  the  king's 
body  guard.  He  was  afterwards  commander  of  a  regi- 
ment called  the  "  Carignan  Salieres."  About  the  year  1665, 
he  and  his  troops  were  ordered  to  Quebec.  At  the  close 
of  the  war  (1667),  they  were  discharged  from  the  army. 
It  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  he  would  feel  chagrined 
and  incensed  at  his  dismissal.  However  this  may  be,  it  is 
certain  that  he  determined  to  remain  in  this  country,  and 

*He  is  called,  in  one  of  the  French  letters,  the  Sieur  de  Badie,  Baron  de  St. 
Castin. 

4 


22  PENTAGOET. 

to  take  up  his  abode  among  the  Indians.  Probably  th(? 
grant  from  the  king,  of  a  considerable  quantity  of  land, 
had  something  to  do  with  his  choice.  [Wisdom  and  Policy 
of  the  French,  London,  1704,  p.  86.]  He  accordingly  set- 
tled on  this  peninsula,  where  he  erected  a  safe  and  commo- 
dious residence.  His  house  is  generally  thought  to  have 
been  situated  near  the  site  of  Aulney's  fort,  and  to  have 
been  not  far  from  where  the  house  of  Mr.  George  H.  Webb 
now  stands,  on  Perkins  Street.  It  was  a  long,  low,  irregu- 
lar building,  constructed  partly  of  wood  and  partly  of  stone, 
and  had  rather  a  grotesque  appearance.  [The  Neutral 
French.]  The  windows  were  small  and  quite  high,  so  that 
no  one  could  look  in  from  the  outside.  The  fort  surround- 
ing it,  contained  twelve  guns,  a  well,  a  chapel  with  a  bell, 
and  several  out-buildings ;  and  a  garden,  containing  quite  a 
number  of  fruit  trees,  was  attached  to  it.  This  orchard 
was,  according  to  the  traditions  of  the  place,  situated  on 
the  upper  side  of  the  present  street,  and  opposite  the  fort. 
There  is  now  no  trace  of  it,  but  some  of  our  octogenarians 
well  remember  seeing  it  in  their  younger  days.  According 
to  a  pretty  trustworthy  account,  some  of  the  young  trees, 
from  this  orchard  were  transplanted  to  Sedgwick,  and  ap- 
ples were  gathered  from  one  of  them  as  late  as  the  fall  of 
1873.  They  are  on  the  farm  of  Levi  Gray.  The  entire 
grounds  were  encompassed  by  a  palisade.  [Part  III,  Deed 
of  Surrender  of  Fort  Pentagoet.] 

The  character  attributed  to  Castin,  differs  according  to 
the  various  prepossessions  of  those  describing  him.  He 
was  generally  held  in  high  esteem  by  the  French,  by  whom 
he  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  sound  understanding, 
and  quite  "solicitous  of  honor."  His  relations,  however, 
with  the  Governor,  Monsieur  Perrot,  were  not  very  amica- 
ble, and,  at  one  time,  the  latter  detained  him  seventy  days 
upon  the  charge  of  a  "weakness  he  had  for  some  females." 
By  the  Indians,  over  whom  he  had  great  control,  he  was 
considered  in  the  light  of  a  tutelar  divinity.  He  was 
feared  as  well  as  hated  by  the  English,  who  accused  him  of 
inciting  the  savages  against  them,  and  of  providing  them 
with  arms  and  ammunition.  They  made  several  attempts 
to  induce  him  to  desert  the  French  cause,  and,  at  one 
time,  Mr.  Palmer,  a  judge  at  New  York,  offered  him  a 
grant  of  all  the  lands  he  claimed  as  his,  upon  his  becoming 
a  British  subject.  He  always,  however,  refused  to  recog- 
nize the  English,  and  thereby  preserved  the  possession  of 


PENTAGOET.  23 

the  place  to  the  French.  His  letters  show  him  to  have 
been  a  very  cautious  man,  and  unwillinc^  to  avouch  any- 
thing he  might  not  be  able  to  sustain.  He  was  also  a  man 
of  means,  having  come  into  an  inheritance  in  France, 
about  the  year  1686,  of  5000  livres  a  year.  There  is  no 
doubt  but  that  he  was  at  one  time  quite  licentious ;  but  he 
afterwards  reformed,  and  about  the  year  1687 — or  1688 — 
be  was  married  to  a  daughter  of  Madockawando,  a  saga- 
more of  the  Tarratines.  [French  Documents,  Part  III.] 
La  Hontan  (said  to  have  been  his  personal  friend), 
asserts  that  he  never  had  any  other  wife,  "showing  the 
savages,"  as  he  says,  "that  God  is  not  pleased  with  incon- 
stant men."  [La  Hontan's  Biog.,  Vol.  I,  p.  223.]  By 
most  authorities,  however,  he  is  declared  to  have  had 
three  or  four  wives.  [Williamson;  Sullivan;  also  Hutch- 
inson papers,  p.  563.]  According  to  an  entry  in  the  reg- 
ister of  the  Parish  of  St.  Jean  Baptiste,  at  Port  Royal,  a 
son  and  a  daughter  of  Sieur  Vincent  de  St.  Castin,  by  the 
Dame  Mathilde  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Famille,  were  each 
married  the  same  day,  October  31,  1707.  In  the  same 
register  is  to  be  found  the  record  of  the  marriage,  on  the 
fourth  of  December  of  the  same  year,  of  another  daughter 
of  the  Baron's  by  the  Dame  Marie  Pidiaskie.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  records  of  the  above  mentioned  register,  it  is  highly 
probable  that  the  daughter  of  Madockawando  was  the  only 
one  to  whom  he  was  legally  married,  i.  e.,  by  the  rights  of  the 
Catholic  church.  Were  it  otherwise,  it  is  highly  improb- 
able that  his  son  Anselm,  would  have  made  any  claim  upon 
the  estates  and  property  of  his  father,  in  France.*  He  may, 
of  course,  have  contracted  a  second  marriage  after  the 
death  of  his  first  wife. 

If  we  may  credit  the  accounts  of  the  poet  and  the  nov- 
elist— the  latter  of  whom  claims  truth  as  the  basis  of  her 
remarks — the  daughter  of  Madockawando  must  have  been 
a  very  lovely  woman.  She  is  described  as  being  of  a  very 
light  color,  and  is  said  to  have  possessed : — 

"A  form  of  beauty  undefined, 
A  loveliness  without  a  name, 
Not  of  decree,  but  more  of  kind; 
Nor  bold  nor  shy,  nor  short  upr  tall, 
But  a  new  min?;ling  of  thimi  all. 
Yes,  beautiful  beyond  belief. 
Transfigured  and  transfused,  he  sees 
The  lady  of  the  Pyrenees, 
The  daughter  of  the  Indian  Chief." 

\_Lon(jfell(no. —  Tlie  Baron  Castin,  of  St.  Castin. \ 
*In  Catholic  countries,  lik(!  France,  no  marriages  wore  legal  except  such  as 
were  performed  by  the  Catholic  priests. 


24  PENTAGoET. 

Besides  several  reputed  sons,  Castin  had  two  acknowl- 
edged sons,  Ansel m  and  Joseph  Dabadis.  He  had  also 
two  daughters,  married,  as  has  already  been  said,  with  rich 
dowries,  to  Frenchmen.  Father  L'Anvergat,  in  a  letter  to 
Father  de  La  Chasse,  dated  Panouamske,  July  8,  1728, 
speaks  of  an  unmarried  son,  and  of  "all  the  sons  being 
continually  drunk  and  insolent."  [Historical  Magazine, 
Vol.  2,  3d  Series,  No.  3,  p.  126.]  The  "Robardie"  men- 
tioned in  Williamson's  History  of  Maine,  was  probably 
Joseph  Dabadis,  a  son  of  the  Baron. 

1692.  In  1692,  the  Governor  of  New  England  attempt- 
ed the  forcible  abduction  of  Castin.  The  English  having 
previously  captured  two  Frenchmen,  named  James  Peter 
Pan  and  St.  Aubin,  with  their  families,  and  brought  them 
to  Boston,  the  Governor  sent  them,  with  two  deserters 
from  the  French  army,  to  this  phice,  with  instructions  to 
seize  Castin  and  take  him  to  Boston.  He  also  detained 
their  wives  and  children  as  pledges  for  their  faithful  per- 
formance of  this  command.  They,  however,  disclosed  the 
whole  matter,  and  gave  up  the  two  deserters.  Sieur  Vil- 
lebon,  the  French  Governor,  gave  them  554  livres  as  a 
reward  for  their  fidelity,  and  in  order  to  relieve  their  neces- 
sities. He  also  assisted  them  in  recovering  their  wives  and 
children.     [French  Documents,  Part  HI.] 

1693.  In  1693,  the  Baron  and  his  family  gave  in  their 
adhesion  to  the  English. 

1701.  In  1701,  Baron  Castin  left  for  France,  taking 
v/itli  him  two  or  three  thousand  crowns  in  "good  dvj  gold." 
It  is  x)robable  that  he  never  returned  to  America,  although 
it  is  not  unlikely  that  he  intended  to  do  so.  It  appears 
from  the  French  letters,  that  he  went  to  France  to  give 
an  account  of  his  conduct  in  regard  to  trading  with 
the  English,  his  justification  for  which  was  the  necessity 
that  he  was  under,  he  being  unable  to  obtain  the  goods  he 
needed,  either  at  Nevv^foundland  or  at  Port  Royal.  He 
also  requested  a  grant  of  land  upon  the  river  de  la  Pointe 
an  Hestre,  and  stated  that  he  had  a  design  of  establishing 
a  fishery  at  Molue,  and  of  removing  the  Indians  there. 

Anselm,  the  elder  son  of  the  Baron  Castin,  commonly, 
though  erroneously,  spoken  of  as  "  Castin  the  Younger," 
was,  of  course,  a  half-breed.  He  was  a  chief  sachem  of 
the  Tarratines,  and  also  held  a  commission  from  the  French 
king,  as  2d  Lieutenant  of  the  navy,  with  the  pay  and 
emoluments  of  the  same.     He  hud  an  elegant  French  uni- 


PENTAGOET.  25 

form,  Lut  usually  dressed  after  the  mode  of  the  Indians. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  mild,  generous,  humane,  and  mag- 
nanimous in  his  disposition ;  to  have  possessed  foresight 
and  good  sense  ;  to  have  been  a  cautious,  sensible  man,  and 
a  good  talker.  In  the  expedition  against  Port  Royal 
(1707),  he  was  sent,  with  others,  from  Annapolis,  with  dis- 
patches to  Governor  Vaudreuil,  in  Canada.  He  spent  a  few 
days  with  his  family  here, — Levingstone,who  accompanied 
him,  receiving  from  him  every  mark  of  hospitality  and 
attention.  They  then  proceeded  up  the  Penobscot  river. 
When  they  reached  the  Island  of  Lett,*  an  Indian,  who 
had  recently  joined  them,  attempted  to  kill  Levingstone 
with  a  hatchet,  and  would  have  succeeded  had  not  the 
noble-minded  Anselm  thrust  himself  between  them,  and 
rescued  him  at  the  risk  of  his  own  life. 

In  the  year  1721,  on  account  of  his  having  been  with  a 
party  of  Indians  that  had  lately  appeared  in  array  at  Arrow- 
sic  Island,  some  eastern  soldiers,  under  general  orders  to 
seize  such  Indians  as  were  in  arms,  captured  and  sent  him 
to  Boston.  They  could  n6t  try  him  for  rebellion  or  treach- 
ery before  the  Superior  Court  in  Suffolk,  as  that  would  be 
putting  him  on  trial  in  one  county  for  an  offense  commit- 
ted in  another,  which  would  have  been  contrary  to  law. 
He  was,  therefore,  examined  by  a  Committee.  He  pro- 
fessed the  highest  respect  and  friendship  for  the  English  ; 
said  that  he  had  lately  returned  from  abroad  on  purpose  to 
prevent  his  tribe  from  doing  mischief;  solemnly  promised 
to  try  to  keep  them  in  a  state  of  peace,  and  was  at  last 
discharged.  Plis  arrest,  imprisonment  and  examination, 
were  alike  unjustifiable  and  cruel. 

In  1722,  he  visited  Beam,  in  France,  to  obtain  possession 
of  his  father's  property,  honors,  and  seignorial  rights,  of 
which  he  had  been  deprived,  under  the  pretense  of  his 
illegitimacy,  by  the  "first  chicanierf  of  Europe,  and  Lieu- 
tenant General  of  the  town  of  Oleron,  in  B(iarn,  who  for 
long  years  enjoys  this  property."^  This,  too,  in  spite  of 
the  fact  that  he  had  the  certificates  of  the  missionaries  and 
other  evidences  of  the  legality  of  his  claim.  [French  Doc- 
uments, Part  III.]  Whether  he  ever  succeeded  in  getting 
possession  of  his  rightful  property  is  not  known.  He  must 
have  returned  from  France,  as  Father  L'Auvergat  speaks 
of  both   the  sons  as  being  in  this  country  in  1728,  and 

♦Probably  Orphan's  I.slaud,  now  tlie  town  of  Verona. 

tTricky  lawyor. 

JThc  liarou  Castin  must,  therefore,  have  been  dead  several  years. 


26  PENTAGOET. 

Murdoch  mentions  his  being  in  Acadia,  in  1731.  He  left 
one  son  and  two  daughters.  The  latter  are  said  to  have 
been  married  to  highly  respectable  men. 

Of  Joseph  Dabadis  de  St.  Castin,  or"Castin  the  Youn- 
ger," but  little  is  known.  He  is  represented  by  Father 
L'Auvergat — who,  however,  was  prejudiced  against  both 
him  and  his  brother— as  being  frequently  drunk  and  dis- 
orderly, but  as  having  signalized  himself  in  contests  with 
the  English.  He  was  captured  on  one  occasion,  and  had 
his  vessel,  and  an  English  lad  wliom  he  had  purchased  of 
the  Indians,  taken  from  him.  The  account  of  this  capture 
is  contained  in  the  following  letter,  written  by  him  to 
Lieutenant  Governor  Dummer : 

"  Pentagoet,  23d  July,  1725. 

Sib: — I  have  the  honor  to  acquaint  you  that  the  9th  of 
this  present  month,  as  j  rode  at  anchor  in  a  small  harbour 
about  three  miles  distant  from  Nesket,  having  with  me  but 
one  jndian  and  one  Englishman  whom  j  had  redeemed  from 
the  salvages,  as  well  as  my  vessel,  j  was  attacked  by  an 
English  vessel,  the  commander  of  which  called  himself 
Lieutenant  of  the  King's  ship,  and  told  me  also  his  name, 
which  3  cannot  remember. 

Seeing  myself  thus  attackt  and  not  finding  myself  able 
to  defend  myself,  j  withdrew  into  the  wood,  forsaking  my 
vessel.  The  commander  of  the  vessel  called  me  back 
promising  me  with  an  oath  not  to  wrong  me  at  all,  saying 
that  he  was  a  merchant  who  had  no  design  but  to  trade  and 
was  not  fitted  out  for  war,  specially,  when  there  was  a 
talk  of  peace,  and  presently  set  up  a  flag  of  truce,  and 
even  gave  me  two  safe  conducts  by  writing,  both  which  j 
have  unhappily  lost  in  the  fight.  Thus  thinking  myself 
safe  enough,  j  came  back  on  board  my  vessel,  with  my 
jndian  and  my  Englishman,  whom  j  brought  to  show  that 
j  had  no  thoughts  of  fighting,  and  that  j  had  redeemed  him 
from  the  jndians  as  well  as  the  vessel.  But  as  j  was  going 
to  put  on  my  clothes  to  dress  myself  more  handsomely  the 
commander  who  was  come  in  my  vessel  Avith  several  of  his 
people  would  not  permit  me  to  do  it,  telling  me  j  was  no 
more  master  of  anything.  He  only  granted  me  after  many 
remonstrances  to  set  me  ashore. 

But  after  j  came  down  and  they  held  forth  to  me  a  bag 
full  of  bisket  that  was  given  to  me  as  they  said  as  a  pay- 
ment for  my  Englishman.  They  did  catch  hold  of  me  and 
the  jndian  who  accompanied  me,  j  got   rid   of  him   who 


PENTAGOET.  27 

was  going  to  seize  upon  me,  but  my  jndian  not  being  able 
to  do  the  same,  j  betook  myself  to  my  arms — and  after 
several  volleys  j  killed  the  man  who  kept  him,  and  got  him 
safe  with  me.  This  is  the  second  time  that  j  have  been 
thus  treacherously  used,  which  proceedings  j  do  not  sup- 
pose that  5^ou  approve  of  being  against  the  laws  of  Nations. 
Therefore  j  hope  that  you  will  do  me  the  justice,  or  that  at 
least  you  will  cause  me  to  be  re-imbursed  of  the  loss  j  have 
sustained. 
Namely : — 

For  the  vessel  that  costed  me  80  French  pistoles;  For 
the  Englishman  10  pistoles  ;  51  pounds  of  beaver  that  were 
in  the  vessell  with  20  otters,  3  coats  that  have  costed  me 
together  20  pistoles;  66  pounds  of  shot  that  costed  me 
twenty  pence  a  pound ;  2  pounds  of  powder  at  4  livres  a 
pound  ;  20  pounds  of  tobacco  at  20  pence  a  pound  ;  a  pair 
of  scales  8  livres  ;  Tow  cloth  blankets  each  28  livres  ;  Tow 
bear  skins  8  livres  apiece  ;  4  skins  of  S£a  wolf  8  livres  for 
the  four  ;  3  axes  15  livres  for  both ;  2  kettles,  30  livres  for 
both,  and  several  other  matters,  which  they  would  not 
grant  me,  so  much  as  my  cup.  The  retaken  Englishman 
knoweth  the  truth  of  all  this,  his  name  is  Samuel  Trusk  of 
the  town  of  Salem  near  to  Marblehead. 

j  have  the  honor  to  be 
Sir 
Your  most  humble  &  most 
obedient   Servant  Joseph  , 
Dabadis  db  St.   Castln"." 
[Hist.  Magazine,  Vol.  2.,  3d  Ser.,  No.  3,  p.  125.] 
The  Samuel  Trask  mentioned  above,  had  been  purchased 
by  Castin  from  the  Indians,  who  held  him  as  a  captive — 
under  the    following    circumstances: — a   season   of   great 
scarcity  occurred,  which  drove  the  Indians  to  the  cran- 
berry beds  for  subsistence.     On  one  occasion,  while  they 
were  gathering  cranberries,  a  flock  of  wild  geese  alighted 
near  by,  and  Trask's  success  in  capturing  the  birds  so  com- 
mended him  to  Castin's  favor,  that  he  "redeemed"  him. 
After  being  taken  from  Castin,  Trask  was  transferred  to  a 
vessel  commanded  by  the  celebrated  Captain  Kidd, — with 
whom  he  remained  for  some  time.      [Williamson's  Hist,  of 
Me.,  Vol.  2,  p.  144 ;   also  Se wall's  Ancient  Dominions  of 
Me.,  p.  251.]       In  tlie  office  of  the  Secretary  of  tlie  Com- 
monwealth of  Massachusetts  are  letters  referring  to  Indian 
affairs,  written  by  Joseph  Dabadis  St.  Castin,  as  lately  as 


28  PENTAGOET. 

1754.  No  trace  is  to  be  found  of  any  of  tlie  family  since 
that  time.  Inquiries  made  a  few  years  ago,  in  the  south  of 
France,  by  Augustus  C.  Hamhn,  M.  D.,  of  the  mayors  of 
tlie  Provinces  of  Pau  and  Oldron,  go  to  show  that  no  trace 
of  the  family  can  now  be  found  there.  In  all  probability, 
all  the  records — and  possibly  the  family  itself — were  de- 
stroyed by  the  Revolution. 


PENTAGOET.  29 


CHAPTER    IV. 

Occupation  of  Pentagoet  by  Grandfontainic. — By 
Monsieur  de  Chambly. — Attack  by  Corsairs. — 
Capture  by  the  Dutch. — Baron  Castin  in  Pos- 
session.— Castin's  House  Pillaged  by  Andros. — 
Phipps  takes  Possession. — Sieur  Villieu  in  Com- 
mand.— Phipps  obtains  a  Title  from  Madocka- 
\VAND0. — Conference  between  Commissioners  and 
Indians. — Torture  of  Thomas  Gyles. — Caldin 
Trades  at  Pentagoet. — House  of  Anselm  Castin 
Plundered  by  the  English. — Church's  Expedi- 
tion.— Visit  of  Captain  Cox. — Governor  Pow- 
nal's  Visit  and  Description  of  the  Place. — The 
New  Settlement  op  Maja-bagaduce. — Some  of 
the  Early  Settlers. 

1671.  Monsieur  le  Grandfontaine  held  possession  of,  and 
resided  at,  Pentagoet  for  about  four  years — during  a  part 
of  which  time  the  Baron  Castin  was  his  Lieutenant.  In 
the  year  1671,  in  a  letter  to  the  Minister  at  Paris,  he  men- 
tions the  fact  of  the  arrival  of  the  French  vessel  V  Granger^ 
having  on  board  sixty  passengers — among  whom  were  four 
girls  and  one  woman.  They  were  on  their  way  to  Port 
Royal.  This  is  the  earliest  mention  of  any  vessel  bringing 
passengers  here.  In  this  same  letter  he  remarks  that  he 
has  bought  a  ketch  from  Colonel  Temple,  for  the  purpose 
of  carrying  the  inhabitants  and  provisions  to  Port  Royal. 
He  says,  also,  that  he  must  send  to  New  England  for  a 
carpenter  to  construct  a  small  vessel  for  him.  He  incident- 
ally remarks  that  the  air  here  is  very  good.  A  census  of 
Acadia,  taken  this  year,  gives  the  population  at  this  place 
as  consisting  of  thirty-one  souls — six  civilians  and  twenty- 
five  soldiers. 

1673.  In  the  year  1673,  Grandfontaine  was  succeeded 
by  Monsieur  de  Chambly.  The  white  population  at  this 
time  was  the  same  as  at  the  last  date.  The  next  year  an 
attack  was  made  upon  the  fort  by  pirates. 

1674.  It  seems  that  an  Englishman, named  John  Rhoades, 
gained  access  to  the  fort  in  disguise,  and  remained  there 
four  days.      In  a  short  time  he  returned  and  attacked  the 

5 


30  PENTAGOET. 

place  with  the  crew  of  a  Flemish  Corsair — numbering  two 
hundred  men.  This  vessel  was  "  The  Flying  Horse^''''  from 
Curacoa,  under  the  command  of  Ca])tain  Jurriaen  Aernouts, 
who  had  a  commission  from  his  Higlmess,  the  Prince  of 
Orange.  [De  Peyster,  Dutch  in  Maine,  p.  76.]  The  gar- 
lison  were  taken  completely  by  surprise,  but  the  soldiers 
defended  themselves  bravely  for  the  space  of  an  hour,  until 
Chambly  received  a  musket  shot  in  the  body,  and  his  Ensign 
was  wounded,  when  they  surrendered.  The  pirates  pillaged 
tlie  fort,  took  away  all  tlie  guns,  and  carried  Chambly  and 
Marson  to  St.  John's  river.  Tlie  former  w^as  held  for  ran- 
som at  the  price  of  a  thousand,  beaver  skins.  Chambly 
was  somewhat  blamed  by  the,  French  king  for  his  negli- 
gence in  the  matter.  This  act  Avas  disavowed  by  the 
English,  but  the  leader  had  an  English  pilot  from  Boston, 
and  the  English  there  were  thought  to  have  encouraged 
the  affair.  [French  Documents,  Part  III. —  See,  also, 
Murdoch's  Acadie.]  According  to  Williamson,  the  attack 
was  made  b}^  a  Dutch  man-of-war.  [Hist,  of  Maine,  Vol. 
1,  p.  579;  also.  Part  III,  Governor  Leverett's  letter.] 

1676.  Two  years  subsequently — in  the  spring  of  1676 — 
the  Dutch  sent  a  veritable  man-of-war,  which  attacked  and 
caj)tured  the  fortification  here.  Several  vessels  were  soon 
sent  from  Boston,  and  the  Dutch  were  very  shortl}^  after 
driven  from  the  peninsula.  [Williamson's  Hist,  of  Me., 
Vol.  I,  p.  681 ;  I.  Hutchinson's  Hist.,  pp.  280,  353.]  For 
the  next  ten  years  the  French  remained  in  quiet  possession, 
and  Castin  was  probably  in  conmiand  for  the  greater  part 
of  the  time  ;  occupying  himself  in  bartering  for  furs  with 
the  Indians,  and,  as  sachem  of  the  Tarratines,  influencing 
and  in  a  measure  controlling  their  conduct  with  each  other 
and  with  the  English. 

1685.  In  1685,  the  French  Governor,  Monsieur  Perrot, 
borrowed  money  from  Baron  Castin,  and  purchased  two 
fishing  vessels.  As  none  of  the  French  inhabitants  Avould 
man  them,  however,  he  was  obliged  to  employ-  English 
fishermen.  The  enterprise  failed,  owing  to  the  dishonesty 
of  the  fishermen,  who  stole  the  fish  and  sent  them  to  Boston. 
[French  Documents,  Part  HI.] 

1686.  In  the  year  1686,  Palmer  and  West,  commission- 
ers appointed  by  the  Governor  of  Sagadahock,  laid  claim 
to  the  country  as  far  east  as  the  St.  Croix  river.  Not  being 
aware  of  this  fact,  a  shipmaster  of  Piscataqua  landed  a 
cargo  of  wines  here,  thinking  the  place  was  under  French 


PENTAGOET.  31 

rule — as,  in  reality,  it  was.  Because,  however,  the  duties 
had  not  been  paid  at  Pemaquid,  Palmer  and  West  sent 
Thomas  Sharpe  here  in  command  of  a  vessel,  to  seize  the 
cargo.  This  greatly  offended  both  the  French  and  the  New 
England  people,  but  a  restoration  of  the  wines  was  ordered 
by  the  English  Court,  and  the  trouble  was  smoothed  over. 
[Williamson's  Hist,  of  Me.,  Vol.  I,  p.  583.]  Palmer  for- 
bade Castin's  interference  in  this  matter  of  the  wines.  He 
also  forbade  his  threatening  the  subjects  of  the  English 
king,  "  among  others,  those  who  dwell  on  the  island  of 
Martinique."*  He  also  informed  him  that  he  would  not  be 
allowed  to  remain  if  he  aided  the  Indians.  The  great  trade 
in  beaver  skins  at  this  time  was  proving  injurious  to  the 
fisheries.     [French  Doc,  Part  HI.] 

1687.  In  the  year  1687,  Castin-  was  notified  by  the 
Government  of  New  England  that  he  must  surrender  tlie 
fort  at  Pentagoet.  He  did  not,  however,  comply  with  this 
demand.  He  was  this  year  engaged  in  constructing  a  mill 
for  the  Commonalty  of  Port  Jloyal.  He  asked  to  have 
thirty  soldiers  sent  to  him,  in  order  to  be  able  to  sustain 
himself  against  the  English,  and  offered,  if  the  assistance 
was  granted,  to  make  a  settlement  here  of  four  hundred 
Indians.  Castin  complained  strongly  against  Monsieur 
Perrot,  because  he  retailed  brandy  by  the  half  pint,  and 
would  not  allow  any  of  his  domestics  to  do  it  for  him. 

1688.  In  the  year  1688,  sometime  in  the  month  of 
March  or  April,  Sir  Edmond  Andros,  Governor  of  New 
England,  arrived  in  the  frigate  Rose^  commanded  by  Captain 
George,  and  anchored  opposite  the  fort  and  dwelling  of 
Castin.  Captain  George  sent  his  Lieutenant  ashore  to 
converse  with  the  Baron. f  The  latter  soon  retired  to  the 
woods  with  all  his  people,  and  left  his  house  shut  up.  Gov- 
ernor Andros  and  the  others  then  landed  and  went  into  the 
house.  They  found  there,  in  what  appeared  to  be  the 
common  room  of  the  family,  a  small  altar  and  several 
pictures  and  ornaments,  all  of  which  they  left  uninjured. 
Tliey  took  away  from  his  house,  however,  all  his  arms, 
powder,  shot^  iron  kettles,  some  trucking  cloth,  and  his 
chairs.  Verbal  notice  was  sent  to  him  by  an  Indian,  that, 
if  he  would  ask  for  liis  goods  at  Pemaquid,  and  come  under 
obedience  to  the  King  of  England,  they  would  be  restored 

*(Juery. — Can  it  mean    MntinicAts? 

tit  was  pr(tl)al)ly  at  this  tiiiie  tliat  Andros  carrifd  to  Madockawan  lo  the 
presents  referred  to  in  llie  letter  uf  Mdux.  Pasquiue,  dated  Deeemberli,  lli.SS. 
bee  Tart  111. 


o2  PENTAGOET. 

to  him.  Andros,  finding  the  fort  had  been  origiriallj  bullfc 
of  stone  and  turf,  and  was  now  quite  a  ruin,  concluded  to 
abandon  rather  than  to  repair  it.  Castin  was  justly  incensed 
at  this  outrage,  and  would  undoubtedly  have  retaliated,  had 
not  the  government  of  Massachusetts  disavowed  all  respon- 
sibility in  the  matter,  and  adopted  pacific  measures. 
[Murdock.]  The  English,  who  were  trading  here  this 
year,  were  driven  away,  and  three  or  four  small  vessels 
carrying  English  goods,  were  sent  back.  About  this  time 
a  fly-boat*  belonging  to  Castin,  was  captured  by  the  pirates, 
on  her  return  from  Quebec.   [French  Docvunents,  Part  III.  j 

1689.  About  the  year  1689  or  1690,  one  Thomas  Gyles, 
who  had  been  a  prisoner  to  the  Indians  for  several  years, 
attempted  to  escape,  but  was  retaken.  He  was  carried  to 
the  heights  of  Maja-bagaduce,  where  he  was  subjected  to 
torture.  His  nose  and  ears  were  cut  oif  and  forced  into 
his  mouth,  and  he  was  compelled  to  swallow  them.  He 
was  then  burned  at  the  stake,  while  his  savage  captors 
indulged  themselves  in  a  war-dance.  [Sewall's  Ancient 
Dom.  of  Me.,  p.  204.]  A  eensus  of  Acadia,  taken  this 
year,  shows  that  there  were  here,  in  addition  to  the 
Indians,  only  four  persons,  viz., — a  priest,  a  man  and  his 
wife,  and  one  boy  under  fifteen  years  of  age. 

1690.  In  May  1690,  Sir  William  Phipps  was  sent,  by 
order  of  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts,  to  subdue 
the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia.  He  met  with  but  slight 
resistance,  and  took  formal  possession  of  all  the  coast,  from 
Port  Royal  to  Penobscot.  He  visited  several  of  the  French 
settlements,  and  among  them  this.  [Williamson's  Hist,  of 
Me.,  Vol.  I,  p.  596.] 

1693.  In  the  year  1693,  Castin,  foreseeing,  in  all  prob- 
ability, that  the  English  supremacy  would  eventually  be 
estaljlished  upon  this  part  of  the  coast,  gave  in  his  adhesion 
to  the  English  Crown.  -The  English  possession  of  the 
place  at  this  time  could,  however,  have  been  merely  a  nom- 
inal one,  as  we  find  a  French  officer,  Sieur  Villieu,  in  com- 
mand soon  after.  The  inhabitants  at  this  time,  were — 
Castin,  aged  57,  his  wife  and  one  child  ;  Jean  Renaud, 
aged  38,  his  wife  (Indian)  and  four  children  ;  Des  Lauries, 
aged  40,  his  wife,  named  Jeanne  Granger,  and  three  chil- 
dren; making  a  total  of  fourteen.  [French  Do ciunents,  in 
Mass.  Archives.] 
*A  flat-bottomed  Dutch  vessel. 


PENTAGOET.  33 

1694.  To  confirm  his  title  to  the  place,  Governor  Phipps 
obtained,  this  year  (1G04),  a  deed  from  Madockawando, 
covering  the  lands  granted  to  I^eanchamp  and  Leverett, 
in  the  year  1629,  by  the  Coancil  of  Plymouth.  Somewhere 
about  this  time,  one  Denis  Hyenan,  a  Dutchman,  sent  to 
Pemaquid  on  business  for  Governor  Slaughter,  reached 
JPenobsquicl,  as  this  place  was  then  called  by  the  Dutch. 
Having  been  induced  to  come  ashore,  he  was  seized  and  sent 
to  Canada,  where  he  was  kept  a  prisoner  two  years.  [Ue 
Peyster,  Appendix  to  Dutch  in  Maine,  p.  11.] 

1696.  In  the  year  1096,  Castin  went  out  into  the  bay 
with  a  flotilla  of  canoes  and  two  hundred  Indian  warriors, 
to  join  the  French  under  Iberville,  in  their  attack  on  Pem- 
aquid.    [SewalFs  Ancient  Dominion,  p.  213.] 

1697.  On  the  eleventh  day  of  September,  1697,  by  the 
treaty  of  Ryswick,  peace  was  concluded  between  the 
English  and  French.  On  the  fourteenth  of  October  follow- 
ing, a  conference  was  held  at  this  place,  between  Major 
Converse  and  Captain  Alden,  Commissioners  from  Mass- 
achusetts, and  six  sachems — attended  by  a  large  concourse 
of  Indians.  The  latter,  though  mourning  for  Madocka- 
wando, who  had  but  recently  died,  sang  the  songs  and 
smoked  the  pipe  of  peace.  The  Commissioners  insisted 
upon  the  release  of  all  the  prisoners  and  the  banishment  of 
the  Catholic  missionaries.  The  Indians  consented  to  the 
release  of  the  prisoners,  but  said  that  "  the  good  missiona- 
ries must  not  be  driven  away." 

1698.  During  the  year  1698,  one  Caldin  (or  Alden),  is 
mentioned  as  trading  at  Pentagoet.  He  bought  furs  of, 
and  sold  goods  to,  a  son-in-law  of  Baron  Castin,  and  three 
other  Frenchmen,  who  resided  here.  He  paid  three  livres 
— equivalent  to  from  forty-eight  to  sixty  cents  of  our  money 
— for  every  fourteen  ounces  of  beaver,  and  fifty-five  sous — 
equivalent  to  al)out  eighty  cents  of  our  money — for  winter 
beaver.  The  inhabitants  at  this  time,  were  unwilling  to 
dispose  of  their  furs  to  the  French,  on  account  of  the  facil- 
ities they  had  for  trading  with  the  English.  Complaint  is 
made  that  the  priest  who  was  here  at  this  time,  traded  more 
openly  than  his  predecessors. 

1700.  In  the  year  1700,  complaint  is  made  tliat  Castin 
Bold  furs  to  the  English  in  Boston,  and  took  his  pay  in 
English  goods — which  hindered  the  sale  of  French  goods. 
It  is  also  said  that  on  account  of  the  controlling  influence 
of  Castin  and  the  missionary,  the  Indians  had  this  year 
refused  to  receive  presents  from  the  French.     The  mission- 


84  pentagoet. 

ary  declared,  however,  that  the  Indians  refused  to  receive 
the  customary  presents  because  Monsieur  VilHeu,  the  Gov- 
ernor, wanted  at  the  same  time  to  sell  them  brandy,  which 
they  did  not  want  to  buy, — "  foreseeing  the  excess  into 
which  they  fall  when  intoxicated."  [French  Documents, 
Part  III.] 

1703.  Up  to  the  time  of  his  departure  for  France,  in 
1701,  the  abode  of  Castin  remained  unmolested.  Two 
years  after  his  departure,  however,  some  English  settlers, 
Avho  resided  at  the  westward,  visited  the  house  of  Anselm 
Castin,  under  the  guise  of  friendship,  and,  in  retaliation 
for  some  misdemeanors  of  the  Indians,  plundered  it  of  all  its 
valuables.  Anselm  complained  and  expostulated,  but  pos- 
sessed too  good  judgment  to  retaliate. 

1704.  In  the  year  1704,  Queen  An}ie''s  war,  as  it  was 
called,  was  being  carried  on  between  the  English  settlers 
and  the  Indians,  the  latter  instigated  and  abetted  by  the 
French.  In  May  of  this  year.  Colonel  Benjamin  Church 
commanded  an  expedition  made  along  the  eastern  coast. 
As  he  came  up  the  bay  he  captured  many  French  and 
Indians,  among  the  latter  of  whom  were  the  Baron  Castin's 
daughter  and  her  children.  She  stated  that  her  husband 
had  gone  to  France  to  visit  her  father.  Church  went  as 
far  as  the  Bay  of  Funcly,  and  again  visited  Penobscot  upon 
his  return.      [Williamson's  Hist,  of  Me.] 

From  this  time  until  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  the  pen- 
insula of  Bagaduce  remained  in  a  condition  of  comparative 
quiet — notwithstanding  the  several  Indian  wars  which  kept 
the  whole  Province  of  Maine  in  a  tumult.  Tlie  Penobscot 
Indians,  although  not  entirely  quiet,  behaved,  on  the  whole, 
much  better  than  the  neighboring  tribes.  During  this 
whole  period  of  seventy  years,  there  is  a  great  gap  in  the 
history  of  the  place.  The  only  things  to  be  found,  relating 
to  it,  are  an  account  of  a  second  severe  earthquake,  which 
happened  on  the  eighteenth  of  November,  1755  ;  the  visits 
to  this  place,  of  Captain  Cox  and  of  Governor  Pownal, 
and  l)rief  accounts  of  the  earlier  settlers. 

1757.  In  the  year  1757,  one  Captain  Cox  came  here  in 
a  small  vessel  and  killed  two  Indians,  whom  he  scalped. 
He  carried  off  with  him  two  canoes,  a  quantity  of  oil,  some 
fish,  and  some  sea-fowl  feathers.  [Williamson's  Hist,  of 
Me.,  Vol.  2,  p.  826.] 

1759.  Governor  Pownal  came  over  here  from  Fort  Point, 
in  1759,  and  gives  the  following  description  of  the  place 
at  that  time: — "About  noon  left  Wasumkeag  point,  and 


PEISTTAGOET.  35 

went  in  sloop  Massachusetts  to  Pentaget,  with  Captain 
Cargill  and  twenty  men. — Found  the  old  abandoned  French 
Fort  and  some  abandoned  settlements.  Went  ashore  into 
the  fort.  Hoisted  the*  King's  colors  there  and  drank  the 
King's  health."  In  another  place  he  says  : — "  To  the  east 
(of  Long  Island),  is  another  Bay,  called  by  the  French 
Pentagoet,  or  Pentooskeag,  where  I  saw  the  ruins  of  a 
French  settlement,  which  from  the  scite  and  nature  of  the 
houses,  and  the  remains  of  fields  and  orchards,  had  been 
once  a  pleasant  habitation :  Ones'  heart  felt  sorrow  that  it 
had  ever  been  destroyed."  [Maine  Hist.  Col. — Gov.  Pow- 
nal's  Voyage,  j).  3iS5,  and  Note.] 

1760.  In  the  Governor's  Address,  January  2,  1760,  he 
says  that  there  are  a  great  many  families  stand  ready  to 
go  down  to  Penobscot,  and  as  every  other  obstacle  is 
removed,  "you  will  take  care  that  no  uncertainty  to  the 
titles  of  the  grants  they  may  have,  may  be  any  objection  to 
settlements  which  will  be  so  greatly  beneficial  to  the 
strength  of  the  Province." 

1767—1774  The  first  information  to  be  found  in 
regard  to  an}^  settlers  here,  subsequent  to  the  abandonment 
referred  to  by  Governor  Pownal,  is  in  the  year  1767,  when 
Samuel  Averill  settled  upon  the  northwest  side  of  Northern 
Bay,  and  Jacob  Perkins  near  him.  In  1769,  Finley 
McCullam  settled  upon  tlie  east  side  of  Northern  Bay,  and 
in  the  year  1778,  Daniel  Brown  settled  also  on  the  eastern 
side.  In  1774,  Joseph  Willson  settled  at  the  head  of 
Northern  Bay.  [Peter's  Field  notes  for  first  survey  of 
Penobscot. — Man.]  There  were  undoubtedl}'-  other  settlers 
here  at  this  time,  but  their  names  are  not  known. 

1775.  In  the  Pennsylvania  Journal,  of  August  23d, 
1775,  the  following  passage  occurs: — ''About  the  same 
time  five  sloops  that  had  .been  sent  by  General  Gage  for 
wood,  were  taken  by  the  inhabitants  of  Major  Baggadoose, 
a  small,  new  settlement,  not  far  from  Fort  Pownal ;  and  as 
there  was  some  reason  to  fear  that  the  Fort  which  stood  at 
the  head  of  Penobscot  Bay  (Fort  Pownal),  might  be  taken 
by  the  King's  troops,  and  made  use  of  against  the  country, 
the  people  in  tliat  neighborhood  dismantled  it,  burnt  the 
blockhouse,  and  all  the  wooden  work,  to  the  ground. — The 
prisoners  taken  at  Machias  and  Major  Baggadoose,  about 
forty  in  number,  Avere  on  their  way  to  Cambridge,  when 
the  gentleman  who  brings  this  account,  came  away." — 
This  is  the  last  reference  to  this  place  that  we  have  been 
able  to  find,  prior  to  the  War  of  the  Revolution. 


36  pentag(5et. 


CHAPTER    V. 

COMlSrENCElSrENT     OF    REVOLUTIONARY     WaR. — ENGLISH 

Charts  of  the  Coast. — McLean  Establishes  a 
Military  Post.— Description  of  the  Fort. — Amer- 
icans MAKE  Preparation  for  an  Expedition. — 
Description  of  the  American  Fleet. — State  of 
Affairs  with  the  English. — American  Attack. 
Defense  by  the  British. 

1776.  During  the  war  of  the  Revoliitidn,  the  British 
became  aware  that  they  were  suffering  severely  from  the 
operations  of  the  American  cruisers  and  privateers — who 
possessed  all  the  harbors  in  the  eastern  waters.  According 
to  the  most  generally  received  opinion,  the  Americans  had 
a  much  more  intimate  knowledge  of  the  various  channels 
and  harbors  along  the  coast  than  did  the  English,  and 
were  thus  enabled,  with  comparative  impunity,  to  inflict 
much  damage  upon  the  commerce  of  the  latter.  The  facts, 
though,  in  regard  to  our  present  maps  of  the  coast,  would 
seem  to  indicate  exactly  the  opposite.  There  are  in  the 
U.  S.  Coast  Survey  Office,  and  in  possession  of  some  indi- 
viduals, ten  lithographic  maps  of  the  several  parts  of  the 
Coast  of  Maine.  From  the  original  ten  of  these  charts, 
all  the  present  maps  in  use  are  derived.  There  is,  also,  in 
possession  of  one  of  the  officers  of  the  Coast  Survey,  a 
copper-plate  map  of  this  harbor  and  Penobscot  bay.  This 
copper-plate  map  was  published  by  J.  P.  Desbarres,  by 
order  of  an  Act  of  Parliament,  April  27;,  1776.  It  has 
recently  been  found  that  the  lithographic  map  of  Penobscot 
bay,  is  a  copy  of  this  copper-plate  map.*  As  this  map  was 
published  only  seventy  days  prior  to  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  it  was  not  very  likely  to  be  in  possession  of 
the  Americans  until  after  the  war.  It  was  doubtless  pub- 
lished, at  the  date  mentioned,  in  anticipation  of  the  approach- 
ing conflict,  and  copies  Avere  probably  furnished  to  the 
entire  English  navy.      So  far,  therefore,  from  the  English 

*Mr.  Samuel  T.  Noyes,  of  this  town,  irade  the  discovery  hy  copying  the 
lithogiiiphic  map  upon  tracing  paper,  and  applying  this  copy"  over  the' copper- 
plate map.  They  were  fouud  to  correspond  quite  accurately — enough  so  to 
show,  without  doubt,  that  the  former  was  copied  Irom  the  latter. 


PENTAGoET.  87 

having  but  a  slight  acquaintance  with  this  part  of  the 
coast,  they  must,  on  tlie  contrary,  have  had  mucli  more 
accurate  charts  of  it  than  the  Americans  possessed  at  that 
time.* 

1779.  Whatever  may  have  been  their  knowledge  of  the 
coast,  the  English  determined,  on  account  of  the  military 
importance  of  this  country  to  the  Americans,  and  also  for 
its  importance  in  supplying  them  with  wood,  lumber,  masts, 
fish,  etc.,  to  establish  a  military  post  at  this  place.  Accord- 
ingly, in  the  year  1779,  General  Francis  McLeanf  embarked 
at  Halifax,  with  about  seven  hundred  men,  composed  of 
detachments  of  the  seventy-fourth  and  eighty-second  Reg- 
iments, in  a  fleet  of  some  seven  or  eight  sail,  and  arrived 
atthis place,  June  the  seventeenth. :|:  [Calef's  Journal,  Part 
III.]  They  landed,  without  opposition,  in  front  of  Joseph 
Perkins's  house — which  stood  on  what  is  now  the  southeast- 
ern corner  of  Main  and  Water  streets.  Although  they 
landed  without  opposition,  they  acted  as  if  they  expected 
an  attack  from  a  concealed  foe.  [Hutchins's  Narrative, 
Part  III.]  They  did  not  remain  on  shore  this  day,  but 
returned  to  their  vessels.  The  next  day  they  came  on 
shore,  and  encamped  on  the  open  land  to  the  eastward  of 
where  the  present  fort  stands.  The  time  from  this  date  to 
the  eighteenth  day  of  July,  was  occupied  in  clearing  up  the 
ground,  felling  trees,  and  building  a  fort  upon  the  high 
ground  in  the  central  part  of  the  peninsula — and  also  a 
battery  near  the  shore — together  with  storehouses,  bar- 
racks, etc.  The  fort  was  intended  to  be  square,  with  a 
bastion  at  each  angle,  and  to  be  sufficiently  large  in  area 
to  contain  a  block-house  in  the  center,  with  rooms  in  it  for 
the  officers'  quarters,  and  barracks  for  the  soldiers.  It  was 
also  the  intention  to  surround  it  with  a  wide  and  deep 
moat. 

The  Americans  becoming  alarmed  at  the  possession  by 
the  English  of  a  military  post  upon  the  eastern  frontier, 
the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts,  in  the  latter  part  of 

*It  is  stated  by  officers  of  the  Coast  Survey,  that  the  English  must  have 
l>oen  fully  twenty  years  in  niakiug  their  ijurvcys  for  those  maps  of  the  coast 
of  Maine".  They  are  quite  minute,  and  vahiable  as  showing  the  location  of 
houses  and  lauds.  The  map  of  Peuohscot  hay  shows  every  house,  jtrohably, 
that  was  upon  this  ptniiiisula  at  that  time.  A  very  imi)ortant  fact  to  he 
derived  from  this  map  is,  that  the  variation  of  the  compass  at  tuis  place,  was 
at  tliat  time,  only  9  deg.  W.,  whereas,  it  is  now  lo  deg.  30  miu,  W. 

fThe  name  is  given  as  Allan  McLean,  iu  Drake's  American  IJiography. 

JWilliarason  says  they  landed  June  the  twelfth,  and  gives  the  number  of 
soldiers  as  nine  hundred. 

6 


38  PENTAGOET. 

June,  without  consultation  with  the  continental  authori- 
ties, ordered  the  State  Board  of  War  to  engage  such  armed 
vessels  as  could  be  procured,  and  to  be  prepared  to  have 
them  sail  on  an  expedition  against  the  British  at  Penob- 
scot, at  the  earliest  possible  moment.  The  Board  of  War 
were  authorized  to  charter  or  impress  the  requisite  number 
of  private  armed  vessels  ;  to  promise  the  OAvners  a  fair 
compensation  for  all  losses,  of  whatever  kind  ;  and  to 
allow  the  seamen  the  same  pay  and  rations  as  those  in  the 
Continental  service.  Generals  Gushing  and  Thompson, 
Brigadiers  of  Militia  in  Lincoln  and  Gumberland  Counties, 
were  each  ordered  to  furnish  six  hundred  men  for  this 
expedition,  and  Brigadier  General  Frost  was  ordered  to 
send  three  hundred  men  from  the  York  County  Militia. 
They  took  with  them  the  following  supplies  and  munitions 
of  war,  namely; — nine  tons  of  flour  and  bread;  ten  tons 
of  rice,  and  the  same  quantity  of  salt  beef ;  twelve  hun- 
dred gallons  of  rum  and  molasses,  in  eqtial  quantities; 
five  hundred  stands  of  arms ;  fifty  thousand  musket 
cartridges,  with  balls;  two  18-prs.,  with  two  hundred 
rounds  of  cartridges  ;  three  9-prs.,  with  three  hundred 
rounds  of  cartridges  ;  four  field  pieces  ;  six  barrels  of  gun- 
powder, and  the  necessary  quantity  of  axes,  spades,  tents, 
and  camp  furniture.  The  fleet  consisted  of  nineteen 
armed  vessels,  and  twenty-four  transports — carrying  three 
hundred  and  forty-four  guns.  It  has  been  described  as 
"  the  most  beautiful  that  ever  floated  in  eastern  waters." 
The  vessels  composing  the  fleet  were  the  following: — 

Frigate  Warren,  ^2  guns,  (18  and  12  prs.,)  Com. 
Saltonstall.  Ships  3Ionmouth,  24  guns ;  Vengeance,  24 
guns ;  General  Putnam,  22  guns ;  iSally,  22  guns  ;  Hamp- 
den, (Captain  Titus  Salter,)  20  guns ;  Hector,  20  guns ; 
Hunter,  18  guns  ;  Black  Prince,  18  guns  ;  Sky  Rocket, 
IG  guns.  Brigs  Active,  (Captain  Hallet,)  16  guns ; 
Defiance,  16,  (6-prs.)  ;  Hazard,  16  guns  ;  Nancy,  16  guns  ; 
Dilige7ice,  (Captain  Brown,)  14  guns ;  Tyrannicide,  14 
guns.  Sloops  Providence,  14  guns ;  Spring  Bird,  12 
guns  ;  Hover,  10  guns. 

The  Black  Prince  was  owned  by  Captain  Williams  and 
others,  and  cost  ,£1000.  The  Hector  was  owned  by 
Jonathan  Pert  and  others,  and  cost  XIOOO.  The  Hunter 
was  owned  by  Samuel  Silsbee,  and  others,  and  also  cost 
<£1000.  The  G-eneral  Putnam  wiis  impressed.  The  esti- 
mated cost  of  the  latter  was  £900.     There  were  on  board 


PENTAGOET.  39 

tlie  fleet,  in  addition  to  the  seamen,  some  three  or  four 
hundred  soldiers  and  marines — and  about  one  thousand 
more  were  expected.  Moses  Little,  of  Newbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, was  appointed  to  command  the  naval  force,  but 
he  felt  obliged  to  decline,  on  account  of  ill  health,  and  the 
command  was  therefore  given  to  Dudley*  Saltonstall,  of 
New  Haven,  Connecticut.  [Coffin's  History  of  Newbury.] 
Saltonstall  was  a  man  of  good  abilities,  and  had  seen  some- 
thing of  naval  warfare.  He  possessed,  however,  an  exceed- 
ingly obstinate  disposition,  and  was  rather  overbearing  in 
his  manner.  Solomon  Lovell,  of  Weymouth,  a  Brigadier 
General  of  the  Suffolk  Militia,  had  control  of  the  land 
forces.  He  was  a  man  of  undaunted  courage,  but  had 
never  before  had  command  of  troops  in  actual  service. 
General  Peleg  Wadsworth  was  the  second  in  command. 
The  charge  of  the  ordnance  was  given  to  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Paul  Revere,  famous  for  his  "midnight  ride." 
Although  twelve  hundred  of  the  militia  had  been  ordered, 
yet  they  had  less  than  one  thousand  soldiers.  If  they 
exceeded  the  enemy  somewhat  in  number,  yet  they  were 
entirely  undisciplined — never  having  even  paraded  together 
more  than  once — and  were,  consequently,  not  likely  to  be 
very  reliable  in  an  engagement.  The  whole  force  was 
very  quickly  in  readiness,  and  upon  the  twenty-fifth  day 
of  July  the  fleet  made  its  appearance  in  this  harbor. 

Litelligence  of  this  expedition  was  received  by  General 
McLean,  July  18th, f  and  was  fully  confirmed  a  few  days 
later.  McLean  changed  his  intention  of  making  a  regu- 
larly constructed  fortress,  and  prepared,  in  a  more  expedi- 
tious manner,  to  erect  one  suitable  merely  for  the  present 
emergency.  His  troops  were  kept  vigorously  at  work  by 
night  and  day.  Provisions,  at  this  time,  were  very  scarce, 
and  the  inhabitants  were  almost  destitute  of  arms,  as  well 
as  of  food.  A  meeting  was  held,  to  determine  on  defence 
or  submission,  and  Colonel  Brewer,  of  Penobscot,  and 
Captain  Smith,  of  Marsh  Bay,  were  appointed  a  committee 
to  treat  with  the  General.  Tliey  did  so,  and  received  the 
assurance  that,  if  the  inhabitants  would  be  peaceable,  and 
attend  quietly  to  their  own  affairs,  they  should  not  be  dis- 
turbed in  their  person  or  property.     They  were  compelled, 

*Dr:iko,  in  his  American  Bio^rajjliv,  calls  him  (rurdon;  and  Calef  writos 
"  G.  Saltonstall."  Williamson,  in  his  history  of  Maine,  calls  him  liichard. 
The  order  to  take  the  command  of  the  fleet  is,  however,  addressed  to  Dudley 
Saltonstall. 

tsevcn  days  before  its  arrival.  Williamson  says  that  the  English  received 
this  iufyrmatiou  only  four  days  before  the  arrival  of  the  fleet. 


40  PENTAGOET. 

however,  to  take  an  oath,  either  of  allegiance  or  of 
neutrality.  Six  hundred  and  fifty-one  persons  came  in 
and  took  an  oath  of  the  above  nature.  The  fort,  at  this 
time,  was  ill  prepared  to  resist  an  enemy.  The  northerly 
side  of  it  was  but  four  feet  high,  and  the  easterl}^  and 
westerly  ends  were  laid  up  sloping,  and  resembled  some- 
what a  stone  wall.  From  the  back  side  to  the  front  there 
was  simply  a  depression,  and  the  ground  was  not  broken. 
The  ditch  was  in  no  j)art  over  three  feet  in  depth.  So 
low  were  the  walls  that  a  soldier  was  heard  to  say  that  he 
"  could  jump  over  them  with  a  musket  in  each  hand." 
No  platform  had  been  laid,  or  artillery  mounted.  There 
was  one  6-gun  battery  at  Dyce's  Point,  and  a  small  one 
begun  somewhere  on  Cape  Rozier.  One  hundred  of  the 
inhabitants,  under  the  leadership  of  Mr.  John  Perkins, 
came  in — some  voluntarily,  and  others  because  com- 
pelled— and  in  three  days'  time,  cleared  the  land  of  all  the 
wood  in  front  of  the  fort.  Mr.  William  Hutchins,  then  a 
boy  of  fourteen,  was  one  of  this  number,  and  helj)ed  to 
haul  the  first  log  into  the  south  bastion.  One  hundred 
and  eighty  men  were  also  sent  on  shore  from  the  men-of- 
war,  to  assist  in  preparing  the  defences.  A  messenger 
was  dispatched  to  Halifax  for  aid.  On  Saturday, 
July  24th,  a  fleet  was  seen  standing  up  the  bay,  and  Cap- 
tain Mowatt,  in  command  of  tlie  English  men-of-war, 
determined  to  detain  the  sloops  Albany^  North  and  Nauti- 
lus— which  had  been  ordered  for  other  service.  The 
other  vessels  of  the  fleet  had  departed  some  time  pre- 
viousl3\  The  three  sloops  dropped  down  the  harbor,  and 
moored,  in  close  line  of  battle,  across  the  entrance, 
between  the  rocks  at  Dyce's  Head  and  the  point  of  Nauti- 
lus or  Banks'  Island— often,  at  that  time,  called  Cross 
Island.  On  shore,  some  cannons  were  soon  mounted,  and 
the  troops  were  in  garrison  the  next  morning.  At  three 
o'clock  p.  m.,  of  the  twenty-fifth,  the  American  fleet  made 
its  appearance,  and  a  brisk  cannonade  was  kept  up  for 
about  two  hours.  The  Americans,  also,  made  an  attemj^t 
to  land,  but  without  success,  owing  to  the  high  wind. 
The  next  day,  July  26th,  the  English  sloops  moved  further 
up  into  the  harbor,  and  another  cannonading  took  place, 
lasting  two  hours  and  a  quarter,  with  but  slight  damage 
to  either  side.  The  Americans  again  attempted  to  make 
a  landing  upon  the  point,  but  were  repulsed.  At  six 
p.  m.,  however,  they  made  a  landing  on  Nautilus  Island, 


PENTAGOE'T.  41 

Witll  two  liitndrecl  men,  dislodged  a  party  of  twenty 
marines,  and  took  possession  of  four  4-prs. — two  of  which 
were  not  mounted.  On  the  twenty-seventh  there  was 
some  cannonading,  and  at  three  p.  m.,  a  boat,  in  passing' 
from  the  American  vessels  to  Nautilus  Island,  was  struck 
by  a  landom  shot  from  the  fort,  and  sunk. 

The  morning  of  the  twenty-eighth  of  July,  was  calm 
and  foggy.  At  three  o'clock  a.  ra.,  the  American  vessels 
were  in  line  up  and  down  the  bay — ^just  beyond  musket  shot 
of  the  enemy.  Two  hundred  of  the  marines  and  two 
hundred  of  the  militia  were  ordered  into  the  boats.  Mowatt's 
position  at  this  time  controlled  the  mouth  of  the  harbor, 
and  prevented  a  landing  on  the  southern  and  eastern  sides 
of  the  peninsula;  and  a  trench  had  been  cut  across  the  isth- 
mus at  the  northward,  which  completely  severed  the  neck 
from  the  main  land,  and  prevented  a  hostile  approach  from 
that  direction.  [Williamson,  Vol.  2,  p.  473.]  A  landing 
could  only  be  effected  on  the  westerly  side — which  was 
at  most  places  very  precipitous.  The  boats  landed,  there- 
fore, upon  this  side,  at  a  point  about  one-third  of  the  way 
between  Dyce's  Head  and  the  high  bluff  at  the  northwest- 
ern extremity  of  the  peninsula.*  The  English  troops,  posted 
upon  the  heights,  opened  a  brisk  fire  upon  the  boats  just  as 
they  reached  the  shore,  and  a  shower  of  musketry  from  the 
cliffs,  was  sent  into  the  faces  of  the  troops  as  they  attempted 
an  ascent.  It  is  stated  by  an  American  officer — ^present  at 
the  time — -that  balls  from  the  English  vessels  passed  over 
their  heads  ;  but  as  the  latter  had  moved  further  up  the  har- 
bor, it  would  seem  almost  incredible  that  their  light  metal 
(6  prs.)  could  have  thrown  so  far.  The  ascent  at  the  place 
of  landing  being  found  altogether  impracticable,  the  troops 
divided  into  three  parties.  The  right  and  left  wings  sought 
more  practicable  places  for  ascent,  while  the  center  kept  up 
an  incessant  fire  of  musketry,  to  distract  the  attention  of  the 
foe.  The  right  pressed  hard  upon  the  British  left,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  capturing  a  small  battery.  The  left,  however, 
closing  in  rather  too  qviickly  upon  the  enemy,  gave  them  a 
chance  to  escape,  and  they  retreated,  leaving  thirty  killed, 

*Tliis  bluff  is  now  ciilled  Block-house  Toint.  At  tiie  place  whore  they 
liiiidi'd  is  a  large  granite  lioulder,  commonly  known  as  the  "white  I'ock,"  or 
hs  "Trask's  roi^k."  A  lifer  hoy  by  the  nanie  of  Trask.was  Itchind  this  rock  play- 
ing tlie  tife  wliile  his  eonirades  made  the  ascent.  This  Trask,  some  tifty-five 
years  ago.  visited  this  place,  and  pointed  out  to  several  citizens,  the  exact  spot 
wiiere  the  landing  was  made.  I'rrviously  lo  Trask's  visit,  it  was  called 
"liinekley's  rock,"  after  a  Captain  who  is  said  to  have  climbed  upon  it  to 
cheer  ou  his  men,  and  to  have  been  shut  on  the  rock. 


42  PENTAGoET. 

wounded  and  taken.  The  Americans  lost  in  this  attack, 
according  to  the  British  account,  one  hundred  men  out  of 
four  hundred.  [Calef 's  Journal,  Part  III.]  According  to 
General  Lovell's  statement,  however,  the  loss  was  only  fifty. 
[Mass.  Letter  Book,  No.  57,  p.  305.]  The  loss  was  most 
severely  felt  by  the  marines,  who  ascended  the  steeper  and 
more  difficult  part  upon  the  left.  The  engagement,  though 
a  very  brilliant  one,  was  short,  lasting  only  about  twenty 
minutes.  After  the  capture  of  the  battery,  the  shij3s  Avere 
enabled  to  move  in  nearer  to  the  shore.  Williamson  says, 
[Hist,  of  Me.,  Vol.  2,  p.  473,]  that  the  place  where  the  ascent 
was  made,  was  uj)  a  steep  precipice  two  hundred  feet  in 
height.  As  the  highest  point  of  land  on  the  peninsula  is 
only  two  hundred  and  seventeen  feet,  this  statement,  of 
course,  is  incorrect.  It  seems  from  the  several  accounts, 
that  the  marines  suffered  the  most.  Now,  according  to  mili- 
tary usages,  the  left  of  the  line  would  be  given  to  them. 
Upon  the  right,  a  comparatively  easy  ascent  could  have  been 
made.  Nowhere,  however,  upon  the  left  of  their  landing 
place,  could  an  ascent  have  been  made,  except  by  climbing 
a  very  precipitous  bank  some  thirty  or  forty  feet  in  height. 
After  making  this  ascent,  the  ground,  though  covered  with 
boulders. and  still  rising,  would  present  no  great  difficulties. 
There  is  no  doubt  whatever,  but  that  this  was  a  very  dar- 
ing assault,  and  had  the  American  troops  eventually  suc- 
ceeded in  taking  possession  of  the  fort,  this  attack  would 
have  been  one  of  the  most  brilliant  achievements  of  the 
war.  Their  final  defeat,  however,  obliterated  all  recol- 
lection of  their  former  bravery.*  Some  hours  later  upon 
this  day,  cannonading  took  place  between  the  British  ves- 
sels and  the  battery  on  Nautilus  Island  ;  but,  finding  their 
6  prs.  were  of  but  little  service  against  the  heavier  guns  of 
the  battery,  Captain  Mowatt  deemed  it  advisable  to  move 
still  further  up  the  harbor.f  Sir  John  Moore, — who  was 
killed  at  Corunna,  Spain,  June  16th,  1809,  and  in  com- 
memoration of  whose  burial  the  ode  commencing,  "  Not  a 
drum  was  heard,  nor  a  funeral  note,"  was  composed — was 
at  that  time  a  Lieutenant  and  Paymaster  in  H.  B.  M's  82d 
Regiment,  and  was  present  on  picket  when  this  attack  was 

*They  are  reported  to  have  buried  their  dead  upon  the  level  ground  just 
above  'frask's  rock.  The  presumption  in  favor  of  their  burial  being  in  that 
place,  is  A'ery  strong;  but  the  surface  of  this  region  has  become  so  changed 
jby  tune,  that  those  now  living,  who  once  knew,  are  unable  to  designate  the 
exact  spot. 

tFor  more  particular  accounts  of  this  attack,  see  Calef 's  Joui'nal,  in  Part  III, 
and  Williamson's  Hist,  of  Maine,  Vol.  2,  pp.  470  to  473. 


PENTAGOET.  43 

made.*  [British  Plutarch,  p.  243.]  Captain,  afterwards 
Sir  James  Henry  Craig,  was  also  present  and  held  some  com- 
mand at  the  time  of  this  siege.  [Drake's  Diet,  of  American 
Biograph3^] 

On  the  olst,  a  detachment  of  militia  and  marines,  under 
command  of  General  Wadsworth,  landed  at  the  westward 
of  the  half-moon  battery  (situated  at  the  left  of  the  main 
fort),  and  attacked  the  enemy's  picket.  They  found  five 
of  the  enemy  dead,  and  took  fourteen  prisoners,  but  were 
themselves  soon  repulsed  with  considerable  loss.  Upon 
the  third  of  August,  they  erected  a  battery  on  the  main  land 
north  of  the  peninsula,  in  the  field  behind  where  Captain 
Joseph  Wescott's  house  now  standi,  between  it  and  the 
shore.  Three  days  later,  the  British  erected  a  battery 
directly  opposite,  on  what  is  now  known  as  Hatch's  Point. 
On  the  seventh,  as  a  boat  was  crossing  from  Nautilus 
Island  to  Henry's  Point  (then  called  Hainey's  plantation) 
where  the  Americans  had  a  picket,  the  boats  from  the 
Nautilus  succeeded  in  capturing  her,  but  the  crew  made 
out  to  escape  and  join  the  picket. 

Immediately  after  the  engagement  of  the  28th  ult.,  a 
council  of  war  of  the  American  land  and  naval  forces,  was 
called.  The  officers  of  the  land  forces  were  in  favor  of 
demanding  an  immediate  surrender,  but  Commodore  Sal- 
tonstall,  and  some  of  his  officers,  were  opposed  to  it.  It 
was  next  proposed  to  storm  the  fort,  but  the  marines  had 
already  suffered  so  much,  that  the  Commodore  refused  to 
disembark  any  more,  and  even  threatened  to  recall  those 
already  on  shore.  Their  force  being  thought  insufficient 
to  capture  the  place,  special  messengers  were  sent  to  Boston, 
in  ivhaleboatti,  tor  assistance.  The  time,  up  to  August  13th, 
was  occupied  by  Commodore  Saltonstall,  in  manuiuvering 
about  the  entrance  of  the  harbor,  and  in  frequent  cannon- 
ading, while  General  Lovell  gradually  advanced,  by  zigzag 
intrenchments,  to  within  seven  hundred  yards  of  the  fort, 
besides  erecting  the  batteries  already  mentioned,  and  sev- 
eral others.  This  lapse  of  time  gave  the  British  every 
advantage,  and  General  McLean  improved  the  time  by  per- 
fecting his  fortifications,  erecting  new  defences,  and  mount- 
ing cannon. 

Upon  the  eleventh  of  August,  two  hundred  men,  under 
the  command  of  Brown  and  Bronville,  took  post  near  the 
half-moon  battery,  and  awaited  the  signal  to  retreat.     A 

*  Mr.  Ilutchins  dcehircd  that  lie  knew  liim  well,  and  that  he  went  by  the 
name  of  "Skipper  Moore." — ,So  it  is  stiitctl  to  us. 


44  pentaG(3et. 

j^arty  of  the  enemy,  concealed  behind  a  barn,  fired  upon 
them  when  they  left.  The  next  day  it  was  decided  by 
the  Americans  to  make  a  combined  attack  with  the  entire 
force,  both  of  land  and  sea,  and  upon  the  thirteenth, 
General  Lovell,  at  the  head  of  two  hundred  men,  took 
the  rear  of  Fort  George.  [Deposition  of  Samuel  McCobb, 
in  Vol.  on  Pen.  Exp.  in  Sec.  of  State's  Office,  Boston.] 
It  was  too  late.  The  same  day  he  received  intelligence 
by  one  of  his  vessels  which  had  been  reconnoitering,  that 
a  British  fleet  was  standing  up  the  bay.  A  retreat  was  at 
once  ordered. 

About  this  time.  Captain  Little,  of  the  American  sloop 
of  war  Wmthrop^  capered  a  sloop  in  the  bay,  from  the 
crew  of  which  he  learned  the  position  of  an  armed  brig 
of  the  British,  which,  having  previously  taken  the  sloop, 
had  sent  her  out  after  coasters.  Captain  Little  deter- 
mined to  take  this  brig  by  surprise.  The  Winthrop, 
accordingly,  bore  down  in  the  night,  having  forty  men — 
dressed  in  white  frocks,  in  order  to  distinguish  friend 
from  foe — in  readiness  to  jump  aboard  the  brig.  When 
close  by,  she  was  hailed  by  the  enemy — who  supposed  her 
to  be  a  prize  of  the  sloop — who  cried  out,  "  You  will  run 
aboard."  "  I  am  coming  aboard,"  answered  Captain  Little, 
and  immediately  Lieutenant  (afterwards  Commodore)  Ed- 
ward Preble,  with  fourteen  men,  sprang  aboard.  The 
rest  missed  their  opportunity — owing  to  the  speed  of  the 
vessel.  Captain  Little  called  to  Preble,  "  Will  you  have 
more  men?"  The  latter,  with  great  presence  of  mind, 
loudly  answered,  "  No  ;  we  have  more  than  we  want ;  we 
stand  in  each  other's  way."  The  greater  part  of  the 
enemy's  crew  leaped  overboard,  and  swam  to  the  shore. 
Lieutenant  Preble  made  the  officers  of  the  brig  prisoners 
in  their  beds,  assuring  them  that  resistance  was  in  vain. 
The  troops  upon  the  shore  fired  upon  them,  and  they 
experienced  a  heavy  cannonade  from  the  battery.  Not- 
withstanding this,  they  succeeded  in  getting  the  brig  safely 
out  of  the  harbor,  and  to  Boston.  [Peterson's  Hist,  of 
Navy,  pp.  175,  176.] 


PENTAGOET.  45 


CHAPTER  VI. 

Arrival  of  British  Fleet. — DESTRUCTioisr  of  A:meri- 
CAisr  Fleet. — Cause  of  Failure  of  the  Expe- 
dition.— Subsequent  British  Occupation  of  the 
Place. — Condition  of  the  Inhabitants. — Anec- 
dote OF  Atwood  Fales. — Of  Waldo  Dicke. — Ac- 
count OF  THE  Escape  from  Fort  George,  of  Wads- 
worth  AND  Burton. 

1779.  Aug.  14th.  During  the  night  of  the  thirteenth 
of  August,  the  Americans  silently  removed  their  cannon 
from  the  peninsula,  and  embarked  in  their  vessels. 
Early  on  the  morning  of  the  next  day,  they  spiked  and 
dismounted  their  cannon  on  Nautilus  Island  and,  going  on 
board  a  brig,  made  haste  to  join  their  fleet.  The  British 
fleet  soon  appeared  in  the  offing.  It  consisted  of: — The 
Haisonnable,  Captain  Evans,  64  guns,  500  men,  Sir 
George  Collier's  F.  S. ;  Blande,  Captain  Berkley,  32  guns, 
220  men  ;  GreyJiound^  Captain  Dickson,  28  guns,  200 
men  ;  Galatea,  Captain  Read,  24  guns,  180  men;  Camilla, 
Captain  Collins,  24  guns,  180  men ;  Virginia,  Captain 
Ord,  18  guns,  150  men  ;  Otte?;  Captain — ,  14  guns,  100  men. 
Making  in  all,  seven  vessels,  carrying  two  hundred  and  four 
guns,  and  fifteen  hundred  and  thirty  men.  This  number, 
added  to  the  three  sloops-of-war  already  in  the  harbor, 
made  such  a  vastly  superior  force,  that  it  would  have  been 
folly  to  attempt  any  resistance.  Nothing  was  left,  there- 
fore, for  the  Americans,  but  to  retreat.  Commodore 
Saltonstall  arranged  his  fleet  across  the  bay,  in  the  form 
of  a  crescent,  for  the  purpose  of  checking  the  advance  of 
the  enemy  sufficiently  to  enable  the  land  forces  on  board 
the  transports  to  make  good  their  escape.  Sir  George 
Collier,  however,  feeling  such  entire  confidence  in  the 
very  great  superiority  of  his  fleet,  advanced  at  once,  with- 
out hesitation,  and,  pouring  in  a  broad-side,  caused  the 
American  vessels  to  crowd  on  all  sail,  and  attempt  an 
indiscriminate  flight.  The  Hunter  and  Hampdcii,  in 
attempting  to  escape  by  way  of  the  i)assage  between  Long 
Island  and  Belfast,  were  cut  off  and  taken.  The  former 
vessel  was  run  on  sliore  witli  all  her  sails  standing,  but 
7 


46  PENTAGOET. 

her  crew  succeeded  in  reaching  the  land.  The  Defiance 
ran  into  an  inlet  near  by,  and  was  fired  by  her  crew.  The 
^ky  Rocket  was  blown  np  near  Fort  Point  ledge,  and  the 
Active  was  burned  off  Brigadier's  Island.  The  others 
escaped  further  up  the  river,  but  were  all  set  on  fire  and 
blown  up  by  their  crews,  to  prevent  them  from  falling  into 
the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

Thus  this  expedition,  notwithstanding  the  bravery  of 
the  first  attack,  ended  both  disastrously  and  disgracefully 
to  the  Americans.  A  comparatively  small  garrison,  with 
only  three  sloops-of-war,  held  out  successfully  for  twenty- 
one  days,  against  a  vastly  superior  force.  The  whole 
blame,  undoubtedly,  falls  upon  Commodore  Saltonstall, 
who  was  popularly  charged  with  having  been  "bought 
by  British  gold."  He  was  tried,  subsequently,  for  cow- 
ardice, by  a  Court  Martial,  and  cashiered.  The  following 
petition,  signed  and  sent  to  him  by  the  Lieutenants  and 
Masters  of  the  several  vessels  of  the  fleet,  shows  plainly 
what  his  subordinate  officers  thought : — 

"  Tuesday  A.  M.,  July  27th,  1779. 

Your  petitioners,  strongly  impressed  with  the  impor- 
tance of  the  Expedition,  and  earnestly  desiring  to  render 
to  our  countr}^  all  the  service  in  our  power,  would  repre- 
sent to  your  honor  that  the  most  speedy  exertions  should 
be  used  to  accomplish  the  design  we  came  upon.  We 
think  delays,  in  the  present  case,  are  extremely  dangerous 
— as  our  enemies  are  duly  fortifying  and  strengthening 
themselves,  and  are  stimulated  so  to  do,  being  in  daily 
expectation  of  a  reinforcement.  We  do  not  mean  to 
advise,  or  censure  your  past  conduct,  but  intend  only 
to  express  our  desire  of  improving  the  present  opportu- 
nity to  go  immediately  into  the  harbor,  and  attack  the 
enemy's  ships.  However,  we  humbly  submit  our  senti- 
ments to  the  better  judgment  of  those  in  superior  com- 
mand. We,  therefore,  wait  your  orders,  whether  in 
answer  to  our  petition,  or  otherwise.  And,  as  in  duty 
bound,  will  ever  pray."  [Pen.  Expedition,  in  State 
Archives,  Mass.]  Even  the  British  commander  did  not 
hesitate  to  call  him  a  coward,  and  said  that  he  should 
have  surrendered  the  very  first  day,  if  such  a  demand 
had  been  made.  Ignorance,  on  his  part,  of  the  condition 
of  the  British  defences,  cannot  be  urged  as  an  excuse  ;  for 
Colonel  Brewer,  who  had  inspected  them  the  previous 
day,  visited  him,  and  gave  him  an  exact  account  of  them. 


PENTAGOET.  47 

Upon  Brewer's  urging  him  to  make  another  attack, 
Saltonstall  coarsely  replied  : — "  You  seem  to  be  d-d  know- 
ing aljout  the  matter !  I  am  not  going  to  risk  my  ship- 
ping in  that  d-d  hole  !  "  The  British  retained  possession 
of  the  place  until  after  peace  was  declared.  They  evac- 
uated it  in  December,  1783. 

The  English,  during  their  occupation  of  the  place  at 
this  time,  treated  the  inhal)itants,  upon  the  whole,  in  as 
conciliatory  a  manner  as  could  be  expected.  This  was 
done,  doubtless,  partly  from  policy,  but  partly,  also,  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  many  of  the  inhabitants  were  at  heart 
tories.  This  assertion  is  rendered  probable  by  the  fol- 
lowing passage,  which  occurs  in  an  order  to  General 
Lovell,  dated  at  the  Council  Chamber,  July  2d,  1779 : — 
"  And  as  there  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  some  of 
the  principal  men  at  Majorl^agaduce  requested  the  enemy 
to  come  there  and  take  possession,  you  will  be  particularly 
careful  that  none  of  them  escape,  but  to  secure  them, 
that  they  may  receive  the  just  reward  for  their  evil 
doings."  Notwithstanding  the  friendliness  of  many  of 
the  citizens,  a  great  deal  of  discrimination  was  used,  and 
none  of  them  were  allowed  within  the  fort,  except  Mr. 
Nathan  Phillips,  Mr.  Cunningham  and  his  family  and 
driver,  Mr.  Dyce  and  family,  and  Mr.  Finley  McCullum,. 
who  were  all  employed  in  His  Majesty's  service.  The 
inhabitants  were  obliged  to  bring  in  all  their  guns — for 
which  they  were  paid  at  the  rate  of  three  dollars  each. 
They  were  forbidden  to  leave  the  peninsula,  without  per- 
mission, and  were  compelled  to  labor  upon  the  defences. 
Provisions,  at  this  time,  were  very  scarce  among  them, 
and,  as  they  had  no  guns,  they  were  ol)liged  to  depend 
upon  the  rations  issued  to  them  by  the  English  Commis- 
sary. This  compelled  a  majority  of  them  to  labor  in  the 
English  service,  as  none  others  could  draw  rations.  The 
English,  also,  from  time  to  time,  issued  orders  to  them  to 
bring  in  wood,  lumber  and  vegetables.  [See  MacZachlar's 
Order,  Part  III.]  Orders  were,  on  the  other  hand, 
issued  to  the  troops,  strictly  prohil)iting  any  digging  of 
potatoes,  or  other  vegetables  belonging  to  the  inhabitants, 
or  plundering  of  any  kind.  Marauding  and  setting  fire  to 
the  houses  of  the  inliabitants  were  also  forbidden,  by 
special  orders.  AU  strangers,  upon  their  arrival  in  town 
were  ordered  to  report  to  Doctor  Calef.*     Those  not  com- 

*    A  Surgeon  and  an  acting  cbaplaiu. 


48  PENTAGOET. 

plying,  were  to  be  fined  or  corporeally  punished.  This 
order  was  sent  to  all  the  neighboring  towns.  The  inhab- 
itants were  also  commanded  to  be  always  in  readiness  for 
military  service,  and  to  be  mustered  and  inspected  once  a 
week.  At  one  time,  small  change  became  so  scarce,  that 
the  British  commander  ordered  all  silver  dollars  to  be  cut 
into  five  pieces,  and  each  piece  to  pass  current  for  one  shil- 
ling. This  practice,  however,  gave  such  an  opportunity 
for  fraud,  that  it  was  soon  found  necessary  to  call  them  in, 
and  rescind  the  order. 

1780.  On  October  27th,  1780,  there  was  a  total  echpse 
of  the  sun,  visible  here,  but  not  total  farther  west. 
Observations  were  made  at  Long  Island,  by  Reverend 
Samuel  Williams,  Hollisean  Professor  of  Mathematics,  at 
Harvard  College.  The  British  officer  in  command  here 
refused  to  allow  his  party  to  laud  upon  this  peninsula,  and 
only  allowed  them  until  the  28th  to  remain  in  the  bay. 
This  was,  perhaps,  the  earliest  observation  of  the  kind 
made  in  this  country.  The  winter  of  this  year  was  prob- 
ably the  coldest  ever  known  in  this  vicinity.  The  cold 
was  so  intense,  and  for  so  long  a  period,  that  the  bay  was 
frozen  over  from  here  to  Camden,  and  Lieutenant  Burton 
came  all  the  way  from  that  place  on  the  ice.  He  was  in 
search  of  a  man  by  the  name  of  Libby,  who  was  impris- 
oned here  at  the  time.  After  obtaining  liis  release,  Bur- 
ton returned  with  him  in  the  same  manner. 

The  following  episodes  of  events  occurring  during  the 
British  occupation,  are  of  interest,  and  may  appropriately 
be  inserted  in  this  place. 

In  the  year  1779,  while  the  American  force  was  attempt- 
ing the  capture  of  the  place,  one  Atwood  Fales,  of 
Thomaston,  who  belonged  to  Lovell's  force,  while  going 
out  one  morning  for  a  pail  of  water,  was  twice  fired  upon 
by  a  whole  company-^numbering  some  sixty  men — of  the 
English  at  once,  with  no  detriment  to  himself,  but  to  the 
immense  astonishment  of  the  assailants,  who  thencefor- 
ward considered  him  invulnerable.  [Eaton's  Hist.  Thom. 
S.  Thom.  and  Rockland,  p. 152.] 

In  the  year  1780,  Waldo  Dicke,  of  Warren,  with  some 
other  tories,  captured  a  sloop  at  Maple  Juice  Cove,  near 
Rockland,  and  succeeded  in  getting  her  safely  here. 
General  Campbell,  who  had  succeeded  McLean  in  com- 
mand of  the  post,  was  not,  however,  particularly  well 
pleased,  either  with  the  manner  in  which  the  exploit  was 


PENTAGOET.  49 

performed,  or  with  the  parties  engaged  therein.  He 
accordingly  offered  her  back  at  a  very  moderate  ransom,* 
and  the  tories  found  they  had  had  a  great  deal  of  labor  to 
very  little  purpose.     [Hist,  of  Thom.  &c.,  pp.  144-145.] 

An  account  of  the  celebrated  and  really  remarkable 
escape  of  General  Wadsworth  and  Major  Burton,  from 
their  imprisonment  in  Fort  George,  will  be  a  fitting 
termination  to  our  history  of  this  period. f 

In  the  month  of  February,  1780,  General  Campbell,  the 
commander  of  the  garrison,  learning  that  General  Peleg 
Wadsworth  was  at  his  home  in  Thoraaston,  without  any 
troops  except  a  guard  of  six  soldiers,  determined  to  make 
him  a  prisoner.  He  accordingly  sent  a  force  of  twenty-five 
soldiers,  under  the  charge  of  Lieutenant  Stockton,  for  this 
purpose.  After  a  sharp  contest,  in  which  several  of  the 
British  soldiers  were  killed  and  wounded,  and  in  which 
General  Wadsworth  was  himself  severely  wounded,  they 
succeeded  in  making  him  a  prisoner.  On  their  arrival  at 
the  British  post,  the  capture  of  General  Wadsworth  was 
soon  announced,  and  the  shore  was  thronged  with  specta- 
tors to  see  the  man,  who,  through  the  preceding  year,  had 
disappointed  all  the  designs  of  the  British  in  that  quarter  j 
and  loud  shouts  were  heard  from  the  rabble,  which  covered 
the  shore ;  but  when  he  arrived  at  the  fort,  and  was  con- 
ducted into  the  officers'  guard-room,  he  was  treated  with 
politeness.  General  Campbell  sent  his  compliments  to  him, 
and  a  surgeon  to  dress  his  wounds,  assuring  him  that  his 
situation  should  be  made  comfortable.  He  was  furnished 
with  books,  allowed  to  receive  visitors,  and  at  the  hour  of 
dining,  he  was  invited  to  the  table  of  the  commandant, 
where  he  met  with  all  the  principal  officers  of  the  garrison, 
and  from  whom  he  received  particular  attention  and  polite- 
ness. General  Wadsworth  soon  made  application  for  a  flag 
of  truce,  by  which  means  he  could  transmit  a  letter  to  the 
Governor  of  Massachusetts,  and  another  to  Mrs.  Wadsworth. 
This  was  granted  him,  upon  condition  that  the  letter 
to  the  Governor  should  be  inspected.  The  flag  was  intrusted 
to  Lieutenant  Stockton,  a.nd  on  his  return,  the  General  was 
relieved  from  all  anxiety  respecting  his  wife  and  family. 
At  the  end  of  five  weeks,  his  wound  being  nearly  healed, 
he  requested  of  General  Campbell,  the  customary  privilege 

*    His  ofter  was  not  accepted. 
tTliis  aceouut  is  talicu  from  Thachcr's  Journal  of  the   llevolulionary 
"War. 


60  PEKTAGoET. 

of  a  parole,  and  was  told  in  reply,  that  his  case  had  beeil 
reported  to  the  commanding  officer  at  New  York,  and  that 
no  alteration  could  be  made  until  orders  were  received 
from  that  quarter.  In  about  two  months,  Mrs.  Wadsworth 
and  Miss  Fenno  arrived.  About  the  same  time,  orders 
were  received  from  the  commanding  General,  at  New  York, 
which  were  concealed  from  General  Wadsworth.  He 
finall}^  learned  that  he  was  not  to  be  paroled  or  exchanged, 
but  was  to  be  sent  to  England,  as  a  rebel  of  too  much  con- 
sequence to  be  at  liberty.  Not  long  afterwards,  Major 
Benjamin  Burton,  a  brave  and  worthy  man,  who  had  served 
under  General  Wadsworth  the  preceding  summer,  was 
taken  and  brought  into  the  fort,  and  lodged  in  the  same  room 
with  the  General.  He  had  been  informed  that  both  him- 
self and  the  General  were  to  be  sent,  immediately  after  the 
return  of  a  privateer,  now  out  on  a  cruise,  either  to  New 
York  or  Halifax,  and  thence  to  England. 

The  prisoners  immediately  resolved  to  make  a  desperate 
attempt  to  escape.  They  were  confined  in  a  grated  room 
in  the  officers'  barracks,  within  the  fort.  The  walls  of 
this  fortress,  exclusive  of  the  ditch  surrounding  it,  were 
twenty  feet  high,  with  fraising  on  the  top,  and  chevaux  de 
/rise  at  the  bottom.  Two  sentinels  were  always  in  the 
entry,  and  the  door,  the  upper  part  of  which  was  of  glass, 
might  be  opened  by  these  watchmen,  whenever  they 
thought  proper,  and  was  actually  opened  at  seasons  of 
peculiar  darkness  and  silence.  At  the  exterior  doors  of  the 
entries,  sentries  were  also  stationed,  as  were  others  in  the 
body  of  the  fort,  and  at  the  quarters  of  General  Campbell. 
At  the  guard-house  a  strong  guard  was  daily  mounted. 
Several  sentinels  were  stationed  on  the  walls  of  the  fort, 
and  a  complete  line  occupied  them  by  night.  Without  the 
ditch,  glacis,  and  abatis,  another  complete  set  of  soldiers 
patrolled  through  the  night.  The  gate  of  the  fort  was 
shut  at  sunset,  and  a  picket-guard  was  placed  On,  or  near, 
the  isthmus  leading  from  the  fort  to  the  main  land.  The 
room  in  which  they  were  confined  was  ceiled  with  boards. 
One  of  these  they  determined  to  cut  oft",  so  as  to  make  a 
hole  large  enough  to  pass  through,  and  then  to  creep  along 
till  they  should  come  to  the  next,  or  middle  entry — lower- 
ing themselves  down  into  this  by  a  blanket.  If  they  should 
not  be  discovered,  the  passage  to  the  walls  of  the  fort  was 
easy.  In  the  evening,  after  the  sentinels  had  seen  the  pris- 
oners retire  to  bed,  General  Wadsworth  got  up,  and,  stand- 


PENTAGOET.  51 

ing  in  a  chair,  attempted  to  cut  with  his  knife  the  intended 
opening-,  but  soon  found  it  impracticable.  The  next  day, 
by  giving  their  waiter  (Barnabas  Cunningham),  a  dollar, 
they  procured  a  gimlet.  With  this  instrument  they  pro- 
ceeded cautiously,  and  as  silently  as  possible,  to  perforate 
the  board,  and  in  order  to  conceal  every  appearance  from 
their  servants  and  from  the  officers,  they  carefully  covered 
the  gimlet  holes  with  chewed  bread.  At  the  end  of  three 
weeks,  their  labors  were  so  far  completed  that  it  only 
remained  to  cut  with  a  knife  the  parts  which  were  left  to 
hold  the  piece  in  its  place.  When  their  preparations  were 
finished,  they  learned  that  the  privateer,  in  which  they 
were  to  embark,  was  daily  expected. 

In  the  evening-  of  the  eighteenth  of  June,  a  very  severe 
storm  of  rain  came  on,  with  great  darkness,  and  almost 
incessant  lightning. 

This  the  prisoners  considered  as  the  propitious  moment. 
Having  extinguished  their  lights,  they  began  to  cut  the 
corners  of  the  board,  and  in  less  than  an  hour,  the 
intended  opening  was  completed.  The  noise,  which  the 
operation  occasioned,  was  drowned  by  the  rain  falling  on 
the  roof.  Major  Burton  first  ascended  to  the  ceiling,  and 
pressed  himself  through  the  opening.  General  Wads- 
worth  next,  having  put  the  corner  of  his  blanket  through 
the  hole,  and  made  it  fast  by  a  strong  wooden  skewer, 
attempted  to  make  his  way  through,  by  standing  on  a 
chair  below,  but  it  was  with  extreme  difficulty — owing  to  his 
■\vt)unded  arm —  that  he  at  length  succeeded  in  doing  so, 
and  reached'  the  middle  entry.  From  this  he  passed 
through  the  door,  which  he  found  open,  and  made  his  way 
to  the  wall  of  the  fort,  encountering  the  greatest  difficulty 
before  he  could  ascend  to  the  top.  He  had  now  to  creep 
along  the  top  of  the  fort,  between  the  sentry  boxes,  at 
the  very  moment  when  the  relief  was  shifting  sentinels  ; 
but  the  falling  of  heavy  rain  kept  the  sentinels  within 
their  boxes,  and  favored  his  escape.  Having  now  fastened 
his  blanket  round  a  picket  at  the  top,  he  let  himself  down 
through  the  chevaux  de  frise,  to  the  ground,  and,  in  a 
manner  astonishing  to  himself,  made  liis  way  into  an  open 
field.  Here  he  was  obliged  to  grope  his  way  among  rocks, 
stnm})s  and  Ijrush,  in  the  darkness  of  the  night,  till  ho 
reached  the  cove.  Happily,  the  tide  had  ebbed,  thus 
enabling  him  to  cross  the  water — which  was  about  one 
half  a  mile  in  breadtli,  and  not  more  than  three  feet  deep. 


62  PENTAGOET. 

About  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  General  Wadsworth 
found  himself  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  fort,  and  pro- 
ceeded on,  through  thick  wood  and  brush,  to  the  Penob- 
scot river.  After  passing  some  distance  along  the  shore, 
being  seven  miles  from  the  fort,  to  his  unspeakable  joy,  he 
saw  his  friend  Burton  advancing  towards  hira.  Major 
Burton  had  been  obliged  to  encounter,  in  his  course,  equal 
difficulties  with  his  companion — having  come  face  to  face 
with  a  sentinel,  when  leaving  the  fort,  whose  observa- 
tion he  eluded  by  falling  flat  upon  the  ground.  Such 
were  the  incredible  perils  and  obstructions  which  they  sur- 
mounted, that  their  escape  may  be  considered  almost 
miraculous.  It  was  now  necessary  that  they  should  cross 
the  Penobscot  river,  and  very  fortunatel}^  they  discovered 
a  canoe,  with  oars  on  the  shore,  suited  to  their  purpose. 
While  on  the  river,  they  discovered  a  barge,  with  a  party 
of  British  from  the  fort,  in  pursuit  of  them.  By  taking 
an  oblique  course,  and  plying  their  oars  to  the  utmost, 
they  happily  eluded  the  eyes  of  their  pursuers,  and 
arrived  safely  on  the  western  shore.  After  having  wan- 
dered in  the  wilderness  for  several  days  and  nights, 
exposed  to  extreme  fatigue  and  cold,  and  with  no  other 
food  than  a  little  dry  bread  and  meat,  which  -they  had 
brought  in  their  pockets  from  the  fort,  they  reached  the 
settlements  on  the  river  St.  George,  and  no  further  difficul- 
ties attended  their  return  to  their  respective  families.* 

*  For  full  particulars  In  regard  to  Burton's  escape,  see  manuscript  narra- 
tive, by  William  D.  Williamson,  in  Archives  of  Maine  Hist.  Society.  Dr. 
Joseph  L.  Stevens,  of  this  town,  has  also  a  copy  of  the  same. 


PART    II. 
PENOBSCOT,     CASTINE     AND     BROOKSVILLE. 


"  Far  eastward  o'er  the  lovely  bay, 
Penobscot's  clustered  wiofwams  lay; 
And  gently  from  that  Indian  town 
The  verdant  hillside  slopes  adown 
To  where  the  sparkling  waters  play 
Upon  the  yellow  sands  below." 

Whittier—Mogg  Megone. 


tI^*W^  *   •  'WW' 


■\ 


■#-^  T  —    -, 1> 


r 


V 


MAPpr 
CASTI.NE. 

BHiioksMiu;  ,-•?  Penobscot 

HAXr  IICK       COIN  TV. 

MAINE. 


>    r?*,^- 


'»  /-^t.  )L.J-  --^  '•■ 


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v  'V 


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BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  55 


CHAPTER  I. 
TOPOGRAPHICAL    AND    DESCRIPTIVE. 

Boundaries.  —  Divisions.  —  Areas.  — Natural  Scen- 
ery. —  Soil.  —  Crops.  —  Geology.  —  Mineralogy.  — 
Flora. — Fauna. — Climatology. 

The  territory  which  includes  the  three  towns  of  Penob- 
scot, Castine  and  Brooksville,  is  situated  upon  the  eastern 
side  of  Penobscot  river  and  bay,  about  twenty-five  miles 
from  tlie  mouth  of  the  bay,  and  thirty-six  miles  below  the 
liead  of  navigation.  The  distance,  in  an  air  line,  from  Port- 
land, is  about  ninety  miles,  and  from  Washington,  six 
hundred  and  seventy  miles.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north 
by  the  town  of  Orland,  on  the  east  by  Surry  and.  Bluehill, 
and  upon  the  south  by  Sedgwick,  Algemogin*  Reach  and 
Penobscot  bay.  The  latitude,  at  Dyce's  Head,  is  44° 
22 '  57  "  N.,  and  the  longitude  68°  48 '  49  "  W.  This  terri- 
tory is  intersected  by  an  arm  of  the  sea,  called  the  Bag- 
aduce  river,  which,  expanding  in  its  upper  part  into 
two  bays — called,  respectively,  the  Northern  and  South- 
ern haj& — and  connected  by  a  stream  with  a  large  sheet 
of  fresh  water,  called  Walker's  Pondf,  makes  a  wide 
sweep,  and  comes  again  to  within  about  a  half-mile  of 
the  waters  of  the  ocean  at  Alemog-in,  or  Eo-cremocfo-in, 
Reach.  The  former  town  of  Penobscot  was  divided  into 
three  nearly  equal  parts.  That  portion  upon  which  the 
town  of  Castine  is  now  situated,  is  a  peninsula  extending 
southwardly  into  the  waters  of  Penobscot  bay.  That 
portion  of  this  peninsula  upon  which  is  the  village  of  Cas- 
tine, was  formerly  itself  a  smaller  peninsula,  l)ut  is  now — 
by  reason  of  the  canal,  made  by  the  British  in  1814 —  in 
reality  an  island,  bearing  some  resemblance  in  its  shape  to 
a  boot,  the  toe  of  which  points  to  the  northeast.  Its  area  is 
about  2,600  acres.  The  town  of  Brooksville  is  also  a 
peninsula,  the  lower  part  of  which,  like  that  of  Castine, 
is  almost  an  island ;  two  large  coves,  called  Lawrence's  Bay, 

*lTsniilly  written  J']^'gein()ggiii.    The  word  we  luive  used  is  tlic  oide.st,  and 
probably  tin;  most  eorrcet. 

t    The  Indian  name  of  this  i)ond  is  said  to  si>;nify,  •'  Tlie  beautiful  water 
phic'c."    It  being  Winuc-agwam-auli,  eontracted  into  AMnncwag. 


56  HISTOEY  OF  CASTCSTE, 

and  Orcutt's  Harbor,  forming  indentations  which  approach 
within  a  half-mile  of  each  other.  The  southAvestern 
extremity  of  Castine  is  known  as  Dyce's  Head,  and  the 
southwestern  portion  of  Bropksville  as  Cape  Rozier.  The 
remaining  portion  of  the  territory,  northward,  forms  the 
present  town  of  Penobscot.  The  town  embraced,  before 
Castine  was  set  off,  an  area  of  3S,410  acres.  Castine,  at  the 
time  of  its  incorporation,  comprised  an  area  of  18,100  acres, 
to  which,  subsequently,  about  5,000  acres  were  added  from 
Penobscot.  Brooksville,  at  the  time  of  its  incorporation, 
took  from  Castine  about  one-half,  and  from  Penobscot 
about  one-fourth  of  its  territory,  and  also  received  a  small 
portion  from  Sedgwick. 


Natueal  Sceneey. 

The  natural  scenery  of  this  region,  though  not  so  grand 
as  that  of  mountainous  districts,  nor  so  sublime  as  that  of 
many  places  lying  more  exposed  to  the  ocean,  is,  never- 
theless, both  variegated  and  beautiful.  The  hills,  dales 
and  ponds  of  Penobscot  and  Brooksville;  the  bays  and 
isles  of  Brooksville  and  Castine  ;  and  the  view  of  Penob- 
scot river  and  bay,  from  all  these  toAvns,  afford  scenes,  the 
picturesqueness  of  which  can  hardly  be  surpassed.  Penob- 
scot possesses  two  ponds,  called,  respectively,  Pierce's  and 
North  Bay  Pond.  In  addition  to  these,  about  one-half  of 
Toddy  Pond  bounds  the  town  upon  the  northeast. 
Brooksville  contains  six  ponds,  all, — except  Walker's — 
of  less  size  than  those  just  mentioned,  but  of  equal  beauty. 
Castine  has  no  natural  pond,  but  it  boasts  the  possession  of 
a  harbor  "  in  which  the  navies  of  the  world  might  ride  at 
ease,"  and  which  contains  many  beautiful  islands.  Of 
these,  Nautilus  Island,  containing  about  thirty  acres  of 
land,  comes  within  the  jurisdiction  of  Brooksville — being 
connected  with  that  town  by  a  bar.  Holbrook  Island, 
further  to  the  southwest,  containing  about  fifty  acres,  is  a 
part  of  the  municipality  of  Castine.  In  addition  to  these, 
are  the  two  "Nigger*"  Islands,  Hospital  or  Noddle  Island, 
— opposite  the  village — and  some  seven  or  eight  small 
rocky  islets. 

*  Is  it  not  possible  that  the  name  of  those  islands  is  derived  from  the 
"Nrj^evv,"  over  which  Eciward  Niijlor  had  eommand,  in  1602?  There  is  no 
batialuctory  tradition  to  account  for  the  name  of  these  islands. 


beooksville  and  penobscot.  57 

Soils  and  Crops. 

The  soil  of  this  region  is,  generally  speaking,  a  sandy 
loan,  devoid  of  much  humus.  As  a  whole,  it  has  few  claims 
to  being  considered  a  profitable  farming  locality,  though  it  is 
as  much  so,  perhaps,  as  similar  situations  upon  the  sea- 
shore.*' There  are  some  fine  farms,  and  excellent  pastures, 
as  well  as  timber  lands,  in  Penobscot  and  inT3rooksville, 
and  the  gardens  and  orchards  in  the  village  of  Castine  are 
quite  productive.  The  principal  crops  are  grass,  rye,  oats 
and  potatoes.  Of  late  years,  the  cultivation  of  the  cran- 
berry has  received  considerable  attention  in  Castine,  and 
bids  fair  to  become,  eventually,  a  paying  crop. 

Geological  Formation. — Minerals. 

The  Geological  formation  consists  of  talcose,  micaceous 
and  plumbaginous  slate,  slate  and  trap  rocks,  gneiss,  mica 
schist  and  granite.  [Jackson'  Geological  Report.]  The 
only  minerals  occurring  here,  that  we  are  aware  of,  are 
quartz,  mica,  and  copper  and  iron  p3a"ites — which  are 
found  in  considerable  abundance  in  Brooksville.  A  very 
good  quality  of  clay  is  found  here  in  abundance,  and 
along  the  shores  are  to  be  found  many  extensive  deposits 
of  clam  shells — no  oyster  shells  have,  however,  been 
observed  amongst  them.  These,  and  other  shells,  are  fre- 
quently found  collected  into  petrifactions,  and  the  im- 
pressions left  by  them  in  the  mud,  in  past  ages,  are  often 
now  seen  in  the  rocks. 

Flora. 

The  Flora  of  this  region  is,  in  general,  similar  to  that  of 
the  rest  of  the  eastern  coast  of  Maine.  The  description 
in  this  place  is  confined  solely  to  the  trees  found  here.  A 
list  of  the  other  plants  found  here  is  given  in  the  Appendix. 

The  woods  upon  the   i)eninsula  of  Castine,  have  been 

pretty  thoroughly  decimated  by  the  axe.     In  Brooksville 

and  Penobscot,  there  is  still  a  large  quantity  left.     Among 

the  Forest  Trees  commonly  found  may  be  mentioned  the 

Beech,   Birch,  Alder,  Cedar,  Juniper,  (or  Hackmatack,) 

Oak,   Hemlock,   Spruce  and    Willow.     Those  which   are 

much  less  commonly  to  be  met  with  are  the  Ash,  Cherry, 

Elm,  Horse  Chesnut,  Maple,  Fir  and  Pine.     Those  which 

*    Monsieur  Taloii  compared  it— in  1G70— to  Port  Royal,  and  the  region 
about  the  river  St.  John. 


68  HISTOEY  OF  CASTINE, 

may  he  considered  a?  rare.,  are  the  Hornheam,  Wild  Plum, 
and  Poplar.  The  above  constitute  the  principal  trees 
known,  with  certainty,  to  he  found  at  the  present  time,  or 
which  are  thought  to  have  grown  here  in  olden  times. 

Fauna. 

A  description  of  the  Fauna  of  this  region  must  necessa- 
rily, in  a  book  of  this  kind,  be  of  a  very  general  nature, 
and  expressed  in  general  terms.  Amongst  mammalia, 
the  only  animal  of  a  ferocious  nature  ever  met  with,  in 
this  vicinity  is  the  Wildcat.  This  animal  was  so  abundant 
in  former  times,  that  bounties  were  offered  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  it.  Although  much  less  common  at  present,  it  is 
still  to  be  found,  in  the  Avinter  season,  in  our  woods. 
Bears  were  probably  met  with  here,  in  early  times,  but  no 
reference  to  them  has  been  found,  and  none  have  been 
seen  of  late  years.  Of  the  Deer  family,  the  only  kind  now 
met  with  is  the  common  Red  Deer,  though  the  Moose  is 
known  to  have  been  formerly  a  denizen  of  our  woods.  The 
only  one  of  the  Dog  family  known  in  this  region,  at  the 
present  day,  is  the  red,  and  possibly  the  silver  gray  Fox. 
The  other  animals  valuable  for  their  fur.,  that  are  (or 
were)  found  here,  are  the  Beaver,  Ermine*,  Marten,  Mink, 
Weasel,  Rabbit,  Squirrel,  Skunk  and  Woodchuck.  Of 
still  smaller  animals,  the  Hedgehog,  Rat,  domestic  and 
field  Mouse,  and  Moles,  are  all  that  are  known  to  exist  in 
this  region. 

The  list  of  Birds  is  much  larger.  Of  the  small  land 
birds  the  Black-bird,  the  Blue-bird,  Blue  Jay,  Bobolink, 
Crow,  Cherry-bird,  Humming-bird,  King-bird,  Martin, 
Night-hawk,  Oriole,  Owl,  Robin,  Sparrow,  hank.,  ham,  and 
chimney  Swallows,  Woodpecker  and  Yellow-bird,  please 
the  eye  by  their  variegated  plumage,  or  gratify  the  ear  with 
their  melody.  Amongst  aquatic  l)irds,  the  Black  Duck, 
Brant,  Brown  Coot,  Curlew,  Dipper,  Wild  Goose,  Heron, 
King-fisher,  Petrel,  Plover,  Sandpiper,  Sheldrake,  and  the 
various  species  of  Loons  and  Gulls  are  frequently  to  be 
seen.  Of  birds  of  prey  the  Brown  Hawk,  Hen-Hawk, 
Fish-Hawk,  and  Brown  and  Bald  Eagles  are  common. 
The  only  game  birds — besides  the  aquatic —  ever  met  with 
here  are  the  Partridge  (or  quails)  the  wild  Pigeon,  and 
occasionally,  the  Woodcock. 

*The  author  saw  one  in  the  winter  of  ISTl. 


BF.OOKS^^:LLE    AND   PENOBSCOT.  59 

In  the  class  of  Fishes,  the  Cod,  Gunner,  Cusk,  Haddock, 
Hake,  Tom  Cod,  Common  Eel,  Conger  Eel,  Lamprey  Eel, 
Flounder,  Pollock,  Lumpfish,  Skate,  Sculpin,  Squid, 
Alewife,  Smelt,  Mackerel,  and  Salmon  are  abundant. 
Amongst  Aquatic  Mammals  (classed  here  with  fishes,  for 
convenience  simply).  Seals  are  often  found  in  the  harbor, 
but  are  very  shy,  and  Whales  and  Porpoises  are  once  in  a 
great  while  seen.  The  Horse  Mackerel  and  the  Shark  are 
occasionally,  though  yery  rarely,  found  in  our  waters. 
The  only  fresh  water  fish  found  about  here  is  the  Brook 
Trout. 

In  the  class  of  Reptiles,  the  only  kinds  found  here  are 
the  Speckled  Frog,  the  Bull  Frog,  the  Lizard,  Toad,  and 
black,  green  and  striped  Snakes. 

In  the  class  of  Crustaceans  and  Mollusks,  Muscles, 
Clams,  Lobsters,  Crabs  and  Snails  are  to  be  found  in 
abundance.  Razor  Shell  Fish  are  becoming  rare  here, 
but  are  occasionally  found.  Scallops  are  quite  abundant, 
and  the  particular  variety  found  here  is  thought  to  be 
rare  elsewhere. 

In  the  class  of  Radiates,  Sea-cucumbers,  Sea  Urchins, 
Dollar-fishes,  and  Star-fishes,  the  Sea-Anemone  and  Jelly- 
fishes  abound. 

The  classes  of  Insects  and  of  small  Marine  Animals  are 
altogether  too  large  to  admit  even  of  enumeration  in  this 
connection. 

Climate. 

The  climate  of  this  region  is  very  much  milder  than 
might  be  supposed  from  its  latitude,  and  from  the  general 
severity  of  the  seasons  in  New  England.  Its  place,  in  the 
winter  season,  on  an  isothermal  chart,  would  be,  at  least, 
on  a  level  with  Boston,  if  not  still  further  south.  In  the 
summer,  the  heat  of  the  land  is  so  tempered  by  the 
breezes  from  the  sea,  that  its  temperature  corresponds  to 
that  of  places  very  much  farther  north.  Extremely 
severe  weather  is,  of  course,  occasionally  experienced  here  ; 
but,  on  the  whole,  it  will  compare  favorably,  as  regards 
temperature,  with  any  other  locality  in  the  State.  A  con- 
tinuous journal  of  the  weather  was  kept  in  Castine,  by 
Honorable  Job  Nelson,  from  January  1st,  1810,  to  Janu- 
ary 1st,  1850 — a  period  of  forty  years.  From  this  journal 
we  are  enabled  to  give,  not  only  a  valuable  resume  of  tlie 


1850. 

January, 

February, 

March, 

21° .41 

22.54 
30.38 

April, 

May, 

June, 

41.43 

50.27 
59.42 

60  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

average  temperature  of  each  month  during  that  time,  but 
also  many  other  extracts  not  devoid  of  interest.  The  fol- 
lowing is  Judge  Nelson's  summary  : — 

Average  Monthly  Temperature  from  January,  1810  to 

'  July,  64°. 82 

August,  64.66 

September,       58.39 
October,  48.41 

November,       38.07 
December,       25.56 

The  yearly  average  for  the  forty  years,  is  43°. 78. 
The  highest  temperature  recorded,  was  on  August  1st, 
1814,  when  the  mercury  stood  at  93°.  The  lowest 
recorded  temperature  was  on  January  30th,  1813,  when 
the  mercury  stood  at  . — 13°.  The  average  highest 
temperature  of  any  month  was  in  July,  1825.  The  aver- 
age for  this  month  was  68°. 66.  The  average  lowest 
temperature  of  any  month  was  in  January,  1844.  The 
average  for  this  month  was  12°. 17  The  greatest  vari- 
ation in  the  temperature  was  on  January  20th,  1810, 
when  in  eight  hours  the  mercury  fell  forty-four  degrees. 
This  was  the  celebrated  "  cold  Friday."  The  earliest 
recorded  occurrence  of  frost*  was  on  September  26th, 
1816.  The  earliest  fall  of  snow  occurred  on  Septem- 
ber 30th,  1823.  The  severest  snowstorms  occurred  on 
the  following  dates :— In  1829,  on  March  6th.  "  More 
snow  on  the  ground  than  ever  known  before,"  is  the  lan- 
guage of  the  journal.  In  1831,  on  March  30th.  In  1834, 
May  15th.  In  1835,  March  21st.  In  1840,  December 
22d,  and  23d.  In  1841,  March  7th,  and  13th,  and  April 
'I3th.  In  1842,  March  26th,  and  November  24th.  In 
1843,  March  28th,  and  November  10th.  In  1844,  March 
4th,  and  30th.     In  1845,  March  15th,  and  April  13th. 

The  earliest  date  at  which  potatoes  have  been  planted, 
was  on  April  28th,  in  1814.  The  earliest  arrival  of  birds, 
frogs  and  migratory  fishes  were  as  follows : — 

Of  Frogs,  as  early  as  April  14th,  in  1824. 

"    Blackbirds,  "     "       "     29th,  in  1820. 

"    Martins,        "     "       "       9th,  in  1827. 

"    Robins,  "     "  March  16th,  in  1825. 

"    Salmon,         "     "  April  25th,  in  1820. 

"   Smelts,  "     "  March  26th,  in  1828. 

*By  this,  Judge  Nelson  undoubtedly  means  of  a  "  black  "  or  blighting  frost. 


BROOKSVELLE   AND   PEN^OBSCOT.  61 

Since  the  incorporation  of  Castine,  Penobscot  bay  has 
been  frozen  over,  so  as  to  permit  a  passage  to  Belfast  upon 
the  ice,  some  four  or  five  times  only.  The  first  three 
times  in  which  this  event  occurred  were  the  three  con- 
secutive years  of  1815,  '16  and  '17. 

Two  shocks  of  earthquake  have  been  felt  here  since  the 
year  1787.  The  first  was  on  May  22d,  1817,  and  the 
other  on  Aug.  27th,  1829.  November  7th,  1819,  was  a 
very  dark  day.  At  this  time,  fowls  went  to  roost  at  mid- 
day, and  superstitious  people  thought  the  "day  of  doom" 
had  come*.  The  night  of  November  17th,  1835,  is 
recorded  as  being  very  uncommonly  light ;  from  what 
cause  is  not  stated. 

The  record  of  the  winds,  in  Judge  Nelson's  journal,  is 
very  incomplete.  Reckoning  from  the  data  given,  however, 
it  may  be  said,  of  this  period  of  time,  that  the  rain  storms 
nearly  all  came  from  the  southeast,  the  snow  storms  irora 
the  northeast,  and  that  nearly  all  the  gales,  unaccompanied 
by  rain  or  snow,  came  from  the  northwest.  When  the 
wind  blew  from  the  southwest,  it  was  almost  invariably 
fair  weather. 

This  journal  gives  no  account  of  fogs.  Their  not  infre- 
quent occurrence,  probably,  in  Judge  Nelson's  opinion, 
rendering  any  statement  in  regard  to  them  unnecessary. 
Although  fogs  are  of  common  occurrence  here  in  the  sum- 
mer season,  when  southerly  winds  are  prevailing,  yet  it  is 
believed  to  be  the  fact,  that  they  are  of  less  frequent 
occurrence,  less  dense,  and  more  apt  to  be  dispelled  by  the 
rays  of  the  sun,  than  is  the  case  at  the  neighboring  sea- 
ports to  the  east  of  us. 

Doctor  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  of  Castine,  has  also  kept  a 
record  of  the  weather  from  1821  to  1871 — a  period  of  fifty 
years.  As  this  record  has  not  been  kept  in  a  tabular  form, 
it  is  not  possible  to  give  more  than  the  relative  character  of 
each  year,  together  with  a  few  miscellaneous  facts  of  inter- 
est. The  following  is  a  summary,  by  years,  given  in  Doctor 
Stevens'  journal : — 

1882. — Was  a  wet  and  and  cold  year. 

1883. — Ditto.  A  remarkable  shower  of  meteors  was 
witnessed  by  liim  on  the  niglit  of  Nov.  13. 

1834. — Was  warm  and  fruitful. 

1835.— Ditto. 

♦This  WHS  not,  howcver.thc  "dark  day"  (•plcl)rated  in  the  annals  of  New 
England.    The  latter  oceiirred   May  19tli,  1T8U. 


62  HISTORY  or   CASTTNE, 

1836. — Very  dry,  and  very  cool.     Short  hay  crop, 

1837. — Cool.     No  corn,  but  wheat  abundant. 

1838. — Summer  warm,  and  year  fruitful. 

1839. — Summer  extremely  wet. 

1840. — Summer  warm  and  fruitful.  A  very  healthy 
season. 

1841. — Summer  very  dry.     Very  few  storms  this  year. 

1842. — No  epidemic,  except  that  of  Scarlatina,  from 
which  there  were  six  deaths. 

1843. — Year  fruitful.     Grass  abundant.     No  epidemics. 

1844. — Apples  and  fruit  in  abundance.  The  potato  rot 
makes  its  first  appearance  here. 

1845. — Excessive  fall  of  rain.  Complete  failure  of  the 
potato  crop.  Healthy  here,  but  sickly  in  the  neighboring 
towns. 

1846. — Summer  very  warm.  Epidemic  of  Scarlatina. 
More  deaths  here,  from  all  causes,  than  ever  before  known. 

1848. — Very  rainy  year.  Summer  cool.  No  epidemic, 
but  more  deaths  than  last  year. 

1849.— Warm  and  dry.     Healthy. 

1850. — Spring  very  wet.  Summer  temperate.  Autumn 
pleasant.     No  epidemics. 

1851. — Winter  very  cold.     A  very  healthy  year. 

1852. — Summer  cool.  Apples  abundant.  !No  epidemic 
except  Influenza. 

1853. — A  very  mild,  but  a  very  windy  year.  Many  dis- 
asters at  sea.     No  epidemics. 

1854. — Summer  very  dry.  A  great  many  snow  storms 
in  winter.     "  Healthiest  year  I  ever  knew." 

1856. — No  epidemics,  except  sore  throats. 

1857. — Year  unusually  cold  and  wet.     Very  healthy. 

1858. — Year  cool  and  wet.     No  epidemics. 

1869. — A  great  quantity  of  snow  in  December. 

1861. — No  epidemics,  and  unusually  few  deaths. 

1862. — Scarlatina  and  Typhoid  fever.  Apples  and  fruit 
abundant. 

1863. — Very  few  storms.  Short  hay  crop.  A  few  cases 
of  Diphtheria — otherwise,  healthy. 

1864. — A  very  dry  and  fair  summer.  Healthy  here,  but 
not  in  Brooksville. 

1867. — Cool  and  w^et.     Dull  and  healthy. 

1868. — Wet  and  foggy.     No  epidemics. 

1869. — Cold  summer.     No  epidemics. 


BROOKSYILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  63 

1871. — Year  very  mild.  Crops  and  business  good.  Many 
disasters  at  sea.     Healthy. 

The  earliest  date  at  which  wild  geese  have  been  noticed 
on  their  passage  north,  Avas  on  March  4th,  in  1871.  The 
earliest  date  of  blooming  of  trees,  and  certain  plants,  was 
as  follows : — 

Apple  trees  were  in  bloom.  May  25th,  in  1814. 

Cherry  trees  were  in  bloom.  May  15th,  in  1825. 

Lilac  trees         "  "  -         "     30th,  in  1826. 

Plum  trees        "  "  "     20th,  in  1825. 

Peonies  "  "  "     24th,  in  1826. 

White  Roses      "  "         July  4th,  in  1826. 

Strawberries      "  "         April  30th,  in  1833. 

Tulips,  "  "         May  24th,  in  1826. 

Violets,  "  "         April  9th,  1825. 

The  earliest  date  on  which  the  grass  in  his  garden  was 
mowed,  was  on  June  9th,  in  1831.  The  earliest  date  at 
which  blueberries  and  garden  vegetables  were  obtained  by 
him,  as  follows  : — 

Blueberries  were  ripe  on  July  20th,  in  1826. 

Cucumbers  were  fit  for  use,  July  16th,  in  1826. 

Green  Corn  was  fit  for  use,  June  9th,  in  1831. 

Green  Peas  were  fit  for  use,  July  13th,  in  1822.^ 

New  Potatoes  were  fit  for  use,  July  18th,  in  1826. 

All  attempts  to  foretell  the  character  of  the  summer  by 
that  of  any  of  the  previous  months,  are,  of  course,  futile. 
It  would  seem,  however,  from  this  record  of  Doctor  Stevens, 
that  there  has  been,  for  the  period  of  time  which  it  embraces, 
a  remarkably  close  correspondence  between  the  character 
of  the  month  of  March,  and  that  of  the  season  following. 
A  cold  March  has  been  almost  invariably  followed  by  a 
cold  summer,  and  a  warm  or  wet  March,  by  a  warm  or  wet 
summer.  Whether  this  is  merely  an  accidental  coincidence, 
or  is  due  to  some  climatic  law  not  yet  understood,  remains 
for  further  observations  to  determine. 
*Green  Peas  and  new  Potatoes  are  often  to  be  bad  here  as  early  as  July  4th. 


64  msTOEtr  of  castinb. 


CHAPTER  II. 
MUNICIPAL  HISTORY  OF  PENOBSCOT. 

Plantation  No.  3. —New  Ireland.  —  Early  Set- 
tlers.— First  Survey  of  Town. — Abstract  op 
Town  Recordb.— Castine  set  off.— Highways. — 
Schools. 

(Prior  to  .the  Incorporation  of  Castine.) 

1762.  The  town  of  Penobscot  was  Number  Three,  in 
the  first  class  of  townships  granted  by  the  Provincial 
General  Court,  in  1762.  In  accordance  with  the  terms  of 
these  grants,  the  proprietors  were  bound,  themselves, 
their  heirs  and  assigns,  in  a  bond  of  fifty  pounds,  to  lay 
out  no  township  more  than  six  miles  in  extent  on  the 
bank  of  the  Penobscot,  or  on  the  sea  coast ;  to  present  to 
the  General  Court,  by  the  thirty-first  of  the  ensuing  July, 
plans  of  the  survey ;  to  settle  each  township  with  sixty 
protestant  families  within  six  years ;  and  to  build  an  equal 
number  of  dwelling  houses,  at  least  eighteen  feet  square  ; 
to  fit  for  tillage  three  hundred  acres  of  land,  erect  a  meet- 
ing-house, and  settle  a  minister.  One  lot  in  each  town- 
ship was  to  be  reserved  for  the  parsonage,  one  for  the  first 
settled  minister,  one  for  Harvard  College,  and  another  for 
the  use  of  schools.  These  grants  were  not,  however,  pre- 
sented to  the  Legislature  for  confirmation,  until  the  year 
1785. 

1780.  About  the  year  1780  or  1781,  an  attempt  was 
made  by  the  British  Government  to  colonize  the  country 
between  the  Penobscot  and  St.  Croix,  under  the  name  of 
New  Ireland.  Thomas  Oliver,  a  former  Lieutenant  Gov- 
ernor of  Massachusetts,  a  resident  of  Cambridge,  and  a 
graduate  of  Harvard  College,  was  proposed  as  the  first 
Chief  Magistrate.  Daniel  Leonard,  a  prominent  loyalist, 
afterwards  a  judge  in  Bermuda,  was  to  be  the  Chief  Jus- 
tice. The  plan  was  abandoned,  in  consequence  of  the 
doubts  of  the  Attorney  General  of  England,  as  to  the 
right  to  the  soil.  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia,  there- 
fore "  became  the  asylum  of  thousands  of  the  former  cit- 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  6o 

izens  of  New  England,  who  otherwise  would  have  settled 
New  Ireland,  and  rendered  Castine  what  Shelbnrne  in 
Nova  Scotia  once  was,  and  what  St.  Johns  and  Halifax 
now  are."*  There  was  an  association  formed  to  promote 
this  settlement,  under  the  title  of  the  "  Associated 
Refugees."  [Letter  from  Lord  George  Germain,  to  Sir 
Henry  Clinton,  in  Appendix  3,  to  Spark's  Life  and  Writ- 
ings of  Washington,  Vol.  VIII,  p.  519.]  Whether  any 
actual  settlements,  under  the  auspices  of  this  association, 
ever  took  place,  is  not  known  ;  but  as  the  British  force 
did  not  leave  until  two  or  three  years  subsequently,  and 
as  there  were  certainly  some  settlers  here  in  1775,  it  is  not 
at  all  unlikely  that  such  was  the  case.  This  is  rendered 
still  more  probable  by  the  discovery  among  the  papers  of 
the  late  Mr.  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  oi"  the  following; — 

"NOTIFICATION: 

1784.  These  are  to  notify  and  require  all  persons  at 
and  near  Majorbagaduce,  in  the  unincorporated  towns, 
that  have  been  inimical  to  the  United  States  of  America, 
during  the  last  war  with  Great  Britain,  to  depart  out  of 
the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts  on  or  before  the 
thirteenth  day  of  September  next,  or  they  will  gain  the 
Displeasure  of  the  Subscribers  and  many  others  of  the 
Citizens  of  the  Commonwealth,  that  have  suffered  by  the 
War.  August  11th,  1784. 

N.  B.  All  those  that  are  well  disposed  to.  the  United 
States  are  desired  to  meet  at  the  Fort  on  Bagaduce,  on  the 
said  thirteenth  day  of  September,  to  Consult  what  meas- 
ures to  take,  in  case  the  above  Requisition  is  not  complied 
with." 

(Signed)         JOHN  MOOR. 
[All  the  other  names  missing.] 

1785.  In  the  year  1785,  the  legislature  passed  an  Act, 

allowing   to    the  several   settlers  convenient  lots   of  one 

hundred   acres    each,    so   surveyed    as   to    include    their 

improvements,  and  divided  the  rest — after  reserving  twelve 

hundred  acres  in  each  town  for  i)ublic  uses — amongst  the 

original  grantees  and  their  representatives.     [Resolve  of 

General  Court,  in  regard  to  riantation  No.   3,  Nov.  17th, 

1786.]     This  year,  eight  or  ten  families  came  hither  from 

Fort  Pownal,  and  some  of  those  who  had  left  during  the 

*    From  an  account  of  New  Ti-olainl,  in  a  paper  read  by  the  lion.  Joseph 
Williamson,  before  the  Maine  Historical  Society. 


66  SISTOR'^   OF  CA.STINl^l, 

period  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  returned.  [  Williamson^ 
llist.  of  Me.,  Vol.  II,  p.  534.]  Messrs.  Philip,  Leonard, 
and  Charles  Jarvis,  had  a  consideiable  interest  in  the 
lands  embraced  by  this  Plantation,  and  were  prominent 
agents  for  the  settlers,  in  obtaining  a  confirmation  of  their 
title.  About  this  time,  the  earliest  survey  of  the  town 
was  made  by  John  Peters,  Esq.,  subsequently  of  Bluehill.*- 

1787.  By  Act  of  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts, 
the  town  of  Penobscot  was  incorporated  on  February  23d, 
1787.  The  first  meeting  of  the  town  was  held  at  the 
house  of  Colonel  Johannot,  on  Wednesday,  April  18th. 
At  this  meeting,  Mr.  Joseph  Hibbert  was  chosen  Modera- 
tor ;  John  Lee,  Clerk  ;  and  Captain  Joseph  Perkins,  Jere- 
miah Wardwell,  Oliver  Parker,  Joseph  Hibbert,  and  Cap- 
tain Joseph  Young,  were  chosen  Selectmen  ;  and  Mr. 
John  Perkins,  Town  Treasurer.  At  a  meeting  of  the 
town,  held  the  May  following,  Messrs.  John  Lee,  Oliver 
Parker,  Joseph  Young,  Jeremiah  AVardwell,  and  Joseph 
Perkins,  were  chosen  a  Committee,  to  make  an  adjustment 
with  the  former  proprietors  of  Plantation  No.  3.  The 
following  were  the  instructions  given  to  the  Committee  : — 

"  The  Report  of  the  Great  and  Grand  Court  of  the 
Commonwealth,  of  November  17th,  1786,  confirming  the 
lands  to  the  Proprietors  and  Settlers  of  this  township, 
being  of  the  utmost  importance,  the  Proprietors  by  it  are 
enjoined  to  allot  and  meet  out  one  hundred  acres  of  land 
to  each  Settler  who  settled  and  made  improvements  before 
the  first  of  January,  1784.  We  are  fully  confident  that 
the  design  of  Government,  in  passing  the  aforesaid  Resolve, 
was  to  do  us  justice  ;  yet  we  fear  that  it  will  be  attended 
with  much  difficulty  to  meet  out  the  lands  to  such  settlers, 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  secure  to  them  the  full  benefit 
intended  them  by  the  said  Resolve.  Therefore  we  request 
you,  our  Committee,  chosen  to  make  an  adjustment  with 
the  said  proprietors,  to  attend  fully  to  the  following 
instructions.  You  will,  as  soon  as  possible,  make  out  a 
statement  of  the  claims  of  all  the  settlers  who  are  entitled 
to  land  upon  the  principle  of  said  Resolve,  in  the  most 
explicit  manner  possible,  in  doing  which  you  will  pay 
particular  attention  to  the  true  intent  and  meaning  of  the 
said  Resolve,  a  copy  of  this  State  of  Claims  to  lay  in  some 
one  place,  to  be  open  to  the  inspection  of  any  person  who 

*    The  original  field  notes  and  map  of  this  survey  are  in  possession  of  the 
Hon.  C.  J.  Abbot,  of  this  town. 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  67 

is  a  settler  in  this  town,  who  wishes  to  examine  the  same. 
By  this  statement  of  the  Chiims  of  each  settler  (when 
completed)  upon  the  principle  of  said  Resolve,  contain- 
ing each  person's  claim,  with  the  names  of  the  settler 
under  whom  he  holds — with  the  bounds  and  the  date  of 
settlement,  you  will  know  what  quantity  of  land  will  of 
right  belong  to  the  settlers, — therefore  from  this  statement 
you  will  be  able  to  determine  what  will  do  each  settler 
justice.  When  the  Proprietors'  Committee  attend  to  meet 
out  the  land  to  the  settlers  as  required  by  said  Resolve, 
you  will  represent  to  them  how  desirous  the  Inhabitants 
of  the  town  are  to  have  an  amicable  adjustment  of  every 
matter,  respecting  the  Lands,  with  them — to  effect  which 
they  are  determined  not  to  be  wanting  on  their  part,  and 
as  we  wish  for  nothing  but  what  the  said  Resolve  has  con- 
firmed to  us,  and  as  the  Proprietors  cannot  reasonably 
wish  for  any  advantage  that  the  said  Resolve  has  not 
given  them,  it  is  hoped  and  expected  that  they  will  cor- 
dially agree  to  make  an  adjustment  upon  such  terms  as 
will  be-. for  the  mutual  interest  and  advantage  of  both 
Proprietors  and  Settlers." 

1788.  At  the  Annual  meeting  of  the  town  in  1788, 
the  former  board  of  Selectmen  were  re-elected,  and  in 
December  following^  George  Thatcher  Esq.,  was  elected 
as  the  first  representative  to  the  General  Court.  The 
Committee  appointed  to  confer  wiih  the  former  Proprie- 
tors of  the  township,  reported  as  follows  : — 

"  On  the  arrival  of  Leonard.  Jarvis,  Esq.,  agent  of,  and 
one  of  the  principal  proprietors  of,  this  town,  we  had  a 
conference  with  him  upon  the  subject  of  an  adjustment. 
Mr.  Jarvis  observed  that  he  came  to  mete  out  the  land  to 
the  settlers  agreeable  to  the  resolve  of  the  General  Court. 
We  assured  him  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  were  glad  to 
sec  him,  and  that  they  were  exceedingly  desirous  to  have 
an  amicable  settlement  with  the  proprietors,  and  that  they 
wished  for  nothing  more  than  was  conlirmed  to  them  by 
the  Grand  Court.  We,  in  obedience  to  our  instructions, 
stated  the  manner  in  which  we  supposed  each  settler 
would  have  justice  done  him.  That  such  settlers  as  were 
so  situated  as  to  render  it  very  inconsistent,  if  not  impos- 
sible, to  have  the  hundred  acres  which  the  proprietors 
were  enjoined  to  grant,  allot  and  mete  out  to  them,  in  one 
lot,  should  have  such  deliciency  made  up  to  them  else- 
where, to  this  proportion,  founded  strictly,  as  we  conceived, 


68  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

upon  the  resolve  of  Court.  Mr.  Jarvis  replied  that  he 
would,  by  no  means,  agree  to  what,  he  pretended,  was 
never  meant  by  the  Court,  though  the  letter  of  the  resolve 
of  Court  is  fully  in  our  favor.  In  reasoning  upon  this 
subject,  we  found  that  he  put  sucli  illiberal  constructions 
upon  the  resolve  of  Court,  that  it  was  impossible  for  us  to 
make  any  adjustment  with  him  upon  the  principle  of  jus- 
tice, or  consistent  with  our  duty.  Nay,  Mr.  Jarvis  plainly 
intimated  tliat  he  should  not  pay  any  regard  to  the  Town, 
as  a  Town,  or  to  their  Committee,  but  that  he  would  pro- 
ceed to  mete  out  the  land  to  the  settlers  in  such  a  manner 
as  he  should  think  was  agreeable  to  the  meaning  of  the 
Court.  How  far  he  has  attended  to  the  resolve  of  Court, 
while  upon  this  business,  it  is  not  for  us  to  determine. 
Though  we  think  it  our  duty  upon  this  occasion  to  observe 
that,  notwithstanding  the  great  esteem  we  have  for  Mr. 
Jarvis,  which  occasions  us  great  pain,  when  we  declare 
our  surprise  that  he  should  infringe  upon  the  privileges  of 
this  town,  by  ordering  a  road  to  be  run  out,  when  by  law 
the  Selectmen,  for  the  time  being,  or  such  other  as  they 
should  appoint,  have  the  sole  power  to  lay  out  or  alter 
roads  within  the  limits  described  in  our  Incorporation  Act. 

Finding  that  an  adjustment  could  not  be  made  with  the 
j^roprietors,  we  conceived  it  our  duty  to  furnish  Mr.  Jarvis 
Avith  a  memorandum  of  each  settlers'  claim,  without  date 
or  signature,  a  copy  of  which  is  now  laid  before  the  Town." 

1789.  Three  town-meetings  were  held  during  the  year 
1789.  At  the  first,  held  March  25th,  Captain  Joseph 
Perkins,  Peletiah  Leach,  Joseph  Hibbert,  Captain  Oliver 
Parker  and  Mr.  John  Wasson,  were  chosen  Selectmen. 
The  town  voted  that  "the  sum  of  X300  be  raised  for  the 
building  a  Meeting-House  for  the  public  worship  of  God." 
A  vote  was  also  passed  that  in  future  the  town-meetings  be 
held  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Joseph  Binney.  At  a  meeting 
held  on  April  21st,  the  town  voted  to  build  a  meeting-house 
sixty-five  feet  in  length  by  fifty  feet  in  breadth.  Captain 
Daniel  Wardwell,  Giles  Johnson,  Oliver  Parker,  John 
Willson  and  John  Wasson,  were  chosen  a  committee  to 
superintend  the  erection  of  the  building,  and  to  act  as  a 
Board  of  Trustees.  At  this  meeting  Mr.  Gabriel  Johannot 
was  elected  as  Representative  to  the  General  Court.  At 
a  meeting  held  on  the  first  day  of  September  following,  the 
town  voted  not  to  make  any  additional  appropriation  for 
the  meeting-house,  but  to  have  the  pews  classified  and  sold 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  69 

at  public  auction,  and  to  use  tlie  money   thus  obtained,  in 
completing  the  building*. 

1790.  Fifty  persons  were  warned  from  the  town  in  the 
year  1790.*  This  year  Messrs.  Oliver  Parker,  Joseph 
Hibbert,  Captain  Daniel  Wardwell,  Captain  Seth  Blodgett, 
and  Doctor  Oliver  Mann,  were  chosen  Selectmen. 

1791.  In  the  year  1791,  the  town  made  its  first  appro- 
priation for  a  public  school.  This  year,  Messrs.  John  Per- 
kins, Elijah  Littlefield,  David  Hawes,  David  Willson  and 
Pelatiah  Leach,  were  chosen  Selectmen.  Isaac  Parker,  Esq., 
was  elected  Representative  to  the  General  Court.f  At  a 
meeting  held  September  12th,  a  committee  of  eleven  citi- 
zens was  appointed  to  wait  upon  Mr.  Leonard  Jarvis, 
Agent  for  the  former  proprietors  of  Plantation  No.  3,  and 
determine  upon  terms  of  settlement  with  them. 

1792.  At  the  annual  meeting,  in  March,  1792,  Captain 
Oliver  Parker,  Doctor  Oliver  xMann,  and  Messrs.  John 
Wasson,  John  Willson  and  Sparks  Perkins,  were  chosen 
Selectmen.  The  town  at  this  meeting  voted  "against  a 
separation  of  Government."  Whether  this  meant  against 
a  separation  of  the  District  of  Maine  from  the  Common- 
wealth of  Massachusetts,  or  against  a  division  of  the  town, 
can  only  be  inferred.  It  was  probably  the  former,  as  no 
petition  foj"  any  separation  accompanied  the  warrant  for  the 
meeting.  At  a  meeting  held  in  November,  the  town  passed 
a  vote  against  a  removal  of  the  Courts  to  any  other  place 
in  the  county,  or  to  any  different  location  in  this  town.  It 
was  also  voted  that,  in  the  future,  the  town-meetings  should 
be  held  in  the  meeting-house  on  the  peninsula. 

1793.  At  the  annual  meeting  held  in  1793,  Messrs. 
Jeremiah  Wardwell,  Pelatiah  Leach,  John  Wasson,  Doctor 
Oliver  Mann  and  John  Willson,  were  elected  Selectmen. 
At  this  meeting,  the  town  voted  to  raise  no  money  for  the 
support  of  preaching,  or  for  schooU.  This  vote  was  after- 
wards reconsidered,  and  thirty  pounds  was  appropriated  for 
preaching.  At  a  subse(iuent  meeting,  held  May  8th,  the 
sum  of  fifty  pounds  v/as  appropriated  for  the  support  of 
schools.  At  this  latter  meeting,  Isaac  Parker,  Esq.,  was 
chosen  Representative  to  the  General  Court.  At  a  meeting 
held  June  20th,  the  town  voted  an  appropriation  of  three 
pounds  for  the  erection  of  some  stocks, — to  be  placed  near 
the  Court  House,  on  the  peninsula. 

♦Ill  rosard  to  tliis  matter  of  "warnings"  from  town,  see  chapter  3d. 

fWilliamsoji  [Hist,  of  Mo.,  Vol.  '2,  \).  .VU],  erroneously  says  tliat  Mr.  Par- 
ker was  thr  jir.-it  lieitresentativc  of  I'fnobscot  to  tho  (ieueral  Court. 

10 


70  HISTOEY  OF   CASTINE, 

1794.  At  the  annual  meeting  in  1794,  the  last  hoard  of 
Selectmen  were  re-elected.  The  town,  at  this  meeting, 
voted  an  appropriation  of  twenty  pounds,  to  purchase  a 
supply  of  ammunition. 

1795.  At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  town,  in  1795, 
Captain  Thatcher  Avery,  Mr.  Joseph  Binney,  and  Mr. 
Thomas  Wasson,  were  elected  as  Selectmen. 

Mr.  Mark  Hatch,  and  others  in  the  second  or  lower  par- 
ish, having  petitioned  the  General  Court,  to  he  set  off  as  a 
separate  town,  a  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  first 
parish  was  called,  in  reference  thereto,  on  December  the 
21st.     The  following  votes  were  passed  : — 

1.  That  the  first  parish  will  show  cause  to  the  General 
Court  why  the  second  parish  ought  not  to  be  separated  and 
become  a  distinct  town. 

2.  That  Captain  Jeremiah  WardAvell,  Mr.  Pelatiah 
Leach,  Captain  Thatcher  Avery,  Isaac  Parker,  Esq.,  Cap- 
tain Joseph  Perkins  and  Captain  John  Perkins,  be  a  com- 
mittee to  agree  upon  lines,  and  terms  of  separation.  This 
committee  reported,  at  a  meeting  held  December  81st,  "that 
in  consideration  of  the  length  of  highways  in  an  unrepaired 
state  which  would  be  in  the  upper  part  of  the  town,  the 
committee  for  the  petitioners  had  offered  to  pay  two 
hundred  dollars  in  two  annual  payments.  The  committee 
on  the  other  side,  then  proposed  four  hundred  dollars, — 
when,  for  the  sake  of  harmony  and  accommodation,  it  was 
offered  to  divide  and  give  three  hundred, — which  the  com- 
mittee would  agree  to  give  with  the  consent  of  the  town." 
The  town,  however,  refused  to  accept  the  terms  offered, 
anji  sent  Mr.  Pelatiah  Freeman  to  the  General  Court  to 
oppose  a  separation.  No  further  allusion  to  the  separation 
appears  in  the  town  or  parish  records. 

The  municipal  history  of  Penobscot,  thus  far,  is  equally 
as  much  that  of  the  towns  of  Castine  and  Brooksville. 
Matters  relating  to  the  establishment  of  religious  preaching 
and  schools,  will  be  found  incorporated  with  the  chapters 
upon  the  ecclesiastical  and  educational  history  of  Castine. 

(Subsequent  to  the  Incorporation  of  Castine.) 

1796.  At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  town,  held  April 
4,  1796,  Captain  Thatcher  Avery,  Mr.  Joseph  Binney,  and 
Mr.  Thomas  Wasson,  were  elected  Selectmen.  At  this 
meeting,  Captain  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  Pelatiah  Freeman, 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  71 

John  Wasson,  Captain  Thatcher  Avery  and  Pelatiah  Leach, 
were  chosen  a  committee  to  confer  with  a  similar  committee, 
on  the  part  of  the  town  of  Castine,  in  regard  to  the  settle- 
ment of  the  accounts  between  the  two  towns.  Their  report 
was  that  of  the  joint  committee,  and  will  be  found  in  the 
next  chapter.  At  a  meeting  held  May  13th,  Messrs. 
Joseph  Binney,  Daniel  Wardwell,  Jr.,  John  Snowman, 
Jotham  Stover,  Samuel  Wasson,  Samuel  Russell,  Ralph 
Devereux,  and  Captain  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  were  chosen 
a  committee  to  divide  the  town  into  eight  school  districts, 
and  to  apportion  the  scholars  and  money  to  each  district. 

As  the  municipal  history  of  Penobscot,  subsequently  to 
this  time,  contains  almost  nothing  of  general  interest,  and 
so  very  little  even  of  what  might  be  deemed  of  local  inter- 
est, a  further  adherence  to  the  records  of  the  town-meetings 
seems  unnecessary.  In  fact,  from  this  date  down  to  the 
time  of  the  late  civil  war,  the  chief  business  of  the  town 
at  its  annual  meetings,  seems  to  have  been  that  of  laying 
out,  accepting,  or  altering,  new  roads,  and  of  increasing  or 
changing  the  number  of  school  districts. 

The  length  and  number  of  the  roads  in  Penobscot,  is 
probably  greater  than  that  of  any  other  town  in  the  county — 
of  no  larger  territorial  extent— and  the  expense  attending 
them  has  been  great.  A  full  account  of  the  road-making 
and  of  the  appropriations  for  this  purpose,  though  it  might 
possess  some  value,  would  not  be  very  interesting,  and  does 
not  come  within  the  scope  of  this  work.  It  will  be  suffi- 
cient to  say,  in  general  terms,  that  from  the  date  of  incor- 
poration to  the  present  time,  the  appropriations  for  high- 
ways have  been  about  double  those  for  schools.  The  appro- 
priations for  schools,  from  the  date  of  incorporation  to  the 
year  1850,  inclusive,  amounted  to  the  sum  of  twenty-one 
thousand  six  hundred  and  sixteen  dollars.  This  is  an  aver- 
age of  three  hundred  and  sixty-six  dollars  per  annum. 

Our  inability  to  ol)tain  possession  of  any  of  the  district 
records,  as  well  as  the  limited  time  we  were  able  to  bestow 
upon  the  perusal  of  the  town  records,  prevents  our  giving 
as  full  an  account  of  the  school  history  of  this  town  as 
we  could  desire.  We  can,  therefore,  mention  only  such 
facts  in  regard  to  this,  and  other  matters,  as  have  come  to 
our  knowledge. 

1808.  In  1808,  the  town  voted  by  a  very  large  majority, 
against  a  separation  of  the  District  of  Maine  from  the 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 


72  HISTOEY   OF  CASTINE, 

1812.  In  the  year  1812,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and 
ninety  dollars  was  added  to  the  town's  appropriation  for 
schools.  This  amount  accrued  from  the  sale  of  lumber 
from  the  school- lot. 

1825.  In  the  year  1825,  the  town  paid  Mr.  William 
Hutchins  five  dollars  for  the  draft  of  a  plan  for  a  new 
school-house. 

1826.  In  1826,  a  portion  of  the  school  lot  was  sold  for 
the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  forty-five  dollars  and  eighty- 
seven  cents ;  and  the  minister's  lot  was  sold  for  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty-seven  dollars  and  fifty -five  cents. 

1836.  In  the  year  1836,  the  school  fund  amounted  to 
eight  hundred  and  thirty-five  dollars  and  ten  cents.  This 
year  the  town  voted  to  accept  a  town-house,  forty  feet 
long  by  thirty  wide,  built  by  Mr.  William  Grindle,  at  a  cost 
of  four  hundred  and  sixty-six  dollars. 

1839—1845.  In  the  year  1838,  the  school  fund  had 
increased  to  eight  hundred  and  forty- eight  dollars  and  two 
cents.  In  the  year  1840,  the  town  voted  to  allow  the  dis- 
tricts to  choose  their  own  school  agents.  In  1845,  the 
school  fund  had  lessened  somewhat,  and  now  amounted 
to  seven  hundred  and  twenty-four  dollars  and  seventy- 
nine  cents. 

The  military  history  of  tlie  town,  will  be  found  fully 
treated  of  in  connection  with  the  same  period  in  the  history 
of  Castine. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  73 


CHAPTER  III. 

THE  MUNICIPAL  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE. 

Incobporatiox  of  Town. — Warnings  from  Town. — ■ 
Report  of  Committee  of  Conference, — Settle- 
ment OF  First  Pastor. — Cemetery  Purchased. — 
Effect  of  the  Embargo. — Resolutions  in  regard 
TO  IT. — Petition  to  the  President  of  the  United 
States. — ^Committee  of  Public  Safety. — Feeling 
in  regard  to  the  War  of  1812. — Title  to  Com- 
mon.— 'Hearse  Purchased. — Town  makes  a  Stand 
against  Intemperance. — Board  of  Health  Chos- 
en.— Poor  Farm. — Fire  Engine  Purchased. — Tomb 
Presented  to  the  Town. — Town  Library  Estab- 
lished.— Copy  of  Stuart's  Portrait  of  Wash- 
ington Presented  to  the  Town. — ■Lock-up  Voted. — 
By-laws  Adopted. — Bounties  Voted  to  Soldiers. 

1796.  By  an  act  passed  by  the  Commonwealth  of 
Massachusetts,  the  town  of  Penobscot  was,  npon  the 
tenth  day  of  February,  1796,  divided  into  two  separate 
towns.  One  portion  retained  the  name  of  Penobscot. 
The  southerly  portion  of  the  old  town  was  incorporated 
by  the  name  of  Castine,  in  memory  of  the  noted  man 
whose  life  was  so  intimately  conixected  with  the  history  of 
Pentagoet. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  town  was  held  on  the  fourth 
day  of  April  following.  The  warrants  for  this  meeting 
were  posted  at  Captain  Joseph  Young's  house,  on  Cape 
Rozier ;  at  Mr.  Jacob  Orcutt's,  near  Buck's  Harbor ;  and 
at  the  door  of  Mr.  Daniel  Johnston's  store,  on  the  penin- 
sula. At  this  meeting,  Oliver  Parker  was  chosen  Modera- 
tor ;  Thomas  Phillips,  Town  Clerk ;  Captain  Joseph  Per- 
kins, Captain  Joseph  Young,  and  Mr.  David  Willson, 
were  chosen  Selectmen  and  Assessors  ;  and  John  Lee,  Esq., 
Town  Treasurer.  The  law,  at  that  time,  required  voters 
to  l)e  twenty-one  years  of  age,  to  have  lived  in  town  one 
year,  and  to  have  "a  freehold  estate  within  said  town  of 
the  annual  income  of  tlu'ce  Pounds,  or  any  estate  to  tho 


74  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE, 

value  of  sixty  Pounds."  The  law  also  authorized  towns 
to  expel  from  their  limits,  upon  fifteen  days  notice,  all 
persons,  that  might  be  deemed  necessary,  who  had  not 
been  sufficiently  long  in  town  to  acquire  a  residence. 
This  law,  which  to  us  seems  so  arbitrary  and  unjust,  wag 
doubtless  enacted  to  enable  towns  to  jjrotect  themselves 
against  shiftless  and  wortliless  persons,  who  might  other- 
wise become  a  public  charge,  it  has  happened  in  many 
towns,  however,  that  persons  thus  warned  have  subse- 
quently become  the  most  esteemed  citizens.  One  of  the 
first  acts  of  this  town  was,  in  accordance  Avith  this  law 
and  the  custom  of  the  time,  to  warn  from  town  one 
Miriam  Freethy,  and,  a  few  weeks  later,  five  other 
individuals.  These  are  the  only  cases  in  which  this  law 
was  ever  applied  here.  The  population  of  the  town,  at 
this  date,  was  178.  At  this  meeting,  Isaac  Parker,  Esq., 
John  Lee,  Esq.,  Captain  Mark  Hatch,  Mr.  David  Howe, 
and  Captain  John  Perkins,  were  chosen  a  committee  on 
the  part  of  the  town,  to  confer  with  a  similar  committee, 
appointed  by  the  town  of  Penobscot,  in  relation  to  the 
settlement  of  the  accounts  between  the  two  towns,  and 
were  given  full  power  to  adjust  the  same.  On  May  the 
tenth,  a  second  town-meeting  was  called,  and  the  town 
districted  for  schools.  On  September  the  twenty-fourth, 
at  a  legal  town-meeting,  it  was  voted  to  extend  an  invita- 
tion to  the  Reverend  Micah  Stone,  to  be  settled  as  Pastor 
of  the  town,  and  that  "  the  sum  of  four  hundred  dollars, 
as  agreed  by  the  town,  be  given  him  as  a  yearly  salary ; 
also,  that  the  sum  of  eight  hundred  dollars  be  given  him, 
npon  his  settlement  as  our  Pastor."  This  vote,  however, 
never  went  into  effect.  Upon  the  twenty-fifth  of  October, 
the  town  assembled  to  hear  the  report  of  the  committee 
of  conference  for  adjusting  the  accounts  with  the  town  of 
Penobscot.     The  committee  reported  as  follows : — 

"  First,  your  Committee  determined  that  the  apportion- 
ment of  property  and  debts  which  belonged  to  the  whole 
as  parts  of  the  town  of  Penobscot,  should  be  made  accord- 
ing to  the  ratio  adopted  in  the  Act  incorporating  the  town 
of  Castine, — that  is  to  say ;  that  Castine  should  be  respon- 
sible for  three-fifths  of  the  amount  of  debts  subsisting 
against  the  old  town  of  Penobscot,  and  should  be  entitled 
to  the  same  proportion  of  the  property  belonging  to  said 
town — the  remaining  two-fifths  belonging  to  the  present 
town  of  Penobscot. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  75 

They  find  the  amount  of  property  belonging  to  the  towns 
to  be  one  .thousand  one  hundred  and  eighty-five  dollars  ; 
consisting  of,  tlie  meeting-house  ou  tlie  peninsula,  the 
Town  Pound,  a  note  of  hand  signed  by  Sparks  Perkins, 
and  sundry  window  sashes.*  *  *  *  The  Committee  agreed 
that  the  town  of  Castine  should  take  the  meeting-house 
on  the  peninsula,  at  the  price  estimated  by  them.  They 
likewise  agreed  that  Castine  should  assume  the  whole  of 
the  debts  due  to  the  inhabitants  of  that  town,  and  be 
credited  for  the  surplus  beyond  their  due  proportion  of 
debt — being  one  hundred  and  thirty-two  dollars  and  fifty- 
six  cents. 


The  Committee  have  likewise  agreed  that  the  land 
appropriated  to  the  uses  of  Township  Number  Three,  for 
supporting  schools,  minister's  lot,  and  the  lot  for  the  use 
of  the  ministry,  shall  be  equally  divided  between  said 
towns  of  Castine  and  Penobscot,  and  they  have  drawn  a 
Petition  to  the  General  Court,  to  have  this  agreement 
carried  into  effect.  They  have  likewise  agreed  upon  a 
division  of  the  roads  which  are  to  be  put  into  repair, 
according  to  the  Act  of  the  General  Court  incorporating 
Castine. 


Castine  takes  upon  itself  to  put  in  repair,  according 
to  said  Act,  the  road  from  Lymburner's  Ferry  to  Sedg- 
wick ;  likewise,  the  road  from  ^he  peninsula  by  David 
Willson  and  Joseph  Hibbert,  up  to  the  line  of  Plantation 
Number  Two  ;  also,  the  westerly  part  of  the  cross  road 
leading  from  tlie  last  mentioned  road  to  Pelatiah  Free- 
man's, as  far  in  the  same  road  as  Samuel  Farnham's  house." 

The  consideration  of  this  report  was  laid  over  to  another 
meeting.  At  a  meeting  held  the  ITovember  following, 
this  report  was  accepted  by  the  town.  At  this  meeting, 
the  town  elected  its  first  School  Committee,  consisting  of 
six  members.  It  also,  this  year  elected  Isaac  Parker,  Esq., 
as  its  first  Representative  to  the  General  Court  of  Massa- 
chusetts. As,  at  the  time  of  the  incorporation  of  the 
town,  Penobscot  was  the  shire  town  of  Hancock  County, 
and  as  all  the  County  buildings  were  situated  upon  this 
peninsula,  Castine  was,  by  the  Act  aforesaid,  declared  to 
be  the  County  seat. 


76  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

1797.  About  the  time  of  the  incorporation  of  the 
town,  the  question  in  regard  to  a  separation  of  the  District 
of  Maine  from  the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  began 
to  be  quite  generally  discussed,  and  an  attempt  was  soon 
made  to  bring  it  about.  The  question  was  submitted  to 
the  towns  of  the  Commonwealth  in  1797,  and  the  vote  of 
Castine  was  found  to  be  in  a  very  decided  majority  against 
it.  The  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  this  year  passed 
a  Resolve,  dividing  the  Minister's  Lot,  etc.,  equally 
between  the  two  towns. 

1798.  The  only  measure  occurring  the  next  year, 
entitled  to  notice  in  this  place,  was  the  invitation  extended 
to  Reverend  William  Mason,  to  become  the  pastor  of 
the  town,  at  a  salary  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  dollars 
per  annum,  for  three  years.  He  was  also  to  receive  eight 
hundred  dollars,  upon  his  settlement  over  the  town.  He 
was  ordained  upon  the  second  Wednesday  of  October. 

1799.  In  April,  1799,  Mr.  Barnabas  Higgins  was 
chosen  town  sexton. 

1800.  In  August,  1800,  Water  street  was  laid  out. 
There  having  been  some  talk  in  regard  to  removing  the 
County  seat  from  Castine,  the  town,  by  a  formal  vote, 
protested  against  any  change  of  location. 

1801—1807.  In  1801,  Job  Nelson  Esq.,  was  chosen 
Representative  to  the  General  Court.  He  was  succeeded 
in  1803  by  Doctor  Oliver  Mann,  who  was  annually  re- 
elected, until  the  year  1806,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
Captain  Otis  Little.  He  was,  however,  again  elected  in 
the  year  1807.  In  the  year  1804,  in  accordance  with 
resolves  of  the  General  Court,  Commissioners  were  sent 
here  to  settle,  linally,  the  differences  between  the  proprie- 
tors and  settlers,  in  what  was  formerly  Township  No.  3. 
The  proprietors  received  in  Township  No.  7*  an  equiva- 
lent for  the  lands  taken  by  settlers  in  No.  3.  The  number 
of  acres  settled  in  the  latter  township,  i^rioi'  to  the  year 
1784,  was  stated  in  their  report  at  sixteen  thousand  one 
hundred  and  eighty-one  acres  and  fiftj^-eight  rods. 

1807.  In  the  year  1807,  the  town  voted  to  jjurchase 
for  a  cemetery,  one  acre  of  land  from  Captain  Mark  Hatch, 
for  the  sum  of  thirty  dollars — one-half  of  which  Captain 
Hatch  remitted.  The  town  agreed  to  fence  the  land,  and 
hang  a  gate  near  the  windmill.  It  also  agreed  to  give  Cap- 
tain Hatch  his  choice  of  a  burial  lot.  The  town  this  year 
*Now  the  city  of  Ellsworth. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  77 

voted  a  second  time,  against  a  separation  of  the  District 
from  the  Commonwealth. 

About  this  time,  the  English  began  to  exercise  what 
was  claimed  by  their  government  as  the  right  of  search. 
According  to  this  doctrine,  the  English  navy  claimed  a 
right  to  detain  and  search  all  neutral  vessels,  and  to 
impress  all  British  subjects  found  therein.  This  practice 
bore  particularly  hard  upon  the  American  marine,  since  the 
difficulty  of  determining,  in  all  cases,  the  respective  nation- 
ality of  English  and  American  sailors  led  to  a  total  disre- 
gard of  the  rights  of  the  latter.  The  only  way  to  repress 
this  outrageous  proceeding  of  the  English  government  was, 
either  to  put  a  stop  to  all  mercantile  communication 
between  the  two  countries,  or  openly  to  declare  war. 
Congress,  whether  wisely  or  unwisely  is  even  now  a 
debatable  question,  chose  the  former  alternative.  An 
embargo  was,  accordingly,  declared  upon  the  twenty- 
second  of  December  of  this  year.  The  seaboard  States 
were  all  violently  opposed  to  this  measure,  and  none  more 
so  than  the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts.  The  citi- 
zens of  this  town,  depending  for  their  prosperity  upon 
maritime  pursuits,  looked  upon  the  prospect  of  a  long 
embargo  with  gloomy  forebodiugs.  Their  sentiments  and 
fears  upon  this  subject,  only  a  few  months  after  the  pas- 
sage of  the  embargo  laws,  are  aptlj'  described  by  a  youth- 
ful poet  of  the  times.* 

"  See  the  bold  sailor  from  tlio  ocei.n  torn. 
His  element,  sink  friendless  and  forlorn  ! 
His  suffering  spouse  the  tear  of  anguish  shed, 
His  starving  children  cry  aloud  for  bread  ! 
On  the  rough  billows  of  misfortune  tost. 
Resources  fail,  and  all  his  hopes  are  lost; 
To  foreign  climes  for  that  relief  he  flies, 
His  native  land  ungratefully  denies. 

*  *  *  *  *  *  * 

The  farmer,  since  supporting  trade  is  fled, 
Leaves  the  rude  ji»ke,  and  cheerless  hangs  his  head; 
Misfortunes  fall,  an  unri'niitting  shower, 
Debts  IoUdw  debts,  on  taxes,  taxes  pour. 
See  in  his  stores  his  hoarded  produce  rot. 
Or  Sheriff"'s  sales  his  produce  bring  to  naught; 
Disheartening  cares  in  thronging  myriads  flow, 
Till  down  he  sinks,  to  poverty  and  woe." 

HavincT  experienced,  in  a  measure,  some  of  the  miseries 
so  vividly  ])ortrayed  in  the  above  quotation,  it  was  not 
unnatural  that  this  town  should,  like  many  others  in  New 
England,  attempt  to  exercise  some  influence  over  the 
National  Councils. 

♦Written  by  William  Cullen  l?rya)it.  when  only  fourteen  vears  of  age. 
11 


78  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

1808.  Accordingly,  in  the  year  1808,  the  town  voted 
that  the  Selectmen  transmit,  under  their  hands,  to  the 
President,  the  following-  petition  : — 

"  To  the  President  of  the  United  States  : 

The  inhabitants  of  the  Town  of  Castine,  in  Town- 
meeting  legally  assembled,  respectfully  represent:  — 

That,  habituated  to  commercial  pursuits,  and  drawing 
their  supjoort  and  wealth  from  the  ocean  and  from  foreign 
countries,  the  laws  laying  an  embargo  are  peculiarly  dis- 
tressing to  them.  Although  tliey  have  doubted  the  expe- 
diency of  these  laws,  and  even  their  constitutionality — 
when  imposed  for  an  unlimited  time, — yet  they  have 
hitherto  waited  with  patience,  in  the  hope  that  our  diffi- 
culties with  the  great  powers  of  Europe  might  be  so 
adjusted,  that  it  would  be  consistent  with  the  policy  of 
our  Government  to  remove  the  embargo.  That  this  dis- 
tressing measure  has  had  any  favorable  influence  on  our 
foreign  relations,  does  not  at  present  appear ;  but  that 
your  petitioners  have  endured  heavy  losses,  their  idle  ships 
and  perishing  commodities  unfortunately  bear  positive 
testimony. 

The  events  now  taking  place  in  Spain,  so  glorious  to 
that  nation,  and  so  propitious  to  the  Liberty  and  happi- 
ness of  mankind,  ojjen  to  your  petitioners  the  prospect  of 
a  ready  market  for  their  surplus  produce,  and  at  the  same 
time  afford  them  an  opportunity,  which  they  would 
eagerly  seize,  of  repajdng  an  ancient  obligation. 

They,  therefore,  pray  your  Excellency  that  the  Embargo 
may  be  in  whole  or  in  part  suspended,  according  to  the 
powers  vested  in  you  by  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  ;  and,  if  any  doubt  exist  as  to  the  competency  of 
those  powers,  that  Congress  may  be  convened  to  take  the 
subject  into  their  consideration." 

1809.  In  the  year  1809,  Captain  Otis  Little  was,  a 
second  time,  elected  Representative  to  the  General  Court, 
This  year,  a  bounty  of  twelve  and  a  half  cents  jyer  capita. 
was  offered  by  the  town,  for  all  croivs  killed  within 
its  limits.  At  a  town-meeting  held  January  thirtieth, 
Mason  Shaw,  Otis  Little,  Job  Nelson,  John  Perkins, 
Moses  S.  Judkins,  and  Captain  Mark  Hatch,  were  chosen 
a  Committee  of  Public  Safety.  At  this  same  meeting, 
the  town  voted  that :  "  the  thanks  of  this  meeting  be 
given  to  Captain  Samuel  A.  Whitney,  for  his  manly  and 
patriotic  conduct  in  withdrawing  his  guns  from  the  cutter. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  79 

in  the  service  of  the  United  States,  to  enforce  the  Embargo 
laws."  This  vote  phiinly  shows  that  the  doctrine  of 
*'  State  Rights"  must  have  had  advocates  in  this  section  of 
the  country,  even  at  that  early  day.  On  what  other 
ground  could  it  be  called  patriotic,  to  throw  impediments 
in  the  way  of  the  execution  of  National  laws? 

1812.  On  June  18th,  1812,  war  was  declared  between 
Great  Britain  and  the  United  States.  Party  spirit  ran  high 
at  this  time,  and  the  people  of  this  town,  in  common  with 
the  majority  of  those  in  the  District  of  Maine,  were  even 
more  opposed  to  the  war  than  they  had  been  to  the  embar- 
go. One  of  the  resolutions,  passed  about  this  time,  shows 
the  state  of  feeling  then  prevalent. — "  We  consider  the  sea 
our  Farm,  and  our  sliips  our  Storehouses,  and  that  our 
rights  therein  ought  not  to  be  diminished  or  destroyed." 

The  town.,  at  its  different  meetings  this  year,  passed  res- 
olutions in  favor  of  the  liberty  of  speech  and  of  the  press, 
and  in  regard  to  the  duty  of  the  people  to  raise  their  voice 
against  the  wrong-doing  of  the  government.  Also,  against 
the  embargo,  non-intercourse  and  non-importation  laws, 
and  against  a  declaration  of  war  w^ith  Great  Britain.  Also, 
deprecating  any  alliance  with  France ;  against  voluntary 
enlistments — but  in  favor  of  resisting  actual  invasion  ;  and 
against  the  conduct  of  the  Senate,  "  de-facto^''''  of  Massachu- 
setts, in  refusing  to  submit  the  choice  of  electors  for  Pres- 
ident and  Vice-President,  to  the  people  at  large.  A  second 
Committee  of  Public  Safety  were  chosen,  consisting  of 
Captain  Joseph  Perkins,  William  Abbott,  Esq.,  Mason 
Shaw,  Esq.,  Captain  Elisha  Dyer,  and  Job  Nelson,  Esq. 
The  town  also,  at  this  meeting,  voted  that  "  the  thanks  of 
this  meeting  be  presented  to  the  gentlemen  composing  the 
former  Committee  of  Safety,  for  their  patriotic  conduct  in 
sending  to  the  Governor  for  arms  and  ammunition,  and  that 
their  doings  be  approved  of."  It  was  also  voted  that  the 
Committee  of  Public  Safety  be  instructed  to  deliver  the 
arms,  that  might  be  furnished  the  town  by  direction  of  the 
government,  to  such  applicants  as  they  should  judge  expe- 
dient for  the  best  protection  and  safety  of  the  town.  Also, 
that  they  should  take  the  applicant's  receipt  therefor,  that 
they  should  be  returned,  in  good  order,  on  demand. 

In  addition  to  the  excitement  in  regard  to  national  affairs, 
the  people  of  this  town  were  considerably  agitated  in 
regard  to  the  proposed  removal  of  the  Courts.  The  Repre- 
sentative to  the  General  Court  was  instructed  to  use  all  letral 


80  HrSTOEY   OP   CASTINE, 

measures  to  oppose  such  a  removal,  and  a  committee  was 
appointed  to  draw  up  a  remonstrance  against  the  measure, 
and  to  forward  copies  thereof,  to  the  Selectmen  of  the 
Ljeveral  towns  of  the  county. 

1813.  The  feeling  against  the  war  continuing  to  exist 
in  all  its  intensity,  the  town,  at  its  annual  meeting  in  1813, 
passed  a  resolution  that, — "  the  Representative  of  this  town 
be  instructed  to  use  his  influence  with  the  Legislature,  that 
they  may  assert  the  just  rights  of  this  Commonwealth ; 
put  an  end  to  the  calamities  which  we  now  endure  ;  restore 
to  us  the  inestimable  blessings  of  ipeace  and  commerce; 
and  secure  on  a  permanent  basis  that  liberty  purchased  by 
the  blood  of  our  ancestors."  At  a  subsequent  meeting, 
held  October  27th,  it  was  voted  : — "  That  Job  Nelson, 
William  Abbott,  and  Thomas  E.  Hale,  Esqrs.,  be  a  com- 
mittee to  prepare  an  address  to  the  General  Court,  express- 
ive of  our  feelings  and  sentiments  relative  to  the  alarming 
consequences  which  are  likely  to  follow  from  the  further 
prosecution  of  the  war,  and  from  several  unconstitutional 
clauses  in  the  late  act  of  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  laying  an  embargo — particularly  in  restricting  the 
coasting  trade  from  one  port  to  another  in  the  same  State — 
and  that  they  make  their  report  at  the  adjournment  of  this 
meeting."  The  town  this  year  passed  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
Major  Otis  Little,  for  his  faithful  services  as  their  Repre- 
sentative to  the  General  Court  of  the  Commonwealth.  It 
also  appears  upon  the  records  for  this  year,  that  the  Fire- 
wards  were  provided,  at  the  expense  of  the  town,  with 
suitable  badges  of  their  office. 

1814 — 1815.  In  the  year  1814,  the  town  offered  a 
bounty  of  two  dollars,  for  each  wild-cat  killed  during  the 
year.  The  town  this  year  voted  to  have  a  bridge  built 
across  the  narrows  at  Captain  F.  Bakeman's  Mill  Pond. 
The  building  of  this  bridge  was  set  up  at  auction,  and 
Jonathan  L.  Stevens  bid  it  off  at  the  sum  of  two  hundred 
and  twenty  dollars.  Mr.  Thomas  Adams  represented  the 
town  this  year  at  the  General  Court.  The  town  was 
occupied  by  the  British,  during  a  portion  of  the  years 
1814  and  1815,  but  no  allusion  to  this  event  appears  in  the 
Municipal  records.  In  the  latter  year,  a  title  was,  for  the 
first  time,  obtained  to  the  Common. 

1816.  In  1816,  Thomas  E.  Hale  was  chosen  Represen- 
tative to  the  General  Court.  The  town  at  this  meeting 
voted :  "  That  the  thanks  of  this  town  be  given  to  Deacon 


fiftOOKSVlLLE  ANt)  PENOBBCOT.  8l 

r)avid  Willson,  for  his  long  and  faithful  services  as  a, 
Selectman ;  he  having  served  in  that  office  for  nineteen 
years  successively,  and  now  at  this  meeting  declines  a 
re-election."  The  town  this  year  voted  a  third  time 
against  a  separation  of  the  District  of  Maine  from  the 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

1817.  In  1817,  the  first  hearse  was  purchased,  and 
the  first  stove  for  warming  the  meeting-liouse.  The  Com-' 
mon  was  this  year  levelled  and  otherwise  improved. 

The  town  also  passed  a  vote  in  favor  of  having  Cape 
Rozier  set  off  to  Sedgwick.  Instead  of  that,  ho.wever,  by 
an  act  of  the  General  Court,  the  town  of  Brooksville  was 
incorporated— taking  all  that  portion  of  Castine  east  of 
the  Bagaduce  River,  (below  Northern  Bay,)  except  the 
islands  not  connected  to  the  mainland  by  a  bar.  At  the 
same  time,  about  one-fourtli  part  of  Penobscot  wasr 
annexed  to  Castine. 

1819.  In  the  year  1819,  the  town  was  for  the  fourth 
time  called  to  vote  upon  the  question  of  the  separation  of 
the  District  from  the  Commonwealth.  This  time  it  voted, 
by  a  small  majority,  in  favor  of  such  a  separation,  and 
William  Abbott,  Esq.,  was  chosen  a  delegate  to  attend  a 
Convention  to  be  held  in  Portland,  for  the  purpose  of 
framing  a  Constitution  for  a  new  State.  Samuel  Upton 
was  chosen  Representative  to  the  General  Court. 

1820.  On  the  fifteenth  of  March,  1820,  the  District  of 
Maine  was,  by  act  of  Congress,  divorced  from  the  Com- 
monAvealth  of  Massachusetts,  and  admitted  into  the  Union 
as  an  independent  State. 

1822.  In  the  year  1822,  William  Abbott,  Esq.,  was 
elected  as  the  Representative  of  the  town  to  the  State 
Legislature.  Mr.  Abbott  was  not  only  the  first  Represent 
tative  chosen  by  the  town  to  the  Legislatui-e  of  Maine,  but 
was  also  the  only  one  chosen  by  this  town  alone — as  this 
office  has  since  been  filled  by  the  joint  votes  of  several 
towns.  About  this  time,  some  of  the  inhabitants  of  a  por- 
tion of  Penobscot  petitioned  to  be  annexed  to  Castine. 
This  town,  however,  voted  against  receiving  them,  and 
instructed  its  Representative  to  oppose  it  in  the  Legisla- 
ture. 

1823.  The  next  year— 1823 — coasting  down  Main 
street  was  forl)idden,  by  vote  of  the  town.  The  boys 
were,  doubtless,  as  obedient  to  this  mandate  of  the  town 
as  boys  are  apt  to  be,  in  regard  to  requirements  which  mil- 


82  HISTORY  OP  CASTmE, 

itate  against  their  supposed  rights.  The  town  this  year 
voted  to  purchase  a  hearse-house.  Whether  the  hearse 
had  been  allowed  to  remain  exposed  to  the  weather  all 
this  time,  or  had  been  stored  in  some  barn,  the  records  do 
not  state. 

1829.  In  the  year  1829,  the  town  made  its  first  stand 
against  intemperance,  by  refusing  to  license  the  sale  of 
liquors. 

1881.  In  1831,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  "remon- 
strate against  a  removal  of  the  Courts. 

1832.  During  the  summer  of  1832,  the  cholera  was 
prevailing  in  this  country,  and  the  excitement  incident 
thereto  extended  to  this  town.  Joseph  Bryant,  Esq., 
Joseph  L.  Stevens,  M.  D.,'  Hezekiah'  Williams,  Esq., 
Joshua  Carpenter,  John  H.  Jarvis,  Joshua  Hooper,  and 
Nathaniel  Willson,  were  chosen  as  a  Board  of  Health,  and. 
one  hundred  dollars  was  appropriated  to  their  use.  They 
established  a  quarantine  for  vessels,  inspected  every  house 
in  town,  and  compelled  the  removal  of  all  nuisances  and 
filth.  The  measures  taken  were  effectual,  as  no  cholera 
cases  occurred  here,  although  the  disease  made  its  appear- 
ance in  some  of  the  other  sea-board  towns. 

1833.  In  the  year  1833,  the  town  voted  to  purchase  a 
Poor  Farm.  This  farm  was  located  in  Brooksville,  on 
what  was  formerly  called  Hainey's  Plantation.  It  was 
bought  of  Major  Hodsclen,  for  the  sum  of  fifteen  hundred 
doHars.  It  contained  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  acres 
of  land  ;  yielded  from  twenty  to  thirty  tons  of  hay  ;  had 
on  it  a  large  quantity  of  young  wood  ;  was  well  watered, 
and  contained  a  mill  privilege,  and  a  house  and  barn. 
The  house  was  thirty  feet  wide,  by  thirty-six  feet  in 
length.  It  was  a  story  and  a  half  high,  and  had  four 
rooms  on  tlie  lower  floor — all  finished  and  painted.  The 
second  story  was  unfinished.  There  was  a  cellar  under 
the  whole  house,  and  a  good  well  on  the  premises.*  This 
year  the  town  again  refused  to  license  the  sale  of  liquor. 
From  this  time  to  the  outbreak  of  the  War  of  the  Rebel- 
lion, the  town  records  contain  very  little  of  interest. 

1836 — 1840.  In  1836,  the  town  again  voted  against 
the  removal^of  the  Courts — though  this  time  without  pro- 
ducing any  beneficial  effect.  The  Courts  were  removed 
to  Ellsworth,  in  1838.     In  1810,  the  town  purchased  the 

*Tlus  farm  has  been  sold  by  the  town  within  a  few  years,  and  the  town 
poor  are  now  boarded. 


BEOOKSVILLE   AXD   PENOBSCOT.  83 

Court  House,  of  Charles  J.  Abbott,  Esq.,  for  the  sum  of 
three  hundred  dollars.  It  has  ever  since  been  used  as  a 
town-house. 

1845.  In  the  year  1845,  money  was  appropriated  for 
the  purchase  of  the  Bagaduce  fire  engine.  This  appears 
to  be  the  earliest  appropriation  of  money,  made  by  the 
town,  for  the  jjurchase  of  a  fire  engine,  although  there 
was  such  an  engine  in  town  at  a  much  earlier  date. 

1848.  In  1848,  the  town  passed  its  first  code  of  By- 
Laws,  and,  for  the  first  time,  elected  some  policemen — six 
in  numl^er. 

1849.  In  1849,  the  town  voted  "  that  ten  per  cent  of 
the  highway  tax  be  annually  appropriated  to  the  purchase 
and  setting  out  of  ornamental  trees. 

1852.  In  the  year  1852,  the  Common  was  fenced. 
This  year  the  following  letter — donating  a  Tomb — was 
received  by  the  Selectmen  : — 

"  Bangor,  October  14th,  1852. 
To  the  Selectmen  of  the  town  of  Castine. 

Gentlemen  :  Beinc:  tlie  owner  of  a  tomb  in  the  ceme- 
tery  at  Castine,  I  propose  to  give  it  to  the  town,  to  be 
used  by  them  as  a  receiving  tomb.  If  they  accept  the 
gift,  it  is  my  wish  that  it  be  always  in  the  care  of  the 
Selectmen  of  the  town,  and  that  once  a  year — say  in  the 
month  of  May — it  should  be  cleaned  of  all  the  dead  bodies 
which  may  have  been  deposited  there. 

"With  a  lively  recollection  of  the  many  favors  bestowed 
on  me  while  I  was  a  citizen  of  your  town,  and  with  my 
wislies  for  the  welfare  and  happiness  of  its  inhabitants,  I 
remain, 

Respectfully,  Your  Obedient  Servant, 

JOSEPH  BRYANT." 

The  town,  at  its  first  meeting  thereafter,  formally 
accepted  the  gift  of  this  tomb. 

1853.  The  next  year, — 1853 — the  town  voted  to  have 
plank  sidewalks  upon  evenj  street  in  the  town. 

1855.  In  the  year  1855,  the  town  Library  was  estab- 
lished. The  books  left  by  the  Social  Library  Association 
formed  the  nucleus  of  this  library.  The  town  voted  : — 
"  To  raise  a  sum  equal  to  one  dollar  on  each  poll  assessed 
the  last  year,  one-half  to  be  collected  the  present  year,  and 
one-half  the  next  year,  to  be  expended  in  establishing  a 
public  library."  Is  voted  also — ''  that  a  committee  of  five 
persons  be  appointed  by  the  Moderator,  to  make  tlie   rules 


84  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

and  regulations  for  governing  said  library."  Charles  J. 
Abbott,  William  H.  Witherle,  Roland  H.  Bridghara,  Sam- 
uel Adams,  and  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  were  appointed  as  this 
committegi.  Mr.  Frederic  A.  Hooke  was  chosen  Treasurer, 
and  Charles  J.  Abbott,  Hezekiah  Williams,  Joseph  L. 
Stevens,  Charles  A.  Cate,  and  J.  Haskell  Noyes,  were 
chosen  Superintendents  of  the  library.  A  book-case  was 
also  purchased  this  year. 

1856.  In  1856,  a  copy  of  Stuart's  portrait  of  Washing- 
ton was  presented  to  the  town  by  the  artist — Miss  E.  M. 
Judkins. 

1857.  In  1857,  the  town  voted  to  have  a  lock-up,  for 
the  temporary  incarceration  of  offenders  against  the  pub- 
lic weal. 

1858—1859.  In  1858,  the  town  voted  in  favor  of  a 
State  prohibitory  liquor  law.  In  1859,  it  passed  resolu- 
tions in  favor  of  building  a  railroad  to  the  Aroostook. 

1861.  In  the  year  1861,  the  town  adopted  the  code  of 
By-Laws  now  in  operation,  and  elected  twelve  men  as 
watchmen.  From  this  time  until  the  close  of  1865,  was 
the  period  of  the  Civil  War.  Nothing  of  importance,  how- 
ever, occurs  in  the  records,  in  reference  to  this  event, 
except  the  votes  concerning  the  passage  of  appropriations 
for  bounties,  etc.  In  July,  1861,  the  sum  of  twelve  hun- 
dred dollars  was  appropriated  towards  furnishing  supplies 
to  the  families  of  volunteers,  and  William  H.  Witherle, 
Roland  H.  Bridgham,  Charles  J.  Abbott,  Samuel  Adams, 
and  George  H.  Emerson,  were  chosen  to  disburse  the 
same. 

1862.  In  1862,  the  sum  of  fourteen  hundred  dollars 
was  appropriated,  to  pay  one  hundred  dollar  bounties 
with  ;  also  the  twenty  dollar  bounties.  The  troops  raised 
here  were  also  furnished  with  two  days'  rations,  uj)on 
leaving  town. 

1863.  In  the  year  1863,  the  sum  of  two  thousand  dol- 
lars was  appropriated  for  aid  to  the  families  of  volunteers. 
Drafted  men  were  also  paid  one  hundred  dollars,  and  vol- 
unteers two  hundred  dollars,  as  a  town  bounty. 


BBOOKSVILLE   A^B   PENOBSCOT.  85 


CHAPTER    IV. 

GENERAL  AND  SOCIAL  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE. 

Early  Condition  and  Circumstances  of  the  Citi- 
zens.— Welcome  to  Hon.  Isaac  Parker. — Benoni 
Thomas.  —  Theatre  Royal.  —  Celebration  of 
Queen's  Birthday. — Illumination  of  the  Town. 
Anniversaries. — Mourning  for  General  Wash- 
ington.— House  Warmings. — Associations  of  Dif- 
ferent Kinds. — Taverns  and  Boarding  Houses. 
Newspapers.  —  Mails.  —  Shipwrecks,  and  Cap- 
tures OF  Vessels. — Dkaths  by  Drowning  and 
other  Casualties. — Fires  and  Fire  Companies. — 
Diseases  and  Mortality.  —  Court  Times  ant) 
Trials. — Epitaphs. — Traditions   and    Anecdotes. 

The  social  condition  and  circumstances  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Castine,  in  by-gone  days,  can  only  be  inferi'ed  from  our 
general  knowledge  of  the  times,  and  from  the  few  facts  and 
occurrences  that  have  been  preserved.  Separated  and 
almost  isolated  as  they  are  by  the  surrounding  water,  from 
nearly  all  the  neighboring  towns,  the  citizens  of  this  place 
are,  and  have  alwa3^s  been,  in  a  great  measure,  obliged  to 
find  their  sources  of  amusement  at  home.  Such  was  espec- 
ially the  case  in  early  times,  when  the  relative  importance 
of  the  place  was  so  very  much  greater  than  at  present,  that 
there  was  no  inducement  to  go  elsewhere  for  amusement ; 
when,  indeed,  the  wealth  and  fashion  of  the  whole  eastern 
section  of  country  centered  here.  We  find,  accordingly, 
as  far  back  as  the  date  of  the  incorporation  of  tlie  town, 
that  balls,  parties,  theatrical  exhil)itions,  and  celebrations 
of  various  kinds,  were  of  common  occurrence. 
1-J 


86  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

Amusements  and  Festivities. 

The  earliest  event,  of  any  social  significance,  of  which 
there  is  any  record,  was  a  Welcome  given  to  Honorable 
Isaac  Parker,  on  his  return  from  the  General  Comr  in 
1797.  It  consisted  of  a  public  supper,  at  which  were 
present  several  distinguished  officers  from  abroad,  as  well  as 
the  officers  and  members  of  the  Castine  Artillery  Company, 
who  appeared  in  uniform.  The  occasion  was  enlivened  by 
speeches  and  toasts,  accompanied  by  the  amount  of  noise,  iu 
the  shape  of  the  beating  of  drums  and  firing  of  cannon, 
that  is  usually  considered  necessary  at  such  times.  In 
1810,  there  wiis  an  Exhibition  at  Mason's  Hall,  of  a  very 
distinguished  personage  of  the  time,  one  Benoni  Thomas^ 
an  adult,  who  was  said  to  be  only  two  feet  and  eight 
inches  in  height. 

On  the  second  of  January,  1815,  the  first  play  was  given 
at  the  "Theatre  Royal."  This  Theatre  was  held  in  Mr. 
Hooke's  ham,  which  was  fitted  up  for  the  occasion.  This 
barn  was  afterwards  removed  off"  the  Neck,  and  now  com- 
poses a  portiou  of  Mr.  Thomas  Hatch's  barn.  The  actors 
upon  tliis  occasion,  l)elonged  to  the  English  garrison — at 
that  time  occupying  the  town — and  the  scenery,  decorations, 
dresses,  etc.,  were  brought  hitlier  from  Halifax.  The  gar- 
rison relieved  the  tedium  of  barrack  life,  by  giving  dramatic 
performances  once  a  fortnight.  The  following  lines,  writ- 
ten by  Doctor  Mackesy,  Surgeon  of  H.  B.  M.'s  62d  Regi- 
ment, will  give  some  idea  of  the  actors,  as  well  as  of  the 
performances : — 

Occasio7ial  Epilogue  to  the  Comedy  of  the  Poor  Gentleman. 

"The  scene  is  closed,  and  Worthington*  at  rest 

From  wetiry  care  that  filled  his  anxious  breast, 

His  cottage  raised  in  western  wilds  once  more, 

But  quits  Saint  La\vren(;e  for  Penobscot's  shore. 

Here  social  views  his  little  band  inspire, 

To  breathe  responsive  to  Appollo's  lyre; 

In  tragic  strains  or  Thalia's  sprightly  ai-t, 

Aim  to  enlarge  and  humanize  the  heart; 

With  mimic  woes  the  feeling  bosom  warm, 

Or  merry  satire  calm  the  wintry  storm. 

The  drama's  past,  we  close  the  sportive  page; 

More  varied  duties  now  our  thoughts  engage. 

Emily,t  this  night  so  blessed  iu  love  and  riches, 
*Worthington  (the  Poor  Gentleman)— Lieut.  Gastin,  Royal  Artillery. 
fEmily  Worthington— Major  William  Hull,  62d  Regt.  (Major  of  Brigade). 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT,  87 

At  morning's  dawn  draws  on  her  boots  and  breeches; 

Then  AmaEon-lilcc  extends  the  martial  Hne, 

Giivcs  out  CDraraantis  and  seals  the  countersign. 

The  proud  Liicretlii,*  though  so  nobly  bred, 

Oft  bleeds  and  blisters  at  the  Galeu's  liead; 

And  gay  Sir  Charles,t  forgetting  Emily's  loss, 

Attends  aill  duties  under  Corporal  Foss.t 

Frederick,^^  no  grave  magistrate  surpasses, 

In  ministering  oaths  and  writing  passes-. 

While  Old  Harrowby's[j  voice  the  vale  alarms, 

With  '  Attention !  I     Steady !  I     Shoulder  Arms P 

And  warlike  aims  the  Cornet's^  soul  inflame ; 

He  shuts  up  shop,  and  treads  the  paths  of  fame! 

At  Sir  Robert's**  nod  the  firm  Rainparts  rise, 

The  Bastions  range — the  vengeful  Bullet  flies. 

Anxious  to  please,  each  member  of  the  corps,  > 

Shall  do  his  best  to  cheer  this  dreary  shore; 

More  thankful  still  when,  tried  by  candor's  laws. 

The  Poor  Gentleman's  efforts  merit  your  applause." 

Two  weeks  after  the  above  mentioned  comedy  was  acted, 
the  Queen's  birthday  was  celebrated  by  the  military. 

On  the  twenty-eighth  of  April  following,  the  departure 
of  the  British  forces  from  this  place,  was  celebrated  by  an 
illumination  of  the  town,  which  was,  doubtless,  as  brilliant 
as  the  lack  of  gas  or  coal  oil  would  permit.  The  houses, 
ra.ost  of  them,  were  illuminated  by  candles  stuck  irjto  pota- 
toes for  candlesticks. 

At  a  somewhat  later  period.  House  Warmings  came  into 
vogue.  These  were  suppers  given  by  the  first  occupants 
of  newly  built  houses — usuallj'"  ending  with  music  and 
dancing. 

The  Anniversaries  of  our  National  Independence  were 
generally  celebrated  in  former  times  by  military  parades, 
and  a  general  effervescence  of  military  spirit  among  the 
people, — too  often  accompanied  l)y  an  outpouring  of  spirits 
of  another  kind  I  After  the  disbandment  of  the  military 
companies,  the  day,  so  far  as  we  can  learn,  has  not  been 
celebrated  here  until  quite  recent  times.  , 

*The  Honorable  Miss  I.ucretia  Mactab— Surgeon  J.  Mackesy,  62d  Regt, 

tSir  Charles  cjro|)iand — Ensign  J.  Tummcrs,  02d  Regt, 

JCorporal  Foss — Lieut.  J.  Broodrick,  '.".tlh  Regt. 

^Frederick — Major  Irvius,  02d  Regt. 

JIFarmer  Ilarrowby — Lieut.  Col.  Ximines.  G2d  Regt, 

llCornct  Uihtpod— Adjutant  J.  Veazic,  2ath  Regt, 

**Sir  Robert  Bramlde— Caplain  Bonnyeastle,  Royal  Engineers. 

[Stephen— Lieut.  R.  Wild,  "iitth  Regt.     Dame  Ilarrowl^v— Lieut.  J.  Dennis, 
G2d  Regt,     Mary— Lieut.  W.  llewatt,  G2d  Regt.] 


S3  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

July  ITtli,  1797,  the  anniversary  of  the  clay  when  our 
Treaties  with  France  were  abrogated  by  act  of  Congress, 
Avas  celebrated  by  the  discharge  of  cannon,  and  a  parade  of 
tlie  artillery.  After  these  exercises  were  over,  the  citizens 
assembled  at  the  meeting-house,  where  a  prayer  was  offered 
by  Reverend  Mr.  Mason,  and  an  oration  delivered  by 
]\[r.  Isaac  Story.  A  collation  was  served  in  the  evening, 
at  Woodman's  "Coffee  House." 

Sekvices  Commemorative  of  the  Death  of  George 
Washington. 

The  twenty-second  of  February,  1800,  was  selected  bj'" 
Congress  as  a  day  of  National  Mourning  for  the  death  of 
General  Washington.  The  citizens  of  this  town  were  not 
behindhand  in  their  preparations  for  the  day.  A  citizens' 
meeting  was  held  several  weeks  previously,  and  a  committee 
(^f  the  most  prominent  men  of  the  town,  chosen  to  super- 
intend the  arrangements.  We  quote  the  account  of  the 
l)roceedings  upon  that  day,  from  the  Castine  Journal,  of 
that  week. 

"  The  day  was  announced  by  the  discharge  of  a  cannon, 
at  sunrise,  by  Lieutenant  Lee's  Artillery.  At  twelve 
o'clock  M.,  a  procession  was  formed  at  the  Court  House, 
in  the  following  order. 

Company  of  Artillery, 

(Music  and  Standard  in  mourning.) 

Schoolmaster  and  Scholars, 

Youths  from  fourteen  to  twenty-one  years  of  age, 

Sheriff  of  the  County, 

Minister  and  Orator, 

Officers  of  the  Continental  Array, 

Military  Officers  (in  uniform). 

Judges  and  Justices  of  the  Peace, 

Clerk  of  the  Court  and  Town  Clerk, 

Selectmen, 

Register  of  Deeds  and  Representatives, 

Physicians, 

Hancock  Lodge — 

properly  clothed  with   jewels,  columns,  etc.,  in  mourning, 

the  Master  and  Wardens  bearing  candlesticks  with  candles, 

the  Wardens'  candles  burning,  the  Master's  extinguished. 

When  arrived  at  the  meeting-house,  the  candlesticks  were 

placed  in  a  triangle  on  the  Pedestal  of  the  Lodge,  which 


feROOIiS^tLLE  AiTD   PENOBS^COT.  80 

was  covered  with  black  and  placed  in  the  center  of  the 
broad  aisle,  and  continued,  two  burning  and  one  extin- 
guished, during  the  solemnities. — 

Citizens,  two  ^d  two. 
The  procession  proceeded  with  slow  and  solemn  music, 
from  the  Court  House  to  North  street,  down  North  to 
Water  street,  up  Water  to  Main  street,  up  Main  to  Court 
street,  and  thence  to  the  meeting-house ; — during  the 
procession,  sixteen  minute-guns  Were  fired.  The  Artillery 
and  youths  opened  to  the  right  and  left,  the  Artillery  with 
arms  reversed.  The  procession  moved  through,  the  music 
playing  a  Dead  March.  After  enteriiig  the  meeting-house, 
the  audience  being  seated,  a  pertinent  and  well  adapted 
prayer  was  delivered  by  Reverend  William  Mason,  a  funeral 
anthem  was  then  sung  by  a  choir  of  singers  selected  for  the 
purpose  ;  after  which  an  excellent  oration  was  pronounced 
iDy  William  Wetmore,  Esq.  The  meeting-house  exhibited 
appearances  of  mourning  which  "were  calculated  to  impress- 
the  mind  with  seriousness  and  veneration  ;  the  Pulpit 
covered  with  black,  and  the  windows  and  pillars  hung  in 
festoons  of  black." 

Societies. 

Besides  the  foregoing  amusements,  celebrations  and 
anniversaries,  which  were,  of  course,  attended  by  all,  old 
and  young,  male  and  female,  there  have  been  at  different 
times  associations  of  various  kinds — either  charitable,  lit- 
erary or  social  in  their  character- — the  membership  of 
which  has  been  more  or  less  limited. 

Foremost,  in  point  of  time,  is  Hancock  Lodge,  No.  4, 
of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons.  The  charter  of  this 
Lodge  is  dated  at  Boston,  June  9th,  1794,  and  is  signed 
by  John  Cvitler,  Grand  Master ;  Mungo  Mackey,  Grand 
Senior  Warden  ;  Samuel  Parkman,  Grand  Junior  Warden ; 
and  Samuel  Colesworthy,  Grand  Secretary.  David  Howe, 
Esq.,  was  elected  as  the  first  Master.  The  first  lodge  was 
opened  November  11th,  1794,  at  the  house  of  the  widoAV 
Deborah  Orr.  In  September,  1814,  the  hall  was  taken 
possession  of  by  the  English,  and  the  lodge  met  at  the 
house  of  David  Howe.  As  a  result  of  the  Anti-Masonic 
Crusade — the  effects  of  which  were  at  that  time  still 
felt — the  charter  of  the  lodge  was  surrendered  about  the 
year  1849  or  '50.  In  the  year  1851,  the  old  charter  was 
re-issued  bv  the  Grand   Lodge  of  Maine,  and  Samuel  K^ 


90  StSTOHY  OJ*  CASTINE, 

Whiting  Was  elected  the  first  Master  of  what  was,  virtually, 
a  newloclo'e — althouHi  enouo-h  of  the  old  members  were  then 
hviiig  to  constitute  its  charter  members.  The  nQ\Y  lodge 
was  fortunate  in  finding  most  of  the  Masonic  furniture 
of  the  old,  carefully  preserved.  Singularly  enough,  the 
Seal  of  the  old  lodge  was  found  between  the  ends  of  two 
timbers  of  the  old  schooner  llichigan,  while  it  was  under- 
going.repairs  at  Deer  Isle,  in  186G.* 

In  the  year  ISOl,  the  Social  Library  Association  was 
formed.  The  preamble  to  the  constitution  of  this  Asso- 
ciation—probably written  by  Reverend  William  Mason — • 
gives  so  clear  an  idea  of  the  object  of  the  Society,  that 
we  insert  it  entire  :- — 

PREAMBLE.     ' 

"  It  is  greatly  to  be  lamented  that  excellent  abilities  are 
not  unfrequently  doomed  to  obscurity,  by  reason  of 
poverty  ;  that  the  rich  purchase  almost  everything  but 
books ;  and  that  reading  has  become  so  unfashionable  an 
amusement  in  what  we  are  pleased  to  call  this  enlightened 
age  and  countr3\  To  remedy  these  evils  ;  to  excite  a 
fondness  for  books  ;  to  afford  the  most  rational  and  profit- 
able amusements ;  to  prevent  idleness  and  immorality ; 
and  to  promote  the  diffusion  of  useful  kuov/ledge,  piety, 
and  virtue,  at  an  expense  v/hich  small  pecuniary  abilities 
can  afford,  we  are  induced  to  associate  for  the  above  pur- 
pose; and  each  agrees  to  pay  for  the  number  of  shares 
annexed  to  his  name,  at  five  dollars  per  share." 

This  Association  commenced  with  thirty-five  share- 
holders, and  a  fund  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  dol- 
lars. Reverend  William  Mason  was  chosen  clerk  and 
librarian.  Mr.  Otis  Little  was  chosen  treasurer,  and  Mr. 
Doty  Little,  collector.  Captain  Joseph  Perkins,  Captain 
John  Perkins,  Deacon  Mark  Hatch,  Thomas  Cobb,  Esq., 
and  Doctor  Moses  Adams,  were  elected  trustees. 

The  number  of  books  belonging  to  this  Association  is 
not  given ;  and,  so  far  as  the  records  show,  but  few  meet- 
ings of  its  members  were  ever  held.  The  last  records  of 
the  Society  are  dated  June  4th,  1849.  The  greater  num- 
ber of  the  books  belonging  to  it  were  given  to  the  Castine 
Public  Library. 

*We  are  indebted  for  the  foregoing-  account  to  a  ver}-  interesting  History  of 
Hancock  Lodge,  compiled  by  Mr.  David  W-  AVobster,  Jr.,  a  citivzeu  of  this 
town,  and  a  past  Master  of  the  Lotlge, 


BKOOKSVILLE    AND   PENOBSCOT.  91 

Several  Societies  were  organized  about  the  same  time, 
in  the  year  1828.  The  Hancock  Debating  Club  comes 
first.  This  Club  was  formed  Januar}^  9th,  for  purposes  of 
mutual  improvement.  No  records  of  it  have  been  pre- 
served. On  February  12th,  the  Hancock  Agriculturtd 
Society,  and  the  Liberal  Temperance  Society  were  formed. 
The  records  of  neither  Society  can  be  found,  and  have 
probably  been  destroyed.  The  latter  Society  was  the 
first  Temperance  Association  ever  organized  here,  and 
was,  as  its  name  implies,  liberal  in  its  prohibitions,  com- 
pared with  more  modern  associations  for  a  similar  object, 
and  its  pledge  was  only  binding  for  one  year.*  Since  the 
dissolution  of  the  above  named  Society,  there  have  been 
several  temperance  organizations  formed  here.  A  com- 
pany of  "•  Washingtonians  "  existed  here  for  a  long  time, 
and  was  followed  by  a  Division  of  the  Sons  of  Temper- 
ance. The  latter  society  was  succeeded  by  a  Lodge  of 
(jood  Templars. t  All  of  these  associations  have  done  a 
good  work  in  the  cause  of  temperance,  and  the  latter  still 
continues  in  a  thriving  condition. 

Taverns. 

The  taverns  and  stores  afforded  the  same  opportunity 
to  many,  in  former  times,  that  tlicy  do  now,  to  obtain  the 
current  news  of  the  day  through  the  medium  of  the 
weekly  papers  and  the  mails.  The  earliest  tavern  in  this 
region,  to  Avhich  any  reference  can  be  found,  was  one  kept 
"over  the  Ferry," in  Penobscot,  by  a  Mr.  Brewer,  in  1795. 
[R.  B.  Thomas — Farmer's  Almanac,  1795.]  The  next 
was  the  inn  kept  by  the  Avidow  Deborah  Oir,  in  1798. 
It  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  nearly 
opposite  the  house  now  occupied  by  Miss  Nancy  Dodge. 
Li  the  year  1799,  there  was  one  that  went  by  the  name  of 
Woodman's  Coffee  House.  The  building  is  now  owned 
and  occupied  by  Mr.  Josiah  B.  Woods.  In  more  recent 
times,  the  following  taverns  have  from  time  to  time 
flourished  here.  One,  called  the  Lakeman  House,  situ- 
ated near  the  present  residence  of  Captain  Joseph  Stearns, 
was  kept  by  the  widow  Lakeman.  The  Atlantic  House, 
kept  by  John  Little,  was  in  the  building  now  owned   and 

*Do:ieon  Samuel  Adiiins,  Mr.  John  Dresser,  and  Doctor  Joseph  L. 
Steviii>,  were  the  originators  of  tliis  Society.  The  tirst-named  individual 
was  also  tile  lirsl  person  in  Castine  to  voluntarily  give  up  ihe  sale  of  inloxi- 
cutiny  (Iriiilis. 

tRising  Virtue  Lodge,  No.  109. 


92  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

occupied  by  Messrs.  Alexander  J.  and  Augustus  G.  Per- 
kins. Tlie  Castine  House,  kept  by  Benjamin  Robinson,  is 
now  the  handsome  residence  of  Mr.  Alfred  Adams,  on 
Main  street.  The  Bagaduce  House,  kept  by  Nathaniel 
Hooper,  is  still  owned  and  occupied  by  his  sons.  It  is 
opposite  the  Custom  House.  The  Union  House  (pre- 
viously the  Lalcemaji,')  was  kept  by  James  Hooper,  and 
the  Jarvis  House  was  kept  by  a  Mr.  Leman.  The  latter 
is  now  the  Castine  House,  kept  by  Captain  Horatio  D. 
Hodsdon.  In  addition  to  these,  there  was  a  sailors' 
boarding-house,  called  the  "  Green  Dragon,"  kept  in  the 
building  now  used  by  Mr.  Alfred  Adams,  as  a  stove  store ; 
and  another  kept  by  the  widow  Perkins,  in  the  house  now 
occupied  by  Mr.  Jothan  Gardner.  There  were,  doubtless, 
many  other  boarding-houses  kept  during  the  period  when 
the  Courts  were  held  here  ;  but  they  seem  to  have  passed 
out  of  the  recollection  of  the  inhabitants,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  one  kept  by  Mr.  Richard  Jaques,  in  the  house 
where  Mr.  William  Sawyer  now  lives.  He  and  his  wife 
were  a  very  singular  couple.  He  is  said  to  have  been  of  a 
peculiarly  crust}^  and  taciturn  nature,  while  his  wife  was 
decidedly  the  reverse.  It  is  related  of  the  latter,  that  on 
one  occasion,  when  she  was  not  feeling  very  well,  she  told 
her  minister  that  when  she  died,  she  "  wanted  to  go  to 
heaven  by  way  of  Boston."  This  goes  to  show  that  there 
were  people  at  that  time,  as  now,  who  considered  nothing 
as  worth  having,  unless  it  came  b}^  way  of  the  Modern 
Athens. 

Newspapers. 

Castine  was  the  first  town  in  this  eastern  section,  and 
the  fourth  in  Maine,  to  possess  a  weekly  newspaper.  The 
one  first  issued  here  is  said,  by  Honorable  William  Willis, 
[History  of  Portland,]  to  have  been  called  the  Castine 
Gazette,  and  to  have  been  established  in  1798,  by  Daniel 
S.  Waters.  "  Isaac  Story,  a  young  lawyer  of  promise  in 
that  town,  being,  he  says,  "a  principal  contributor."  The 
Gazette  of  Maine  was  taken  in  this  vicinity  by  subscribers 
as  early  as  1793  ;  but  it  is  believed  to  have  been  the  one 
published  in  Portland,  and  not,  as  thought  by  some,  the 
one  referred  to  by  Willis,  nor  even  the  one,  by  the  same 
name,  that  was  published  in  Bucksport,  in  1808.* 

*We  have  in  our  possession  .a  bill  for  subscription  to  this  paper  from 
No\\  4th,  1793,  to  Nov.  4th,  1794.  Tlie  amount  [not  including  postage)  was 
seven  shillings  and  sixpence.  The  bill  is  receipted  by  John  Lee.  We  have 
also  a  copy  of  the  paper  published  in  Buckstown,  in  1808. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  93 

In  1799,  the  Castine  Journal  and  Eastern  Advertiser 
was  published  here,  by  Daniel  S.  Waters.  Isaac  Story- 
assisted  in  its  editorial  management.  This  paper  was 
well  filled  with  the  foreign  news  of  the  period,  and  some 
attention  was  given  to  the  general  news  of  the  country  ; 
but  none  whatever  to  local  matters.  In  1809-10,  a 
paper  called  The  Eagle,  was  published  here,  by  Samuel 
Hall.  It  was  similar,  in  its  general  character,  to  the 
Journal,  but  was  not  quite  so  large.  In  this  paper  are  to 
•be  found  advertisements  in  regard  to  three  fugitive  appren- 
tices, for  one  of  whom,  a  young  mulatto  boy,  one  cent  is 
«^enerously  offered.  In  1828,  a  paper  was  published  here, 
by  Benjamin  F.  Bond.  It  was  called  the  Eastern  Ameri- 
can, and  was  somewhat  larger  than  any  of  its  predecessors. 
It  was  more  devoted  to  politics  than  either  of  the  others, 
and  more  frequent  allusion  was  made  in  it  to  local  matters. 
In  one  number,  reference  is  made  to  a  calf,  born  on  the 
farm  of  David  Wasson,  of  Brooksville,  which  weighed  at 
birth  seventy-seven  pounds,  and  which,  in  less  than  a 
month,  had  increased  in  weight  to  one  hundred  and 
twenty  pounds. 

Sometime  in  the  course  of  this  year,  an  attempt  was 
made  to  establish  a  literary  paper  here,  by  the  name  of 
The  Crescent.  Only  three  or  four  numbers  were  issued, 
when  the  undertaking  was  abandoned,  for  want  of  suffi- 
cient patronage.  No  weekly  paper  has  been  published  in 
this  place  since  that  time.* 

Post-Offices  and  Mails. 

In  former  times,  when  the  mail  was  received  at  long 
intervals,  and  postage  was  high,!  letters  were  considered  of 
much  greater  consequence  than  they  are  now.  They  were 
then  anxiously  looked  for,  were  read  again  and  again  by 
hosts  of  friends,  and  were  the  topics  of  conversation  for 
weeks.  The  earliest  reference  to  a  regular  mail,  is  in  1793. 
At  that  time,  George  Russell,  of  this  town,  carried  the 
mail  on  foot,  once  a  week,  from  here  to  St.  George,  and 
intermediate  places.     He  carried  it  at  first,  tied  up  in  a 

*In  1S72,  a  monthly  paper,  called  the  Castine  Gazette,  and  devoted 
exclusively  to  local  matters,  was  piibiisiicd  by  us,  in  order  to  test  the  feasi- 
bility of  c6nvertiu.c  it  into  a  weekly.  Only  eighteen  niunber.s  were  issued, 
wh(!n  the  undertakinf;  was  abandoned. 

tin  IT'JS,  the  postaj;e  on  a  letter  between  here  anil  Boston  was  twenty-five 
cents. 

13 


94  HISTORY  OF   CASTINE, 

yellow  handkerchief;  but  his  business  increased  to  such 
an  extent,  that  he  afterwards  used  saddle-bags.  [Eaton's 
Thomaston,  So.  Thomaston,  and  Rockland.]  In  1799, 
there  were  letter  mails  once  a  week,  but  the  regular  news- 
papers were  delivered  by  a  special  post.  The  earliest 
mail  from  this  place,  to  the  eastern  part  of  the  State,  was 
carried  by  John  Grindell,  of  Sedgwick,  about  the  year 
1795.  His  contract  with  Joseph  Habersham,  Post  Master 
General  U.  S.  A.,  has  been  preserved.  According  to 
the  terms  of  this  contract,  he  was  to  carry  the  mail  "  from 
Passamaquoddy,  by  Machias,  Gouldsborough,  Sullivan, 
Trenton  and  Bluehill,  to  Penobscot,  in  the  District  of 
Maine  ;  and  from  Penobscot  by  the  same  route  to  Passa- 
maquoddy, once  in  two  weeks,  at  the  rate  of  eighty-four 
dollars  and  fifty  cents  for  every  quarter  of  a  year." 
There  were  no  roads  at  that  time,  and  he  carried  the  mail 
in  a  boat  along  the  shore.  The  earliest  mail  to  Ellsworth, 
that  we  can  learn  of,  was  carried  by  Abner  Lee,  of  this 
town.  Mr.  Lee  at  first  drove  the  stage  with  two  horses  ; 
but  having,  through  some  misfortune,  lost  one  of  them, 
he  afterwards  drove  it  for  several  years  with  a  horse  and 
heifer  harnessed  together.*  The  regular  mail  was  first 
carried  to  Bucksport,  in  1819,  by  Benjamin  F.  Stearns. 
David  Howe,  Esq.,  was  the  Post  Master  here  in  1800,  and 
was  the  first  of  whom  any  record  exists.  There  was  no 
daily  mail  to  this  town,  until  some  time  in  the  month  of 
February,  1828. 

Captuees  of  Vessels. 

The  news  carried  each  way  by  the  mail  or  special  post, 

was  not  always  the  cause  of  rejoicing.     Accounts  of  sliip- 

wrecks  and  captures  abroad,  together  with  the  occurrence 

of  fires,   diseases,  trials,  deaths,  and  other  calamities  at 

liome,  gave   occasion  for  the  exhibition  of  more  serious 

feelings.     During  the  troubles  with  France  and  England 

— from  1799  to  1810 — there  were  many  captures  made  of 

vessels  hailing  from  this  port.     On  June   1st,  1799,  the 

schooner   Polly,  bound  from  Barbadoes  to    Wilmington, 

was  captured  by  the  French,  and  the  crew  made  prisoners. 

The  schooner  Lark  was  also  captured  by  the  French,  the 

same  year,  and  her  deck  load  destroyed.     In  1800,  the 

*Such  is  the  traditional  account  here.    We  have  no  positive  testimony  to 
this  eflect. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  95 

sbip  Hiram,  Captain  Samuel  Austin  Whitney,  was  cap- 
tured four  times,  by  the  French.  In  the  year  1810,  the 
schooner  Abigail,  Captain  John  Perkins,  was  also  taken  by 
the  cruisers  of  the  same  nation.  The  account  of  the 
third  capture  of  the  ship  Hiram,  in  a  book  entitled,  -'  Inci- 
dents in  the  Life  of  Samuel  Austin  Whitney,  [pp.  37  to 
41,  of  Appendix,]  is  so  interesting  that  we  give  it  entire:  — 

"  On  the  thirteenth  of  September,  1800,  the  Hiram 
was  taken  by  a  French  armed  vessel.  By  dint  of  long 
persuasion,  the  Frenchmen  were  prevailed  upon  to  allow 
Captain  Whitney  to  stay  by  his  vessel,  together  with  his 
young  brother  Henry,  an  old  man,  and  a  boy.  They  put 
a  prize-master  and  nine  men  on  board — one  of  whom  was 
a  negro.  Captain  Whitney  had  secured  his  pistols  in  a 
crate.  When  his  companions  saw  him  putting  out  of  the 
way  every  article  that  could  be  used  as  a  weapon,  clearing 
up  decks,  and  making  everythilig  tidy,  they  concluded 
that  ere  long  they  should  be  called  upon  to  bear  a  hand  ; 
and  in  this  they  were  not  disappointed. 

The  prize-master  was  lying  on  the  hen-coop,  dozing  ; 
there  was  a  light  wind,  and  some  of  the  crew  chanced  to 
be  in  the  forecastle.  Captain  Whitne}^  went  below,  after 
placing  the  heavers  where  he  could  see  them,  and  took  his 
rusty  pistols  from  the  crate.  He  came  on  deck,  went 
directly  aft,  and  knocked  down  the  man  who  was  steering. 
He  next  grappled  the  prize-master,  lying  upon  the  hen- 
coop, who  proved  too  stout  for  him  ;  and  while  he  was 
trying  to  put  him  overboard,  the  men  below  heard  the  out- 
cry, and  ran  to  the  rescue.  As  the  ship  rolled  at  that 
moment,  he  pushed  the  prize-master  overboard,  and 
regained  his  footing  just  as  the  crew  reached  the  quarter- 
deck. He  then  drew  his  pistol,  saying  that  he  would 
shoot  the  first  man  that  came  another  inch  aft,  and  leveled 
a  blow  with  his  fist  at  the  leader,  who  ran  forward,  the 
rest  following, — Captain  Whitney  at  their  heels,  with  a 
hammer  in  one  hand,  and  a  pistol  in  the  other.  They  ran 
forward  around  the  long  boat,  and  so  aft,  and  as  often  as 
they  turned,  he  would  point  the  pistol,  saying : — '  Sur- 
render, and  I  will  use  you  well ;  resist,  and  I  will  shoot,' 
or  words  to  that  effect.  There  was  a  negro — he  might 
have  been  the  cook  ;  but  I  do  not  recollect  about  that — 
who  sallied  out  from  the  rest  of  the  crew,  armed  with  an 
axe,  which  had  been  overlooked.  As  they  passed  around 
the  long  boat  forward,  the   negro  made  a  stand  to  disable 


96  HISTORY   OF   CASTDSTE, 

Captain  Whitney,  as  he  went  by,  driving  the  crew  before 
him  ;  but  a  shot  from  the  pistol  brought  him  to  the  deck, 
and  a  well-directed  blow  with  the  axe  killed  him  upon 
the  spot.  After  this  decisive  act,  the  men  made  only  one 
more  turn,  and  ran  into  the  cabin  ;  and  so  terrified  were 
they,  that  Captain  Whitney,  who  followed  them  in, 
seized  a  chest  by  the  handle,  and  drew  it  clear  to  the 
deck  of  the  ship.  He  afterwards  remarked : — '  I  never 
could  tell  how  it  was  done,  for  it  was  very  heavy.'  Hav- 
ing landed  it  on  deck,  the  first  tiling  that  met  his  eye 
was  the  man  he  had  thrown  overboard,  who  had  just 
regained  the  deck,  and  stabbed  his  brother  Henry,  with  a 
dirk.  He  said  to  the  old  man,  '  Stop  that  fellow  ; '  and 
himself  dealt  a  blow  which  so  staggered  him  that  he  was 
able  to  j)ut  him  into  the  cabin  with  the  others, — now 
eight  in  all.  Poor  Henry  was  in  a  sad  state,  faint  with 
loss  of  blood,  and  no  means  of  stopping  it  at  hand ;  but 
the  Whitney  courage  never  failed  him.  His  brother  took 
some  oakum,  and  bound  it  over  the  place  made  by  the 
knife,  and,  carrying  him  to  the  forecastle,  laid  him  down 
beside  a  lot  of  bottles.  He  stationed  the  old  man  at  the 
companion-way,  also  with  several  bottles — -to  be  used  in 
case  of  resistance.  He  then  ordered  the  men  up,  one  by 
one,  and  they  were  all  put  down  into  the  ship's  forecastle. 

Having  secured  his  prisoners,  his  next  thought  was  for 
his  young  brother,  who  had  gone  below,  and  seemed 
to  be  quite  comfortable  ;  but  in  three  days,  he  was  very 
ill.  On  examining  the  wound,  it  proved  to  be  very  badly 
gangrened,  and  Captain  Whitney  was  certain  he  must 
lose  him  ;  but  all  he  could,  or  did  do,  was  to  keep  the 
wound  Avet  with  brandy,  till  Henry  was  convalescent. 

Captain  Whitney  had  possession  of  his  ship  ten  days  ; 
and  during  that  time,  and  until  he  was  again  captured, 
lie  passed  all  the  food  to  the  crew  through  a  hole  which 
had  been  made  for  a  funnel,  when,  on  his  previous  voyage, 
he  carried  passengers  forward.  He  and  the  man  handled 
the  heavy  canvass,  so  that  the  ship  was  under  easy  way. 

About  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  his  man,  then  at  the 
helm,  discovered  a  sail,  bearing  directly  for  them,  but  a 
long  distance  off.  He  called  Captain  Whitney,  who,  after 
watching  the  stranger  some  time  with  his  glass,  said,  '  We 
will  keep  on  our  course ;  I  have  no  doubt  it  is  a  French 
Man-of-War.'  When  within  a  mile  of  her,  the  captain 
took  the  helm,  and  sent  the  man  below.     They  were  soon 


SROOKSVILLE   AKD  PENOBSCOT.  97 

"witliin  speaking  distance,  when  he  was  ordered  to  send 
his  boat  on  board  ;  but  he  took  no  notice  of  the  privateer, 
which  had  shot  ahead,  rounded  to,  and  run  across  the 
stern  of  the  Hiram  quite  near,  hailing,  '  Send  your  boat 
on  board  of  us.'  After  tampering  with  his  pursuers  in 
this  way  for  some  time,  they  fired  on  him;  but  he  still 
kept  on  his  course  ;  they  backing,  filling,  chasing  and 
firing,  till  finally,  the  wind  dying  almost  entirely  away, 
they  ran  so  near  as  to  inquire  what  he  meant.  He  had  no 
colors  flying.  He  replied  that  he  was  alone,  and  could 
not  leave  his  ship  ;  and  if  they  wanted  anything  of  him, 
they  must  come  and  see  him ;  at  which  they  asked  him  to 
heave  back  his  topsail.  He  called  his  man,  and  hove  the 
ship  to,  and  a  boat  was  sent  to  him,  the  French  captain, 
who  spoke  English,  coming  himself. 

A  long  discussion  ensued  between  Captain  Whitney  and 
the  French  commander,  who,  at  first,  was  incredulous  at 
his  statement ;  but,  while  they  were  talking,  some  ot  the 
boat's  crew  went  to  the  forecastle,  and  set  the  prisoners 
free.  The  pri^e-master  soon  told  the  whole  story,  where- 
upon the  French  captain  exclaimed :  '  Sacre,  one  man  take 
nine  ! '  The  prize-master  entreated  them  to  spare  him. 
It  was  mortifj'ing  enough  to  be  taken,  but  he  did  not  wish 
to  hear  about  it.  It  was  a  long  time  before  Captain  Whit- 
ney could  persuade  them  to  let  hira  remain  by  the  ship. 
He  urged  upon  them  the  unfairness  of  taking  him  away, 
as  they  might  fall  in  Avith  an  English'  cruiser,  and  in  that 
case  he  would  be  on  the  spot  to  claim  his  property.  At 
last  they  consented,  and  to  let  Henry  stop  with  him ;  but 
his  man  was  taken  on  board  of  their  vessel.  He  belonged 
in  Newport,  and  was  living  at  the  time  Captain  Whitney 
told  of  these  transactions.  They  put  on  board  the  Hiram 
a  lieutenant  and  eighteen  men. 

Captain  Whitney's  first  work  now  was  to  destroy,  or 
put  out  of  order,  all  their  nautical  instruments.  His  own 
quadrant  he  was  master  of  himself,  and  kept  a  dead 
reckoning,  so  that  he  knew  something  of  their  position. 
After  sailing  about  a  week,  the  crew  grew  uneasy,  and 
the  officers  lost  confidence  in  themselves,  and  applied  to 
their  prisoner  to  navigate  the  ship.  He  told  them  that 
he  would  do  so,  and  gave  them  liis  word  that  he  would  do 
all  in  his  power  that  they  should  be  well  treated  !  Finally 
they  gave  him  the  command.  He  shaped  his  course  for 
Savannah,  as  nearly  as  he  could,  and  in  a  few  days  had 


98  mSTOEY  OF  CASTINE," 

the  inexpressible  joy  of  seeing  the  land,  and  feeling  the 
land  breeze.  Said  he :  '  In  twenty-four  hours  I  should 
have  been  in,  had  not  the  lieutenant  called  the  men  aft, 
and  telling  them  what  an  everlasting  disgrace  it  would  be 
to  him,  persuaded  them  to  let  him  again  have  command.' 
Twice  they  foiled  him  in  this  way.  Twice  he  had  made 
his  port,  and  twice  they  took  all  hope  from  him ;  and 
when  they  turned  from  land  the  second  time,  he  told  them, 
in  pretty  strong  language,  that  they  might  take  the  ship 
and  go  to  perdition,  for  he  would  have  no  more  to  do 
with  them  ;  and  then  he  went  below.  '  In  a  day  or  two 
after  this,'  he  said  '  as  I  was  lying  in  my  berth,  I  heard  a 
great  noise  on  deck,  and  as  I  rolled  over,  the  ship  came 
round  within  half  cable-length  of  the  shore,  and  not  a 
soul  but  myself  knew  where  we  were.  It  was  Bermuda. 
I  then  made  up  my  mind  that  I  would  advise  a  little,  and 
directed  them  how  to  shape  their  course  for  Guadaloupe, 
meaning  all  the  time  to  bring  up  at  Martinique,  and  in  this 
I  was  pretty  successful.'  He  continued:  'It  was  about 
eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  the  Weutenant  came 
below,  and  told  me  we  had  made  a  large  ship,  that  we  must 
be  near  Guadaloupe,  and  before  morning,  would  be  in.  I 
laughed  to  myself,  to  see  how  nicely  they  were  caught,  but 
said  nothing,  till  they  were  so  near  that  there  was  no 
chance  for  escape.  I  then  said  to  the  lieutenant,  '  You 
had  better  have  gone  to  the  United  States  ;  you  are  a 
prize  to  the  English.'  The  lieutenant  was  perfectly  dumb 
for  a  moment.  He  saw  what  must  take  place  ;  and  as  they 
got  ready  a  barge  from  the  ship,  he  begged  of  me,  when 
they  hailed,  to  say,  '  an  American  ship.'  '  I  will,'  I  re- 
plied, '  but  I  will  also  add,  a  prize  to  the  French,  which  I 
did,  and  the  reply  was,  '  We  shall  be  most  happy  to  relieve 
you.' 

He  was  at  Port  Royal  three  months  ;  and  the  court  be- 
fore which  the  case  was  tried  gave  several  dinners  without 
asking  him,  or  even  inviting  him  to  the  table ;  and  when 
the  salvage  was  paid,  he  found  the  dinners  charged  also, 
costing  him  several  hundred  dollars !  At  last  he  set 
sail  under  convoy,  and  arrived  in  Savannah  some  time 
in  1801." 

Shipwrecks  and  Drowning. 

In  a  town  situated  upon  the  sea-side,  whose  chief  inter- 
ests and  pursuits  have  always  been  of  a  maritime  nature, 
it   would    be   expected  that  shipwrecks   and   deaths   by 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  99 

drowning  would  be  events  of  not  uncommon  occurrence. 
Disasters  to  navigation  have  been,  perhaps,  as  common  to 
the  citizens  of  this  community  as  to  otliers ;  but  deaths  by 
drowning  have  been  comparatively  rare  occurrences. 
There  is  no  record  to  be  found-of  any  such  accident  hap- 
pening, prior  to  the  year  1794i.  From  that  date  down  to 
the  year  1860,  a  period  of  sixty-five  years,  there  have  been 
in  all,  forty-four  persons,  residents  of  Castine,  who  have 
thus  lost  their  lives.  An  average  of  .62  per  annum.  Of 
this  number,  twenty-four  were  lost  at  sea,  one  at  New 
Orleans,  and  two  in  Penobscot  Bay,  leaving  but  eighteen 
who  could  have  been  drowned  within  the  limits  of  this 
harbor.  Of  this  latter  number,  in  six  cases  the  record  of 
their  death  does  not  state  where  they  were  drowned. 
The  saddest  event  of  this  kind  was  the  loss  of  the  schooner 
J.  31.  Tilden  and  crew,  on  the  island  of  Amherst — one  of 
the  Magdalen  group —  in  October,  1867.  Eighteen  men, 
in  all,  perished  at  this  time.  The  captain,  Benjamin  Syl- 
vester, and  one  man,  belonged  in  Deer  Isle.  The  remain- 
ing sixteen  belonged  in  this  town.  One-half  of  the  men 
were  married,  and  all  of  them  were  very  worthy  young 
men.  Many  of  them  were  part  owners  of  the  vessel.  In 
addition  to  the  above  mentioned  cases,  the  schooner  Sam- 
uel Noyes  was  wrecked,  on  the  thirteentli  day  of  February, 
1818,  it  being  the  second  day  out,  on  her  trip  to  Cuba, 
and  five  men  perished  on  board,  from  exposure.  The 
captain,  Mr.  James  Hatch,  was  taken  from  the  wreck, 
after  nine  days  exposure,  and  died  in  Glasgow,  Scotland, 
two  days  after  having  had  his  leg  amputated.  In  1812, 
Robert  McFarland,  of  this  town,  aged  twenty-nine  years, 
was  murdered,  by  the  natives,  on  the  coast  of  Africa. 

FiKES  AND  Fire  Companies. 

Castine  has  suffered  but  few  times  from  fires,  and  never 
from  any  very  extensive  conflagration.  The  earliest  fire 
in  this  vicinity,  to  which  any  reference  can  be  found,  was 
that  of  Mr.  Justus  Sopher's  house,  at  Penobscot,  in  1797. 
In  1809,  the  schooner  Commerce^  owned  by  Messrs.  Ilooke 
and  Witherle,  was  destroyed  by  fire.  In  1819,  a  barn, 
belonging  to  T.  Avery,  Esq.,  of  North  Castine,  was  struck 
by  lightning,  and  burned.  In  1821,  occurred  the  most 
extensive  fire  that  has  ever  been  known  here.  Tlie  stores 
of  Major  Little,  Holbrook  &  Brooks,  Witherle  &  Jarvis, 


100  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

and  Joseph  Palmer,  being  entirely  consumed,  altliough 
their  contents  were  for  the  most  part  saved.  On  March 
6th,  1828,  the  rope-walk  was  burned,  and  October  7th, 
1830,  the  new  one  erected  in  place  of  it  was  also  destroyed 
by  fire.  On  August  21st,  1848,  the  houses  of  Mr.  Otis 
Little,  and  of  Judge  Nelson,  were  burned.  The  last 
serious  fire  occurred  in  the  year  1857,  upon  the  first  of 
March.  At  this  fire,  the  store  of  Hatch  &  Bridgham, 
occupied  at  that  time  by  Mr.  James  B.  Crawford,  and 
Charles  J.  Abbott,  Esq.,  was  entirely  consumed. 

The  first  fire  engine  in  town  was  the  Hancock,  Number 
One.  When,  and  by  whom,  this  engine  was  obtained,  is 
a  matter  of  some  doubt.  It  was  not  likely  that  it  was  pur- 
chased by  the  town,  since  no  appropriation  for  it  appears 
upon  the  town  records.  The  only  accounts  we  have  of 
the  company  belonging  to  it,  are  contained  in  a  few 
scorched  leaves — parts  of  the  records  of  the  company — 
which  were  found  on  the  wharf,  shortly  after  the  burning 
of  the  store  of  Hatch  &  Bridgham,  and  in  a  list  of  its 
members  for  the  year  1840.  The  following  extracts  from 
the  leaves  referred  to,  will  be  of  interest: — 

"  Friday,  August  13th,  1819.  Last  evening,  after  four 
days  continued  fog,  the  wind  suddenly  changed  to  north- 
east, and  the  clouds  seemed  to  indicate  a  storm  approach- 
ing. Between  eight  and  nine  o'clock,  the  thunder  and 
lightning  was  frequent  and  heavy,  though  apparently 
some  distance  off.  At  ten,  the  storm  commeuced;  the 
wind  veered  to  southeast,  attended  with  thunder  and 
lightning,  heavy  and  sharp  in  the  extreme;  the  rain 
descended  in  torrents.  About  twelve  o'clock,  the  wind 
changed  to  northwest,  and  three  severe  shocks  of  thunder 
and  lightning  were  heard,  in  quick  succession,  dreadful 
beyond  comparison.  A  barn,  belonging  to  T.  Avery,  Esq., 
was  struck  at  this  time,  and  entirely  consumed,  with  its 
contents,  about  fifty  tons  of  hay,  farming  utensils,  etc. 
It  also  struck  the  house  of  Mr.  Avery,  and  slightly  dam- 
aged it ;  also  entered  the  house  of  Mrs.  Freeman,  and 
split  a  bedstead,  on  which  were  two  females.  It  also 
struck  the  Packet  sloop  General  Washington,  lying  at 
Gray's  wharf,  and  split  the  mast  from  the  topmast  to  the 
deck,  taking  out  almost  one-quarter  of  the  mast.  The 
fire  seemed  at  first  a  considerable  distance  off,  and,  it 
then  storming  very  bad,  it  was  thought  best  not  to  start 
the    engine.      About    three    o'clock,    morning,    the    bell 


BROOKSVILLE   AXB   PENOBSCOT.  101 

sounded  the  alarm  of  fire,  the  storm  havmg  abated,  and 
Captain  AverN'  being  fearful  of  the  wind  coming  to  the 
north,  in  which  case  his  house  would  be  endangered  from 
the  burning  ruins  of  the  barn,  sent  for  the  engine  to  assist 
in  quenching  it.  Repaired  to  the  spot  with  the  engine, 
with  all  possible  dispatch." 


"Monday,  July  3d,  1820.  At  four  o'clock  to-day, 
repaired  to  the  engine  house.  Voted  to  meet  at  eleven 
o'clock  to-morrow  morning,  to  choose  officers,  and  to  par- 
take of  some  punch,  to  be  provided  b}'  the  committee.  Mr. 
Fuller  came  late,  and  was  fined  one  shilling  and  sixpence. 

I.  S.  COFFIN,  Clerk." 

"  Tuesday,  July  4th,  1820.  Met  this  day  at  Mason's 
Hall,  per  adjournment,  and  partook  of  some  refreshments, 
provided  by  the  committee.  Jonathan  L.  Stevens  was 
re-chosen  captain,  and  I.  S.  Coffin,' clerk.  Messrs.  J.  H. 
Jarvis,  T.  B.  Capron,  and  S.  Adams,  committee  to  serve 
for  the  year  ending  May,  1821.     I.  S.  COFFIN,  Clerk." 


"  Sunday,  January  28th,  1821.  Early  this  morning, 
the  inhabitants  of  this  town  were  alarmed  by  the  cry  of 
fire.  It  originated  in  the  counting-room  of  the  store 
occupied  by  Holbrook  &  Brooks,  and  had  made  great 
progress  before  it  was  discovered.  This  building,  (viz : — 
stores  occupied  by  Major  O.  Little,  Holbrook  &  Brooks, 
Witherle  &  Jarvis,  and  Joseph  Palmer)  was  entirely  con- 
sumed ;  the  contents  principally  saved.  The  store  of  B. 
Brooks,  on  the  wharf,  caught  fire  two  or  three  times,  but 
was  as  often  extinguished.  The  exertions  of  all*,  on  this 
occasion,  were  great  in  the  extreme,  and  deserve  much 
credit — of  which  the  females  are  entitled  to  a  good  share. 
Never  were  people  more  engaged,  or  more  resolute.  The 
store  of  David  Howe,  Esq.,  distant  oidy  fourteen  inches 
from  the  Ijuilding  on  fire,  was  not  even  scorched.  Sails 
were  suspended  from  the  eaves  of  this  building,  and  kept 
constantly  wet,  to  which,  in  a  great  degree,  should  be 
attributed  its  salvation.  Where  all  did  well,  it  is  hard  to 
select ;  but  the  active,  the  zealous  exertions  of  Messrs.  E. 
14 


102  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

M.  P.  Wells,  John  Lee,  C.  K.  Tilden,  George  Coffin,  and 
Joseph  Palmer,  were  so  conspicuous,  that  we  should  do 
iDJustice,  not  to  j)ut  their  names  on  record.  The  whole 
loss  is  estimated  at  seven  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty 
dollars.  I.  S.  COFFIN,  Clerk." 

In  the  year  1840,  the  military  company,  known  as  the 
Hancock  Guards,  offered  their  services  to  the  town,  as 
Engine  Men.  Their  offer  was  probably  not  accepted,  as  a 
number  of  other  persons  agreed  to  put  the  engine  in 
thorough  repair,  to  keep  it  in  good  condition,  and  to  per- 
form all  the  duties  required  of  Engine  Men.  The  following 
is  the  list  of  members  approved,  at  that  time,  by  the 
Selectmen : — 

M.  P.  Hatch,  Frederick  A.  Jarvis, 

Andrew  Brown,  Otis  Morey, 

John  Clark,  Sylvester  Simpson, 

Nathaniel  Hooper,  Charles   H.    Averill, 

Mason  H.  Wilde,  Joseph    W.    Stearns, 

Joseph  B.  Brooks,  Elisha  D.  Perkins, 

Benjamin  D.  Gay,  J.  S.  Gardner, 

James  H.  Hall,  Joshua    Hooper,  Jr., 

Francis  Vanwycke,  Noah  Mead,  Jr., 

Levi  S.  Emerson,  Elbridge  G.  Bridges, 

Daniel  Gallighan,  Thomas  Sellers, 

Thomas  WilUamson,  Elbridge  G.  Hall, 

James  B.  Crawford,  Asa  Howard, 

Josiah  B.  Woods. 

This  engine  was  the  only  one  in  town,  until  the  year 
1845,  when  the  Bagaduce,  Number  Two,  was  purchased. 
At  what  time  the  fire  ladders  were  bought,  and  the 
boxes  made  for  them,  is  not  known  with  certainty,  since 
no  reference  is  made  to  them  in  the  town. records.  It  is 
not  unlikely  that  they  were  purchased  about  the  same 
time  that  the  Bagaduce  Engine  was,  and  were  paid  for 
from  the  contingent  fund. 

Disease  and  Mortality. 

Castine  has  always  enjoyed  a  remarkable  immunity 
from  epidemic  and  infectious  diseases.  Indeed,  it  may  be 
considered  a  pre-eminently  healthy  place.  The  mortality 
of  the  town  compares  favorably  with  that  of  any  other  in 
the  State,  and  is  mostly  confined  to  those  advanced  in  life. 


BEOOKSVILLE  AXD   PEN^OBSCOT.  103 

The  few  deaths  which  occur  here  are  principally  from 
phthisis  pulmonalis  (consumption).  Typhoid  Fever  and 
Dysentery  are  almost  unknown  here  as  epidemics.  Doc- 
tor Joseph  L.  Stephens,  who  has  kept  a  record  of  all  the 
deaths  in  town  for  more  than  thirty  years,  informs  us  that 
the  proportion  of  deaths  from  pulmonary  consumption  is 
much  below  the  average,  and  that  the  percentage  of 
deaths,  from  all  causes,  he  believes  to  be  below  the  gen- 
eral average  of  the  country  towns  in  New  England — 
averaging  for  the  last  half  centur}^,  only  1.38  per  cent,  of 
the  population.  To  use  his  own  language  :  — "  Dysentery 
is  scarcel}^  known  here,  there  having  been  but  three 
deaths  from  it  within  fifty  years.  Cholera  Infantum 
usually  appears  every  autumn — deaths  averaging  from  one 
to  five.  Of  Inflammation  of  the  Lungs,  the  average  is 
thought  to  be  large.  In  the  number  of  dangerous  chronic 
diseases  are  Epilepsy  and  Insanity.  It  is  feared  that  in 
this  place  they  may  even  be  called  endemic.  Of  the 
former,  six  cases  have  been  known  to  exist  at  once, — vary- 
ing in  duration  from  one  year  to  forty.  Of  Insanity,  the 
proportion  is  large.  There  are  now,  from  this  town,  four 
cases  in  the  asylum  at  Augusta,  and  there  has  been  an 
average  of  three  there,  ever  since  it  was  first  founded. 
For  the  first  twenty  years  of  the  writer's  residence  here, 
not  one  fatal  case  of  Croup  is  remembered.  Since  then,  a 
number  have  occurred,  but  none  within  the  last  five  or  six 
years.  Of  Chronic  Rheumatism,  we  have  probably  our 
full  share  ;  but  of  Acute  Rheumatism,  (Rheumatic  Fever,) 
the  proportion  of  cases  is  very  small.  We  think  it  can  be 
noted  as  a  matter  of  congratulation,  the  comparative  frt^e- 
dom  of  the  town  from  Intemperance.  Prior  to  the  remark- 
able temperance  reform  which  commenced  about  forty-five 
years  ago,  there  would  occur,  occasionally,  a  case  of 
Delirium  Tremens.  The  Washingtonian  movement,  so 
called,  in  aid  of  this  reform,  happened  soon  after.  Since 
then,  not  a  single  case,  of  any  severity,  has  occurred  here. 
During  the  whole  residence  of  the  writer  in  town,  but  one 
fatal  case  has  occurred,  and  that  was  complicated  M'ith  a 
very  serious  and  painful  injury.  It  must  be  stated,  how- 
ever, that  many  cases  of  disease  have  been  indirectly 
owing  to  intemperate  halnts." 

Such  being  the  facts  in  regard  to  tlie  health  of  the  town, 
it  is  not  surprising  that  })iit  little  attention  should  have 
been  paid  here  to  sanitary  matters — except  at  rare   inter- 


104  HISTORY   QF   CASTINE, 

vals.  In  the  year  1803,  owing  to  some  cases  of  a  malignant 
disease  having  been  bronght  to  town,  by  a  vessel,  a  quar- 
antine was  established  for  a  few  weeks.  In  1805,  there 
were  several  cases  of  Small  Pox  ;  and  again  in  the  years 
1840  and  1859,  a  few  cases  of  this  disease  occurred. 
About  the  tenth  of  September,  1832,  owing  to  the  general 
j)revalenee  of  Cholera  in  this  country,  some  alarm  was 
manifested  here ;  a  quarantine  was  established,  and  the 
whole  town  cleansed  and  disinfected. 

Notwithstanding  the  general  healthfulness  of  this  com- 
munity, however,  it  has  never  been  deprived  of  the  services 
of  those  valuable  no7i-producers — physicians.  There  has 
always  been,  at  least,  one  reputable  doctor  here — and  dur- 
ing the  palmy  days  of  the  town,  there  were  three  or  more 
at  one  time.  The  healthy  condition  of  the  people  has, 
however,  had  the  effect  of  rendering  the  fees  of  physicians 
rather  larger  than  in  most  places  of  the  same  size.  It  may 
surprise  some  to  learn  that  the  prices  charged  for  each 
visit  by  the  doctors  here  as  long  ago  as  1816,  were  exactly 
the  same  as  to-day.*'  Such  is  the  fact,  nevertheless.  The 
only  difference  is,  that  in  old  times,  the  physicians  fur- 
nished »iiiore  medicine  than  they  do  to-day.  Whether 
this  was  to  the  advantage  of  their  patients  or  not,  we  will 
leave  the  homeopathisU  to  decide. 

Courts  and  Trials. 

At  the  formation  of  the  County  of  Hancock,  in  1790, 
Penobscot  was  made  the  shire  town,  and  in  June  of  that 
year,  the  first  term  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  was 
held.  The  second  term  was  held  in  September.  The 
Probate  Court  was  also  held  here.  Honorable  Oliver  Par- 
ker, of  this  town ;  Honorable  Paul  D.  Sargent,  of  Sulli- 
van ;  and  Honorable  William  Vinal,  of  Vinalhaven,  were 
the  Judges.  As  the  County  buildings  were  situated  upon 
this  peninsula,  Castine  was  made  the  shire  town,  at  the 
time  of  its  incorporation,  in  1796.  By  act  of  the  Legis- 
lature in  1801,  one  term  of  the  Supreme  Court  was  held 
here  each  year.  Castine  remained  the  only  shire  town  of 
the  County  until  1814,  when  Bangor  was  made  a  half 
shire  town.  Ellsworth  was  made  the  shire  town,  and  the 
courts  removed  thither,  in  1838.  Our  inability  to  examine 
the   old    Court  Records,  prevents  our  giving,  as  we  in- 

*Some  bills  of  Drs.  Gage  and  Mann,  of  that  date,  are  in  the  author's  pos- 
session. 


BROOKS VILLE   AND  PENOBSCOT.  105 

tended,  a  somewhat  extended  account  of  the  more  impor- 
tant trials — civil  as  well  as  criminal— and  of  the  parties 
engaged  in  them,  during  the  forty-eight  years  that  Penob- 
scot and  Castine  were  the  shire  towns  of  the  county. 
From  other  sources,  however,  we  have  been  enabled  to 
obtain  some  imperfect  accounts  of  the  several  murders  on 
account  of  which  individuals  have  undergone  trial  before 
the  Supreme  Court,  at  this  j^lace.  The  earliest  trial  of 
this  kind,  of  which  we  are  able  to  obtain  any  account, 
occurred  in  the  year  1811,  before  Judges  Parker,  Sewall, 
and  Thatcher. 

At  that  time,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Ebenezer  Ball,  who 
resided  on  Deer  Island,  was  tried  here,  for  the  murder  of 
John  Tileston  Dowues,  a  deputy  sheriff,  who  was  attempt- 
ing to  arrest  him,  on  the  charge  of  passing  counterfeit 
money.  He  was  convicted,  and  sentenced  to  be  hung. 
An  attempt  was  made  to  obtain  a  pardon  from  the  Execu- 
tive, but  it  was  unsuccessful,  and  the  sentence  Avas  carried 
into  execution  on  Thursday,  October  31st,  1811.  [Judge 
Parker's  Letter  to  Executive,  Mass.  Archives.]  The  gibbet 
was  erected  in  the  center  of  Fort  George.  A  large  con- 
course of  citizens  followed  the  criminal,  when  escorted 
from  the  jail  to  the  place  of  execution,  prominent  among 
whom  was  "  old  Parson  Fisher,"  of  Bluehill,  who  dis- 
tributed to  the  crowd  copies  of  a  very  j^athetic  ballad 
written  by  himself,  for  the  occasion.  The  following 
extracts  constitute  all  of  this  poetry  that  we  have  been 
able  to  obtain  : — 

"The  day  is  come;  the  solemn  hour  draws  near, 
When  Oh!  poor  Ball,  you  quickly  must  appear 
Before  your  God  and  Judge. 

^  *  ^  *  at 

The  peojile  from  all  quarters  come 
"With  intent  to  si;e  Ball  hung. 

***** 

iVhen  Hiounted  on  the  gallows  high, 
Jle  10  a  friend  did  say  : 
'  Tray  take  my  hudy  when  I'm  dead, 
Ami  safely  it  convey. 

Deer  Isle  : — I  pray  inter  it  there ; 
This  is  my  last  reiiuest. 
This,  this  is  all  1  liiive  to  say; 
Oil,  leave  it  there  to  rest !' 

***** 

Take  warning,  then,  O  iny  dear  friends, 
Let  me  atlvisc  you  all ; 
I'ray  shun  all  vice,  and  do  not  die 
Like  Ebenezer  Bali." 


106  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE, 

In  the  year  1817,  [Williamson's  History,  Vol.  I,  p.  501,] 
an  Indian,  named  Susup,  was  tried  here,  for  the  murder 
of  Captain  Knight,  a  bar-keeper  at  Bangor.  This  murder 
was  committed  under  extreme  provocation,  and  much  s}^!!- 
pathy  was  felt  for  Susup.  Judge  Mellen,  then  in  the 
height  of  his  popularity,  defended  the  prisoner.  Judge 
Mellen  appeared  on  this  occasion  in  the  full  court  dress  of 
that  period,  and  gave  undoubted  indications  of  his  inten- 
tion to  secure  the  acquittal  of  his  client,  if  possible. 
Sometime  in  the  course  of  the  trial,  he  arose,  and  informed 
the  Court  that  Governor  Neptune,  of  the  Penobscot  tribe 
of  Indians,  was  present,  and  desired  to  be  heard.  The 
consent  of  the  Court  being  obtained,  Neptune  arose,  with 
great  dignity,  and  standing  for  a  moment  with  head  bowed, 
but  with  body  erect,  with  great  solemnity  commenced  the 
following  plea — unsurpassed  in  eloquence  by  any  of  the 
speeches  imputed  to  the  famous  Logan  : — 

"  One  God  make  us  all !  He  make  white  man,  and  he 
make  Indian.  He  make  some  white  man  good,  and  some 
Indian  good.  He  make  some  white  man  bad,  and  some 
Indian  bad.     But  one  God  make  us  all. 

You  know  your  people  do  my  Indians  great  deal  wrong. 
They  abuse  them  very  much— yes,  they  murder  them — 
then  they  walk  right  off;  nobody  touches  them.  This 
makes  my  heart  burn.  Well  then,  my  Indians  say,  '  We 
will  go  kill  your  very  bad  and  wicked  men.'  '  No,'  I  tell 
'em  ;  '  never  do  that  thing  ;  we  are  brothers.'  Some  time 
ago,  a  very  bad  man  about  Boston  shot  an  Indian  dead. 
Your  people  said  surely  he  should  die  ;  but  it  was  not  so. 
In  the  great  prison-house  he  eats  and  lives  to  this  day. 
Certainly  he  never  dies  for  killing  Indian.  My  brothers 
say,  '  Let  that  bloody  man  go  free — Peol  Susup,  too.' 
So  we  wish.  Hope  fills  the  hearts  of  us  all.  Peace  is 
good.  These,  my  Indians,  love  it  well.  They  smile  under 
its  shade.  The  white  man  and  the  red  man  must  be 
always  friends.  The  Great  Spirit  is  our  Father.  I  speak 
what  I  feel." 

This  appeal  to  the  jury  was  so  far  successful  that  Susup 
was  only  sentenced  to  one  year's  imprisonment,  and  to  be 
bound  over  in  the  sum  of  five  hundred  dollars,  to  keep 
the  peace  for  two  years.  John  Neptune,  and  other  Indians, 
were  his  sureties.  Susup's  wife  and  four  or  five  children, 
a  large  number  of  his  own  tribe,  besides  several  St.  Johns 
and  Passamaquoddy  Indians,  attended  this  trial. 


f 

BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.         107 

About  this  time,  though  possibly  two  or  three  years 
later,  Doctor  Moses  Adams,  of  Ellsworth,  previously  a 
practicing  physician  in  this  town,  was  tried  here,  before 
Judge  Mellen,  for  the  murder  of  his  wife.  The  latter  was 
found  dead  in  the  house,  her  throat  having  been  cut  by 
an  axe.  Suspicion  fell  upon  the  doctor,  because  he  was 
seen,  shortly  after  the  time  when  the  deed  was  supposed 
to  have  been  committed,  on  a  road  some  distance  l)ack  of 
the  house,  walking  rapidly,  and  occasionally  turning 
around  and  looking  towards  the  house,  as  if  to  see  whether 
he  was  pursued.  Judge  Mellen,  however,  in  his  charge  to 
the  jury,  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  day  was 
oppressively  warm,  the  doctor  a  fast  walker,  and  that 
nothing  was  more  natural  than  for  him  to  turn  around 
occasionally,  to  obtain  the  benefit  of  what  little  breeze 
might  be  blowing  from  that  direction.  The  prisoner  was 
acquitted,  for  want  of  sufficient  evidence. 

On  February  3,  1825,  one  Seth  Elliott,  of  the  town  of 
Knox,  in  Waldo  Co.,  was  hung  here  for  the  murder  of  his 
child,  whom  he  killed  in  a  fit  of  intoxication.  The  gallows 
was  erected  in  the  same  spot  where  that  used  in  the  execu- 
tion of  Ball,  was  placed.  The  particulars  of  the  trial  we  have 
been  unable  to  obtain,  but  Doctor  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  who 
was,  at  the  time,  the  physician  appoited  to  attend  the 
prisoners  of  the  County,  informs  us  that  Elliott  was  con- 
fined in  the  jail  for  one  year  previous  to  his  execution,  and 
that  during  this  time  he  twice  attempted  suicide.  The 
second  time  he  succeeded  in  cutting  his  throat  to  such  an 
extent  as  completely  to  sever  the  trachea.  The  wound  was 
however,  closed  by  the  doctor,  and  his  life  prolonged  to  the 
appointed  time.  The  night  preceding  his  execution,  the 
doctor  called  to  bid  him  farewell.  He  had  just  shaken 
hands  with  him,  and  started  to  leave,  when  the  prisoner 
recalled  him,  and  inquired  from  whom  he  expected  payment 
for  his  services.  "  My  dear  sir,"  remarked  the  astonished 
doctor,  "  why  do  you  think  of  this  at  such  a  time  !  I  pre- 
sume the  bill  will  be  paid  l)y  the  County."  The  prisoner 
then  informed  him  that  hesliould  leave  some  property,  and 
that  he  was  sure  his  family  would  see  him  i-emunerated, 
adding  :  "  The  County  ought  to  pay  it.  It  is  hard  for  a  man 
to  be  imprisoned  and  then  hung,  and  be  obliged  to  pay  his 
doctor's  bill  for  the  time,  too."  It  was  the  duty  of  the 
doctor  to  be  present  at  his  execution,  and  to  determine  the 
fact  of  his  death.     It  was  currently  reported  at  the  time — 


108  HISTOKY   OF   CASTIXE, 

much  to  the  amusement  of  the  good  doctor — that  the  body, 
after  being  cut  down,  was  removed  to  his  office,  where  it 
was  resuscitated  by  him. 

The  hitest  trial  of  this  kind  was  that  of  a  Mrs.  Keefe, 
who  was  tried  for  poisoning  her  husband.  We  have  been 
unable  to  obtain  any  particulars  whatever,  in  regard  to  this 
case,  except  the  mere  fact  that  she  was  acquitted  for  lack  of 
evidence. 


Epitaphs. 

In  the  cemetery  of  the  town,  are  to  be  found  some  graves 
of  quite  old  date,  though  very  few  of  them  contain  upon 
their  head-stones  any  epitaphs  of  peculiar  interest.  We 
insert,  however,  two  or  three  of  the  most  noteworthy. 
Tlie  first  occupant,  a  British  officer  named  Charles  Steward, 
was  interred  in  1783.  He  is  said  to  have  killed  himself 
with  his  own  sword,  on  account  of  his  mortification  at 
being  put  under  arrest  by  his  commanding  officer,  for  having 
sent  a  challenge  to  another  officer  with  whom  he  had 
recently  quarrelled.  In  1849,  the  following  tablet  was 
erected  to  his  memory,  chiefly  through  the  exertions  of  the 
late  Mr.  William  Witherle  and  Doctor  Josex^h  L.  Stevens: 

In  memory  of 
CHARLES  STEWARD, 

The  earliest  occupant  of 

This  Mansion  of  the 

Dead,  a  native  of  Scotland, 

&  1st  Lieut.  Comm.  of  his 

B.  M.  74th  Regt.  of  foot, 

or  Argyle  Highlanders, 

Who  died  in  this  town  while 

it  was  in  possession 

of  the  Enemy, 

March,  A.  D.  1783, 

and  was  interred  beneath 

this  stone.     JEt.  about  40  3^rs. 

This  Tablet  was  inserted 

A.   D.    1849. 


BEOOKSVILLE   AXD   PENOBSCOT.  109 

Captain  Skinner's  tombstone  reads  as  follows: — 

"  Capt.  ISAIAH  SKINNER, 
Died  Ang.  11,  1837, 
Aged  72  years. 
He  chose  the  post  of  duty  in  which  he  could  do  most 
good;  and  filled  a  long  life  with  skill,  fidelity  and  useful- 
ness.    The  first  to  sail  a  Packet  between  this  and  the  oppo- 
site shore,  he  daily  risked  his  health  and  life  for  the  safety 
of  others.     Honest  without  pretension,  and  firm  without 
rashness  ;  he  was  known  through  the  State  for  his  civility 
as  well  as  care  ;    for  the  good  fortune  with  which,  in  his 
well  managed  boat,   he  thirty  thousand  times  l)raved  the 
perils  of  our  Bay,  and  for  the  admirable  union  of  the  frank- 
ness of  a  sailor,  with  the  constanc}^  and  method  of  a  man 
of  business." 

The  epitaph  on  Doctor  Mann's  tombstone  is  very  expres- 
sive.     It  is  as  follows  : — 

"Thousands  of  journeys,  night  and  day, 
I've  travelled  weary  on  my  v/ay 

To  heal  the  sick. 
But  nozv  I'm  on  a  journey  never  to  return." 

Anecdotes  and  Traditions. 

To  relieve  the  minds  of  our  readers  from  the  serious 
mood  likel}"  to  be  engendered  by  a  perusal  of  the  foregoing, 
we  will  bring  this  chapter  to  a  close  by  the  narration  of 
some  traditional  accounts  of  a  somewhat  different  nature. 

There  is  a  tradition  extant,  that  for  some  time  subse- 
quently to  the  siege  of  the  town,  Mr.  Joseph  Perkins  lived 
in  a  small  house  which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  store  occu- 
pied, at  present,  by  Tilden  &  Co.  In  the  cellar  of  his 
house  was  an  old-fashioned  stone  oven,  in  which,  once  a 
week,  it  was  customary  to  do  the  baking.  Mrs.  Perkins 
had  an  Indian  woman  for  a  servant.  This  woman  had  an 
infant  which  she  was  accustomed  every  afternoon,  after 
getting  it  to  sleep,  to  put  away  in  this  oven.  One  day, 
after  thus  stowing  the  bal)y  away,  she  left  the  house.  INIrs. 
Perkins — knowing  nothing  about  this  habit  of  the  woman — 
concluded  to  bake  upon  that  afternoon,  and  accordingly 
built  a  fire  under  the  oven.  Of  course  there  was  soon  on 
hand  a  sufficient  supply  of  roast  i^appoose  !  The  cellar  has 
ever  since  had  the  reputation  of  being  luuinted. 
15 


110  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE, 

During"  the  occupation  of  the  town  by  the  British  (in 
1814 — 15),  a  semi-fatuous  individual  by  the  name  of  Hate- 
evil  Corson — ^popularly  known  as  Haty  Co'sn — called  one 
day  at  head-quarters,  and  asked  permission  to  see  General 
Gosselin.  On  being  shown  into  this  officer's  presence,  the 
following  colloquy  occurred: — 

Corson.     "Are  you  General  Gosselin  ?'* 

The  General.     "Yes,  I  am." 

Cor»on.  "Damn  the  goose  that  hatched  you,  then  !"  His 
business  thus  concluded,  he  left  the  irate  presence  at  once. 

This  same  individual  called  one  cold  winter's  day  at  the 
house  of  Mr.  John  Perkins.  After  standing  awhile  before 
the  kitchen  fire,  he,  much  to  the  astonishment  of  those 
present,  deliberately  divested  himself  of  his  shirt,  and  going 
out  of  doors,  proceeded  to  bury  it  in  the  snow.  After 
leaving  it  there  some  ten  or  twelve  minutes,  he  went  out 
and  brought  it  in,  and  going  to  the  fire-place,  held  it  just 
far  enough  above  the  flames  to  prevent  its  catching  afire. 
On  being  interrogated  as  to  what  he  meant  by  such 
actions,  he  replied : — "I've  always  heard  that  sudden  heat 
and  sudden  cold  would  kill  the  devil,  and  I  want  to  see  if 
it  won't  kill  these  — " 

He  was  the  same  "  crazy  vagabond"  who,  at  Bangor,  one 
Sunday  in  church, 

"To  wake  the  dozing  worshipers. 

Conceived  a  novel  notion, 
And,  possibly,  their  appetites 

He  thought  to  re-awaken. 
So  laid  upon  the  burning  stove 

Some  sausages  aud  bacou,'* 


beooks^t:lle  and  penobscot.  Ill 


CHAPTER  V. 

ECCLESIASTICAL  HISTORY. 

Early  Catholic  Missionaries. — First  Protestant 
Minister. — Itinerant  Preachers. — Appropriation 
OF  Money  by  Town. — Meeting-Houses  Built. — 
Petition  of  Inhabitants  of  Cape  Rozier. — Cost  op 
THE  Meeting-Houses  in  1792. — Town  Divided  into 
Parishes. — Reverend  Mr.  Abbott  Hired. — Rever- 
end Jonathan  Powers  called  to  First  Parish. — 
His  Letter  of  Acceptance. — His  Ordination. — 
Records  of  the  First  Church  of  Penobscot. — 
First  Parish  of  Castine. — Letter  in  regard  to 
Minister's  Lot. — Reverend  Micah  Stone  called. — 
Reverend  William  Mason  called. — His  Letter 
of  Acceptance. — First  Congregational  Church 
OF  Castine. — Rules  and  Regulations  for  the 
Sexton. — First  Trinitarian  Church  of  Castine. — 
F'iRST  Methodist  Society  of  Castine. — First  Bap- 
tist Society  op  Penobscot.  —  First  Methodist 
Society  op  Penobscot. — First  Baptist  Society  of 
Brooksville.  —  First  Trinitarian  Society  of 
Brooksville. — First  Methodist  Society  of  Brooks- 
ville. 

From  an  early  period,  the  eastern  region  of  the  Penob- 
scot, and  especially  the  peninsula  of  Castine,  has  been 
noted  for  its  ecclesiastical  record.  The  first  Englisli  Set- 
tlement was  made  by  a  company  of  Puritans,  from  the 
colony  so  celebrated  in  the  annals  of  New  England. 

As  early  as  1611,  a  French  missionary — Father  Biard — 
is  mentioned  as  having  been  here,  [Relations  des  Jesuites.] 
and  two  years  later,  other  missionaries  were  sent  liere. 
[Geographical  Hist,  of  Nova  Scotia,  p.  53.]  During  the 
occupation  of  the  place  by  the  French  under  Auliiev,  in 
the  year  1618,  a  Capuchin  priest,  by  the  name  of  Friar 
Leo,  erected  a  chapel  here,  which  was  probably  the  same 
edifice  referred  to  in  the  Deed  of  Surrender  of  Fort  Pcuta- 


112  HISTOEY  OF   CASTINE, 

goet,  in  Part  III.  During  the  residence  of  the  Baron  de 
8t.  Castin,  there  were  several  Catholic  priests  here. 
Amongst  others,  Messrs.  Chamboult,  Guay — who  is  said 
to  have  been  "a  good  priest,  and  an  npright  man" — 
Gaulin,  Masse,  Thuray  and  Bigot.  [Murdock's  Acadie — 
also  Letter  from  Monsieur  de  Bronillan  to  the  Minister,  in 
Part  III.]  Williamson  remarks  that  "  no  other  place  in 
til  is  eastern  region  was  so  much  the  resort  of  Catholic 
Missionaries,  as  the  fortress  of  D'  Aulney." 

In  the  year  1T61 — one  year  previous  to  the  Act  of  the 
General  Court  making  a  grant  to  proprietors  of  Plantation 
Number  Three — the  Reverend  Isaac  Case  is  reported  as 
having  removed  hither  from  Thomaston.  [Eaton's  Thora- 
aston,  etc..  Vol.  2d,  under  Letter  C]  If  this  account  is 
correct,  he  was,  probably,  the  first  Protestant  minister 
ever  at  this  place,  and  there  must,  of  course,  have  been 
some  settlers  here,  at  that  time.  I  )uring  the  occupation  by 
the  British  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution,  the  only  religious 
services  known  to  have  been  held  here  were  conducted  by 
John  Calef,  M.  D. — the  Chaplain  of  the  English  garrison. 
From  that  time  until  after  the  date  of  Incorporation,  all 
r^iligious  services  in  this  vicinity  were  conducted  by  itin- 
erant preachers. 

The  earliest  action  of  the  town  of  Penobscot,  having 
any  reference  to  the  establishment  of  regular  religious 
services,  was  in  the  year  1789.  At  the  March  meeting  of 
this  year,  the  town  voted,  that  "  the  sum  of  three  hundred 
pounds  be  raised,  for  the  building  a  meeting-house,  for 
the  public  worship  of  God."  At  a  meeting  of  the  town, 
held  the  April  following,  it  was  voted  to  have  the  meeting- 
house sixty-five  feet  long,  and  fifty  wide.  Captain  Daniel 
Wardwell,  Giles  Johnson,  Oliver  Parker,  John  Willson, 
and  John  Wasson,  were  chosen  as  a  Building  Committee 
and  as  Trustees.  About  this  time,  certain  individuals  liv- 
ing upon  the  peninsula,  desirous  of  having  preaching  at  a 
more  convenient  place  for  themselves  than  where  the 
meeting-house  above  referred  to  was  located — at  the  Nar- 
rows— started  a  subscription  paper  for  a  meeting-house  on 
the  peninsula.  This  gave  considerable  offence,  and  the 
town,  at  its  last  mentioned  meeting,  passed  the  following 
Resolutions  : — 

"  Resolved,  that  the  town  pass  a  vote  of  their  disappro- 
bation of  a  subscription  for  building  a  Meeting-house  on 
the  peninsula,  which  has  been  set  on  foot  by  certain  per- 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  113 

sons  merely  for  the  advancement  of  their  own  private 
interests,  with  a  view  of  drawing  the  inhabitants  off  to 
their  measures,  and  without  consulting  the  collective 
views  of  the  town,  for  the  accommodation  of  its  inhabit- 
ants at  large. 

That  the  town  deem  the  undue  and  immoral  measures 
which  have  been  adopted  by  the  agents  of  this  subscrip- 
tion, as  an  high  insult  offered  to  its  inhabitants  at  large, 
and  calculated  to  form  a  schism  in  their  religious  com- 
munion, and  establish  a  party  spirit. 

That  the  town  will  not,  directly  or  indirectly,  be  con- 
cerned in  or  countenance  the  erecting  of  said  building,  or 
any  person  who  shall  officiate  and  preside  in'  said  Meeting- 
house. 

That  the  town-  will  indemnify  every  subscriber  who 
may  have  been  misled  to  affix  his  name  to  the  said  Sub- 
scription, and  who  is  disposed  to  be  governed  by  the  legal 
and  orderly  proceedings  of  the  town,  from  paying  any 
sum  he  may  have  subscribed.  * 

That  the  town  will  deem  as  enemies  to  its  peaceable 
and  orderly  government  all  such  individuals  who  shall 
obstinately  continue  to  adhere  to  the  said  Subscription  for 
building  an}'^  other  Meeting-house  than  shall,  by  majority 
of  the  inhabitants  in  Town  Meeting  assembled,  be  resolved 
and  selected,  and  will  take  every  legal  measure  of  proced- 
ure, with  the  law  prescribed,  against  them. 

That  the  inhabitants  of  this  town,  in  their  elective 
capacities,  were  not  capable  of  building  but  one  Meeting- 
house, and  giving  support  to  one  respectable  clergyman. 

That  the  town  appoint  a  Committee,  and  empower 
them  effectually  to  take  every  legal  measure  against  any 
person  or  individuals  who  may  daringly  attempt  an  inno- 
vation on  their  privileges,  or  take  any  measure  to  estab- 
lish a  schism  in  their  religious  communion,  and  that  they 
will  defray  the  expenses  thereof. 

That  the  Selectmen  be  a  Committee,  to  proceed  as  the 
eleventh  article  prescribes  in  said  resolve." 

The  committee  appointed  to  decide  upon  the  land  for  a 
meeting-house,  and  to  prescribe  the  lin)its  of  the  same, 
reported :  "  that  to  convene  tlie  town,  we  think,  according 
to  our  best  judgment,  tlie  same  ought  to  stand  on  land 
claimed  by  Mr.  Joseph  Jiinney  and  Mr.  Webber,  to  con- 
vene the  same  with  a  suitable  connuon,  viz :  on  the  north- 


114  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE,  . 

ern  side  of  State  street,  so  called,  fronting  said  street  (six 
rods,  running  back  twenty  rods).  The  said  owners  agree 
to  part  with  the  said  land,  at  a  reasonable  rate."* 

At  a  meeting  of  the  town  held  September  the  first,  of 
this  same  year,  it  was  voted  not  to  appropriate  more 
money,  but  that  the  pews  be  sold,  to  raise  money  for 
building  and  finishing  the  meeting-house  ;  that  Mr.  Oliver 
Parker,  Mr.  Matthew  Ritchie,  and  Mr.  William  Webber, 
be  a  committee  to  superintend  the  sale  of  the  pews  ;  that 
the  pews  be  put  into  three  classes  ;  that  the  first  class  of 
pews  be  estimated  at  six  pounds,  the  second  at  four 
pounds  and  ten  shillings,  and  the  third  at  three  pounds  ; 
that  the  purchasers  of  pews  pay  to  the  committee,  cash  or 
other  materials,  at  a  certain  price,  to  be  determined  by 
said  committee ;  that  the  sale  of  pews  commence  on 
Thursday,  October  8th,  and  that  the  committee  post  up 
notices  of  the  time  of  sale.  It  was  also  voted  at  this 
meeting  that  the  petition  of  the  inhabitants  of  Cape 
Rozier,  Buck's  Harbor,  etc.,  be  accepted.  This  petition 
"was  as  follows  : — 

"  To  the  Selectmen  of  the  Town  of  Penobscot. 

We,  the  subscribers,  inhabitants  of  Cape  Rozier  and 
Buck's  Harbor,  and  others  on  the  southerly  side  of  the 
river — who  may  become  subscribers  in  six  months  from  this 
date,  in  that  quarter  of  the  town — qualified  to  vote  in  town- 
meeting,  request  of  you,  gentlemen,  to  insert  an  article  in 
your  warrant  for  a  Town-meeting,  fully  to  comprehend  this 
our  declaration,  with  the  Proviso  which  hereafter  folio weth. 
We  declare  ourselves  free  and  willing  to  aid  and  assist  the 
town  in  building  a  meeting-house  for  the  Public  Worship 
of  God,  on  the  place  and  in  the  way  and  manner  that  the 
town  has  heretofore  determined  by  vote  and  on  record. 
That  our  persons  and  property  are  free  to  be  taxed  in  a  full 
proportion  to  defray  the  charges  thereof, — as  also  to  settle 
and  support  a  minister  whenever  the  town  shall  think 
proper  so  to  do — provided  the  town  shall  pass  a  vote,  and 
the  same  be  recorded,  that  we  are  at  any  time  and  at  all 
times  free  to  petition  the  General  Court  to  be  set  off  by 
ourselves  or  to  be  connected  with  a  part  of  the  town  of 
Sedgwick ;  that  this  town  will  not  directly  or  indirectly  be 
any  let  or  hindrance  thereto ;    also,    that  when  we  shall 

*Thc  frame  of  this  meeting-house  was  first  erected  on  tlic  risin";  ground 
baclc  of  where  Mr.  Joshua  Emerson  now  lives.  According  to  the  town 
records,  it  must  have  been  subsequently  moved  a  short  distance. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  115 

obtain  a  Bill  of  Incorporation,  either  as  a  town  or  a  district, 
that  the  town  of  Penobscot  do  hold  and  oblige  themselves 
ready  and  willing  to  refund  back  to  us,  the  subscribers,  all 
the  money  that  we  may  be  taxed  for,  or  that  shall  really 
be  paid  to  the  Treasurer,  for  the  building  and  finishing  said 
Meeting-house,  and  our  proportion  of  the  minister's  settle- 
ment, if  any  is  given, — improvement  thereof  first  deducted. 
When  the  subject  matters  shall  be  laid  before  the  town  we 
[will]  submit  to  any  reasonable  amendment  that  may 
then  appear  necessary  between  party  and  party." 

This  petition  was  signed  by  David  Hawes,  Samuel  Was- 
son,  Elisha  Hopkins,  Noah  Norton,  Thomas  Kench,  Ben- 
jamin Howard,  John  Bakeman,  Jr,,  Thomas  Wasson,  John 
Wasson,  John  Condon,  Edward  Howard,  Malachi  Orcutt, 
Jacob  Orcutt,  John  Redman,  and  John  Bakeman. 

In  the  year  1790,  deeds  of  the  land  upon  which  the 
meeting-house  was  erected,  were  obtained  from  Joseph 
Binney  and  William  Webber.  In  1791,  the  town  refused 
to  make  any  further  appropriation  for  the  finishing  of  the 
meeting-house. 

In  the  year  1792,  the  town  voted  that  the  sum  of  thirty 
pounds,  lawful  money,  be  appropriated  to  hire  preaching 
for  that  year,  and  that  Messrs.  Oliver  Parker,  Matthew 
Ritchie,  and  Pelatiah  Leach,  be  a  committee  to  engage  a 
suitable  person  to  preach,  and  to  decide  upon  the  place 
where  the  preaching  should  be  held.  It  was  also  voted 
that  the  town  should  not  be  divided  into  parishes.  A  vote 
was  also  passed  this  year  to  make  the  meeting-house  which 
had  been  built  upon  the  peninsula,  (notwithstanding  the 
disapproval  of  the  town  in  its  corporate  capacity)  the 
property  of  the  town,  by  paying — or  allowing — the  bills 
against  the  same.  Messrs.  David  Hawes,  Captain  Joseph 
Perkins,  Oliver  Parker,  William  Webber,  and  Pelatiah 
Leach,  were  appointed  a  committee  to  examine  the  said 
bills.  Another  committee  was  also  chosen  to  provide  the 
material  for  furnishing  the  meeting-house  at  Webber's,  and 
also  to  procure  a  minister.  The  cost,  at  this  time,  of  the 
church  at  Webber's,  amounted  to  the  sum  of  £205  3s.  2d., 
and  of  the  one  on  the  peninsula  to  X871  10s.  2d. 

In  the  year  1793,  the  town  received  from  Captain  John 
Perkins,  a  deed  of  the  land  on  which  the  meeting-house 
on  the  peninsula  stands.  The  town  at  first  voted  not  to 
raise  any  money  this  year  for  preaching,  l)ut  afterwards 
made  an  appropriation  of  thirty  pounds.      The  exact  time 


116  HISTORY   OF   CASTDTE, 

when  the  town  was  divided  into  parishes,  cannot  be  cer- 
tainly determined,  owing  to  the  loss  of  several  pages  of  the 
early  records.  It  was  probably,  however,  about  this  time, 
as  the  town  voted  this  year  that  the  preaching  be  held  one- 
half  the  time  on  the  peninsula,  and  one-half  the  time  at  the 
first  narrows.  The  First  Parish  included  all  of  the  present 
town  of  Penobscot  and  that  portion  of  North  Castine, 
north  of  the  present  residence  of  Captain  Joseph  Wescott. 
The  remainder  of  the  old  town  of  Penobscot,  formed  the 
Second  Parish.  At  this  same  meeting,  it  was  voted  to 
hire  Reverend  Mr.  Abbott,  for  three  months  after  his  then 
engagement  was  ended.  At  a  meeting  held  some  time  sub- 
sequently, the  town  voted  to  pay  him  fifteen  pounds  extra, 
if  he  chose  to  preach  for  a  longer  time  than  the  committee 
had  engaged  him  for. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  1794,  the  town  voted  an  appro- 
priation of  thirty  pounds  for  the  support  of  preaching. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  First  Parish,  held  in  September  follow- 
ing, it  was  voted  to  engage  Mr.  Jonathan  Powers  to  preach, 
and  a  committee  of  seven  were  appointed  to  wait  upon  him 
with  an  invitation. 

In  April,  1795,  the  town  voted  to  give  Reverend  Mr. 
Powers  eighty  pounds  annually,  and  when  he  should  be 
settled  as  minister  over  the  First  Parish,  to  give  him  X150 
for  a  settlement.  In  response  to  the  call  of  the  First  Parish, 
Mr.  Powers  wrote  the  following  letter  of  acceptance  to  the 
Clerk  of  the  parish,  and  requested  to  have  it  recorded. 

"  Sensible  of  my  own  insufficiency  and  unworthiness  to 
be  an  embassador  of  Christ,  and  also  of  my  absolute  need 
of  Divine  strength  and  grace,  which  I  hope  has  been 
measurably  granted  me,  and  now  renouncing  self-depend- 
ence and  looking  to  God  and  relying  upon  Christ  for  all 
ministerial  gifts  and  graces,  I  freely  accept  the  invitation 
and  call  given  me  by  the  First  Parish  in  this  town,  to  settle 
with  them  as  their  Gospel  Minister,  by  taking  the  oversight 
of  them  in  the  Lord.  Which  call  of  the  parish  is  agreeable 
to  the  votes  passed  on  several  days,  and  upon  March  second 
on  which  they  voted  the  call,  second,  upon  March  twenty- 
third,  on  which  they  voted  to  give  me  one  hundred  and 
fifty  pounds  for  a  settlement,  and  third,  upon  April  six- 
teenth, on  which  they  voted  to  give  me  eighty  pounds  for 
a  yearly  salary. 

(Signed)  JONATHAN  POWERS. 

(Dated)   Penobscot,  June  17th,  1796." 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  117 

At  a  parisli  meeting  held  July  13th,  1796,  it  was  decided 
to  have  the  ordination  on  the  last  Thursday  of  August, 
and  that  Reverend  Peter  Powers,  Mr.  Merrill,  and  Mr. 
Emerson,  of  Georgetown  ;  Eaton,  of  Harpswell ;  Gilman, 
and  Anderson,  of  ^N'orth  Yarmouth,  be  the  Ordaining 
Council.  The  sum  of  ten  pounds  was  appropriated  to 
defray  the  exj^enses  of  the  Council.  The  parish  also  voted 
to  allow  Mr.  Powers  four  Sabbaths  in  each  year,  in  which 
to  visit  his  friends,  and  preach  to  the  poor. 

First  CoNOREaATioNAL  Church  op  Pexobscot. 

On  the  seventeenth  of  the  previous  June,  an  Ecclesiasti- 
cal Council  having  been  called  for  that  purpose,  a  Congre- 
gational Church  was  organized,  consisting  of  fifteen  mem- 
bers, a  sermon  being  preached  by  Reverend  Peter  Powers. 
A  Confession  of  Faith,  and  Covenant,  drawn  up  by  the  pas- 
tor elect,  were  adopted  by  the  church.  These  articles  are 
remarkable  for  their  number  and  fulness,  and  were  sharply 
Calvinistic.  The  names  of  the  original  church  members 
were  as  follows  : — Caleb  Merrill,  David  Hawes,  John  Was- 
son,  Samuel  Wasson,  Thomas  Wasson,  Jeremiah  Stover, 
Sarah  Parker,  Rebecca  Hawes,  Elizabeth  Wasson,  Mary 
Wasson,  Mary  Blake,  Olive  Stover,  Sarah  Bowden,  Eliza- 
beth Bridges,  Olive  Basteen. 

A  church  having  been  organized,  and  Mr.  Powers  hav- 
ing accepted  the  call  of  the  parish,  a  meeting  was  held  to 
take  measures  for  his  ordination.  At  this  meeting,  an 
active  opposition  was  made  to  the  ordination  of  Mr. 
Powers,  based  on  objections  to  the  Articles  of  Faith 
adopted  by  the  church.  The  final  vote,  in  favor  of  ordain- 
ing, was  carried  by  thirty-six  against  sixteen. 

Mr.  Powers  was  ordained  and  installed  August  26th, 
1795.  Reverend  Ezekiel  Emerson,  of  Georgetown,  preached 
the  sermon.  Notwithstanding  the  opposition  to  his  ordi- 
nation, the  attendance  on  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Powers  was 
general,  including  those  who  liad  been  active  in  opposi- 
tion, until  the  endeavor  was  made  to  tax  the  parish  for  his 
support — his  "  settlement "  of  one  hundred  pounds,  and 
his  salary  of  fifty  pounds,  afterwards  increased  to  eighty, 
having  previously  been  raised  by  subscription.* 

*So  say  tlifi  cliiirch  rccort|s.  It  js  a  mattor  of  fact,  tliouj^li,  tliat  the  town 
did,  a  portion  of  tliis  tjiao,  vote  an  uiiproiiriatiou  of  money  "for  tlie  support 
of  i)reacliinf;."  Tliere  is  no  evidence,  iiowever,  in  tlie  town  records,  tiiat 
tliis  money  was  paid  to  Mr.  Powers,  and  tljere  is  gome  degree  of  uucertaiuty 
in  regard  to  tlie  matter. 

16 


118  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

The  vote  to  raise  the  tax  was  carried,  also  a  vote  recog'- 
nizing  Mr.  Powers  as  the  "  town  minister," — which 
entitled  him  to  the  lot  of  land  appropriated  to  the  first 
settled  minister.  It  proved  that  "  a  tax  was  more  dreaded 
than  the  preacher's  sentiments,  thongh  he  used  often  to  be 
faulted  for  his  distinguishing  doctrines."  The  opposition 
to  a  town  tax  for  the  support  of  Mr.  Powers  became  so 
extensive,  that  this  action  of  the  town  was  reconsidered 
and  reversed  in  May,  1799.  The  supporters  of  Mr.  Powers 
were  incorporated  into  a  Parish  in  1801,  and  in  the  same 
year,  a  new  house  of  worship  Avas  erected  in  North  Castine, 
near  the  present  store  where  the  road  branches  to  the  east, 
leading  to  the  Head  of  the  Bay. 

Among  the  items  of  interest  in  the  church  records,  is 
the  following.  In  1798,  "a  difficulty  arose  by  reason  that 
several  had  made  profession  and  joined  the  church,  who 
had  previously  been  guilty  of  the  sin  of" — humoral  prac- 
tices, the  church  generally  not  knowing  the  facts,  and  the 
individuals  "  did  not  know  that  the  church  required  a  con- 
fession. But  upon  trial,  it  appeared  to  be  the  minds  of 
almost  all,  that  a  confession  should  be  made  for  that  and 
other  scandalous  offences."  Accordingly,  three  comphed 
with  the  condition,  and  three  of  the  others  were  finally, 
in  1800,  excommunicated,  for  refusing  to  make  public  con- 
fession of  sin  committed  before  uniting  ivith  the  church. 

"The  members  of  the  church  and  society  were  generally 
separated  at  a  great  distance,  both  by  land  and  water," 
coming  largely  from  the  present  townships  of  Penobscot 
and  Brooksville.  They  had  difficulty  in  raising  the  salary 
and  sustaining  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel.  A  council, 
called  for  that  purpose,  advised  the  dismission  of  Mr. 
Powers,  but  the  people  were  unwilling  to  part  with  him. 
He  continued  with  them  till  1804,  after  which  his  time 
seems  to  have  been  largely  spent  away  in  missionary 
labors.  In  1807,  he  returned  home,  sick  from  his  expos- 
ures and  labors,  and  died  November  8th,  of  the  same 
year,  aged  forty-five  years.  A  sermon,  delivered  at  his 
funeral,  and  an  elegy  by  Reverend  Jonathan  Fisher,  of 
Bluehill,  were  printed  at  Buckstown. 

"  Seiz'd  with  a  cold,  when  laboring  in  the  cause 
Of  Great  Iminauuel,  and  his  holy  laws ; 
Opprest  with  fever,  and  consumption's  force, 
The  worthy  POWERS  has  fulfilled  his  course. 


BKOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  119 

His  charge  not  wealthy;  conipeusation  small 

Id  earthly  treasure;  prest  with  many  a  call, 

Hard  to  be  answered ;  he  prepares  once  more, 

Should  counsel  point  an  honorable  door, 

To  leave  his  charge — on  Missionary  ground, 

Appointed,  enters ;  quickly  there  is  found 

By  dire  disease;  returns  enfeebled  home. 

And  waits  the  summons  which  must  shortly  come. 


*  *  *  His  mortal  strength  decays, 

His  tongue  no  more  his  scattering  thought  obeys ; 
Death's  chilly  hand  benumbs  the  vital  tide, 
The  pale  dark  shadows  o'er  his  visage  slide, 
With  the  last  gasp  the  portals  wide  display, 
His  soul,  prepared,  slips  unobserved  away. 
Meets  her  kind  convoy,  and  with  rapture  "flies 
On  speedy  wing  beneath  the  nether  skies." 

The  ministry  of  Mr.  Powers,  during  his  pastorate,  was 
blessed  with  seasons  of  revival,  and  additions  to  the 
church — twenty  in  1797,  thirteen  in  1803,  and  smaller 
numbers  in  the  other  years. 

On  May  28th,  1809,  Reverend  Philip  Spaulding  com- 
menced his  labors  with  the  church,  as  a  preacher  of  the 
gospel.  October  4th,  he  was  invited  to  be  their  pastor — 
which  invitation  he  accepted  November  20th.  No  notice 
of  his  ordination  appears  on  the  church  records,  Vjut 
the  date  is  elsewhere  given  as  November  22d,  1809, — 
which  does  not  give  the  needed  time  between  his  accept- 
ance and  the  meeting  of  a  council.  Mr.  Spaulding's  pas- 
torate would  seem  to  have  been  by  no  means  peacefid. 
With  one  brief  exception,  in  1810,  the'  records  of  the 
church,  kept  by  himself,  treat  of  cases  of  church  disci- 
pline, and  of  nothing  else.  On  August  3d,  1813,  ah 
Ecclesiastical  Council  met,  to  act  on  the  question  of  dis- 
missing Mr.  Spaulding.  Among  the  reasons  urged  for  his 
dismission,  was  one  reflecting  on  his  deportment,  which 
had  created  dissatisfaction.  He  was  dismissed  August 
4th,  of  this  year. 

There  was  no  pastor  of  the  church  after  this  date,  and 
the  subsequent  church  meetings  seem  to  have  been  held  in 
Brooksville.  The  last  items  of  record  are  the  public  excom- 
munication of  three  members, — the  offence  of  one  being 
*'  the  selling  of  bull  beef," — and  the  dismission  of  three 
other  members  to  the  new  Trinitarian  Church,  organized  in 
Castine,  July  2tjth,  1820 — three  of  the  fifteen  composing 
that  church.  Four  other  members  of  tlie  Penobscot  church 
afterwards  united  with  the  church  in  Castine — in  all  seven. 


120  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

These  constitute  a  connecting  link  between  the  Firsfe 
Church,  whose  central  point  and  place  of  meeting  Avas  in 
North  Castine,  and  the  present  Trinitarian  Oiurch.  A 
portion  of  the  remaining  members  of  the  First  Church  werer 
embraced  in  the  Congregational  Church  at  West  Brooks- 
ville  ;  organized  January  4th,  1826.  The  First  Church, 
ceasing  its  organization  as  such,  has  become  "  two  bands  "" 
in  two  of  the  townships  embraced  originally  in  Penob&cot. 


First    Congregational    Church    and    Society    of 

Castine. 

The  Second  Parish  had  no  settled  minister  while  it  was  a 
part  of  [the  town  of  Penobscot,  though  Mr,  Powers,  Mr. 
Abbott,  and  some  itinerant  preachere  oflBciated  there  a 
portion  of  the  time.  By  the  tenns  of  settlement  agreed 
upon  by  the  joint  committee  of  the  two  towns  of  Penob- 
scot and  Castine,  the  meeting-house  on  the  peninsula 
became  the  property  of  the  latter  town,  and  was  thereafter 
known  as  the  meeting-honse  of  the  First  Parish  of  Castine. 
The  lands  included  under  the  title  of  "  minister's  lot  and 
lot  for  the  ministry,"  were  divided  at  this  time.  The  fol- 
lowing letter  from  the  agent  of  the  proprietors  of  Planta- 
tion Number  Three,  states  these  lots  at  three  hundred 
acres — which  would  give  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  to- 
each  town. 


"  Castine,  September  6th,  1797- 

Gentlemen,  Selectmen  of  the 
Town  of  Castine : 

The  Resolve  of  the  General  Court  with  respect  to 
Township  Number  Three,  commonly  known  as  Majabig- 
waduce,  makes  it  a  condition  that  the  proprietors  of  the 
said  township  shall  reserve  three  hundred  acres  of  land 
for  the  first  settled  minister  in  said  township.  As  their 
agent,  I  inform  you  that  the  land  allotted  for  that  pur- 
pose is  lot  Number  Twenty-nine,  back  of  the  G-ore  lot,  and 
lot  Number  One  on  Penobscot  River,  and  so  much  of  lot 
Number  Fourteen  as  will  make  up  the  three  hundred  acres 
to  be  laid  out  contiguous  to  lot  Number  Twenty-nine.     I 


BROOESVELLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  121 

do  myself  the  pleasure  to  give  you  this  information,  and 
shall  also  send  a  similar  letter  to  the  Selectmen  of  Penob- 
scot, and  I  think  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  have  this  letter 
put  upon  your  town  records. 

I  am,  Gentlemen, 

Your  very  humble  Servant, 

PHILIP  JARVLS." 

Reverend  Micah  Stone  is  believed  to  have  preached 
here  at  the  time  of  the  incorporation  of  the  town,  and  in 
September,  1796,  the  town  gave  him  a  call,  and  voted  him 
a  salary  of  four  hundred  dollars,  and  a  "  settlement  "  of 
eight  hundred  dollars.  The  call  was  not  accepted  by  him, 
and,  accordingly,  in  the  year  1798,  an  invitation  was 
extended  to  Reverend  William  Mason,  to  become  pastor  of 
the  town,  at  a  salary  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  per 
annum,  for  three  years.  He  also  received  eight  hundred 
dollars  upon  his  settlement  over  the  town.  At  the  same 
time,  Barnabas  Higgins  was  elected  sexton.  The  follow- 
ing is  Mr.  Mason's  letter  of  acceptance  : — • 

*'  Castike,  August  13th,  1798. 

To  the  Committee  of  the  Congregational  Society  of 
Castine:— Gentlemen  : 

Impressed  with  a  sense  of  the  importance  of  Christianity, 
and  the  high  degree  of  responsibility  there  is  attached  to 
the  ministerial  office,  I  have  considered  your  invitation  to 
settle  with  you  as  a  religious  instructor.  It  has  been  my 
endeavor  to  weigh  every  circumstance  connected  with  the 
invitation,  with  candor  and  impartiality,  and  should  I  here- 
after find  cause  to  lament  my  determination,  I  think  it 
will  not  be  attended  with  those  painful  reflections  which 
naturally  result  from  want  of  deliberation.  I  am  sensible 
there  are  many  common  difficulties  attending  the  work  of 
the  gospel  ministry  ;  but  I  confess,  many  of  them  are 
removed  by  your  declared  willingness  to  give  a  liberal 
support  to  a  gospel  minister,  and  specially  by  your  una- 
nimity in  calling  for  your  pastor ;  for  it  has  ever  been  my 
determination  never  to  continue  in  a  society  where  my 
pul)lic  performances  would  be  obnoxious  to  a  respectable 
number.  This  I  should  not  consider  duty,  as  I  could  not 
be  useful,  and  I  think  duty  and  usefulness  are  generally 


122  HISTOEY   OF  CASTINE, 

connected.  After  all,  there  are  difficulties ;  but  I  do  not 
expect  to  be  free  from  them  while  in  this  vale  of  tears  ; 
they  are  the  lot  of  humanity.  Trusting  in  God,  the  doc- 
trines of  whose  Gospel  I  have  endeavored,  and  shall  still 
endeavor,  to  preach, — that  he  will  afford  me  his  assistance 
and  protection, — I  have  concluded  to  accept  your  invita- 
tion to  settle  with  you  as  a  gospel  minister,  and  do  at  this 
time  inform  you  of  my  acceptance  ; — with  this  proviso : 
that  a  reasonable  time  annually  be  reserved  for  visiting  my 
friends.  I  do  not  mention  any  particular  time,  because, 
on  account  of  the  passing  being  chiefly  by  water,  it  is 
uncertain  what  time  would  be  necessary  to  pass  and 
repass  ;  probabl}^,  however,  I  should  not  wish,  in  general, 
to  spend  more  than  two  Sabbaths  with  my  friends.  Wish- 
ing for  your  temporal,  but  particularly  for  your  spiritual 
prosperity  ;  that  j^ou  may  be  endued  with  the  Christian 
graces,  and  be  built  up  in  the  holy  faith  of  the  gospel  of 
Jesus  Christ,  I  subscribe  myself  your  Christian  friend, 

WILLIAM   MASON." 

From  the  old  records  of  the  First  Parish,  which  we  have 
been  fortunate  in  obtaining,  we  give  such  extracts  as  will 
be  likely  to  be  of  general  interest.  The  records  commence 
with  the  church  covenant — which  is  short,  and  does  not 
differ  much  from  those  now  in  use  in  many  churches. 
The  following  are  the  names  of  the  original  signers  to  this 
covenant: — Honorable  Oliver  Parker,  Captain  John  Per- 
kins, Captain  Mark  Hatch,  Captain  Joseph  Perkins,  Mr. 
Barnabas  Higgins,  Captain  Stover  Perkins,  Mr.  Benjamin 
Lunt,  Mr.  David  Willson,  Mr.  Moses  Gay,  Mr.  Abraham 
Perkins,  widow  Martha  Perkins,  Phebe  Perkins,  (1st), 
Abigail  Hatch,  Phebe  Perkins,  (2d),  Lydia  Perkins, 
Esther  Lunt,  Miriam  Willson. 

Agreeably  to  the  vote  of  the  town,  an  Ecclesiastical  Coun- 
cil, composed  of  Reverend  Messrs.  Alden  Bradford,  of 
Wiscasset ;  Jonathan  Huss,  of  Warren ;  and  Daniel 
Stone,  of  Augusta ;  with  delegates,  convened  on  the 
ninth  of  October,  1798.  The  next  day,  the  church  was 
formed,  and,  the  necessary  business  being  attended  to. 
Reverend  William  Mason  was  ordained  as  the  first  minister 
in  Castine.  The  first  meeting  of  the  church  was  held 
October  24th,  and  it  was  voted  that  the  pastor  be  the  per- 
manent Moderator  of  the  church.     Honorable  Oliver  Par- 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  123 

ker  and  Captain  Mark  Hatch  were  unanimously  elected 
deacons.  In  regard  to  the  admission  of  members  to  the 
church,  it  was  voted  that  the  names  of  persons  proposing 
to  join  should  be,  under  ordinary  circumstances,  proposed 
two  Sabbaths  previously.  It  was  also  voted :  "  that  we 
will  baptize  the  children  of  those  who  live  regular  lives, 
though,  through  a  sense  of  unworthiness,  they  may  not 
come  to  the  communion."  At  this  meeting.  Captain  Mark 
Hatch  was  requested  to  procure  suitable  "  vessels  "  for  the 
use  of  the  church. 

At  a  church  meeting  held  March  12th,  1799,  it  was 
agreed  that  the  first  communion  be  held  on  the  second 
Sunday  of  April  ensuing,  and  that  the  sacrament  be  after- 
wards administered  on  the  second  Sunday  of  every  other 
month.  A  lecture  was  to  be  given  the  Thursday  preced- 
ing the  sacrament,  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

A  church  meeting  was  held  November  14th,  1799,  for 
the  purpose  of  choosing  a  deacon  in  the  place  of  Oliver 
Parker,  who  declined  service. 

"  After  addressing  the  throne  of  grace,  proceeded  to  a 
choice,  and  Mr.  David  Willson  was  unanimously  chosen. 
After  disagreeing  on  several  subjects,  not  suitable  for 
record,  adjourned." 

On  August  17th,'  1800,  the  pastor  and  two  delegates 
attended  the  ordination  of  Reverend  James  Boyd,  of  Ban- 
gor. In  December  of  this  year,  it  was  voted  to  dispense 
with  the  communion  service  until  the  following  April, 
"  on  account  of  the  great  inconvenience  of  attending  from 
the  general  inclemency  of  the  winter  season." 

On  October  8th,  1801,  a  church  meeting  was  held,  to 
attend  to  some  difficulty  between  Oliver  Parker,  Esq.,  and 
some  of  the  other  members  of  the  church.  Mr.  Parker's 
complaint  was,  that  several  of  the  members  of  the  church 
had  signed  a  petition,  preferred  to  the  General  Court,  for 
the  removal  from  office  of  the  justices  of  the  Court  of 
Common  Pleas  and  General  Sessions — of  which  he  was 
one.     The  charges  were: — 

1.  That  they  had  "  neglected  to  cause  records  of  the 
proceedings  of  said  Court  to  be  kept,  as  the  law  requires, 
whereby  the  property  of  the  good  citizens  of  said  County 
is  insecure  and  precarious." 

2.  That  they  had  permitted  an  action,  in  which 
neither  plaintiff  nor  defendant  were  citizens  of  the  State, 
"  to  be  entered  in  said   Court,  the  writ  not  having  been 


124  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

proved  according  to  law,  and  had  rendered  judgment  on 
said  action,  for  a  large  sum,  contrary  to  law." 

3.  That  they  had,  "  after  a  conviction  of  theft,  in  said 
Court,  rendered  judgment  that  said  convict  should  be  dis- 
charged, without  inflicting  the  punishment  which  the  law 
in  such  cases  directs." 

4.  That  they  had  "  defrauded  the  said  County  by 
making  out  and  laying  fraudulent  estimates  before  the  Leg- 
islature, by  which  many  large  sums  have  been  obtained  to 
be  granted,  as  for  the  necessary  charges  of  the  County, 
when  in  fact,  such  sums  were  not  wanted  for  the  uses  stated 
in  such  estimates,  and  had  not  been  applied  for  the  purposes 
thei'ein  set  forth." 

5.  That  they  had  "  applied  the  mone}^  assessed  upon 
and  paid  by  the  citizens  of  said  County,  to  the  payment  of 
illegal  charges  of  officers,  judicial  and  executive,  in  said 
County,  and  to  other  uses  not  authorized  by  law." 

6.  That  they  had  "  taken  and  receiv-ed  from  the 
County  Treasurer,  and  applied  to  their  own  private  use, 
large  sums  of  money,  to  which  by  law  they  had  no  right." 

This  petition  was  signed  by  nearly  all  the  prominent 
men  of  the  town,  including  most  of  the  church  members. 

After  hearing  the  complaint  of  Mr.  Parker,  the  meeting 
adjourned  to  Thursday,  the  29th  inst.  Upon  that  day, 
the  subject  was  again  brought  before  the  members  of 
the  church,  and,  "  after  much  discourse,  by  which  a  recon- 
ciliation was  so  far  effected,  though  the  business  was  not 
fully  settled,"  it  was  agreed  to  take  no  action  unless  Mr. 
Parker  should  again  urge  the  matter.  For  a  period  of 
twelve  years,  nothing  of  any  importance  occurred  in  con- 
nection with  this  society,  so  far  as  the  records  show.  In 
July,  1813,  the  pastor  and  two  delegates  attended  an  Eccle- 
siastical Council  held  in  Penobscot,  for  the  purpose  of  con- 
sidering the  question  of  dissolving  the  connection  between 
the  pastor  and  church,  in  that  town.  In  June,  1814,  the 
pastor  and  Mr.  Doty  Little,  attended  an  Ecclesiastical 
Council  held  at  Camden,  to  decide  in  regard  to  the  dismissal 
from  the  ministry,  of  Reverend  Mr.  Cochran.  At  a  church 
meeting  called  September  15,  1828,  in  response  to  a  request 
of  Mr.  Doty  Little,  who  desired  to  transfer  his  connection 
to  another  church,  it  was  voted : — "  That  the  pastor  be  a 
committee  to  notify  Mr.  Little,  that  as  his  standing  now 
was,  his  request  could  not  consistently  be  granted."  At  a 
subsequent    meeting,   held  September  the  18th,  a  letter 


BROOKSVILLE   AND  PENOBSCOT.  125 

was  presented  by  Mr.  Little,  himself,  wliicli  was  of  such  a 
character  "  as  to  fully  satisfy  the  church,"  and  his  request 
for  a  transfer  was  granted.  Upon  May  5,  1833,  the  records 
of  the  church  had  the  following  entry  made  in  them : — 
*'  This  day  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  was  admin- 
istered, and  Mr.  Moses  Gay  officiated  as  deacon,  filling  the 
place  which,  for  thirty-three  years,  had  been  filled  by  Dea- 
con David  Willson,  who  departed  this  life  April  29th,  last 
passed."  The  early  records  of  this  church  are  not  contin- 
ued after  July  28th,  of  this  year. 

During  the  thirty -five  years  over  which  these  records 
extend,  there  were  baptized  one  hundred  and  ninety-four 
persons,  of  whom  one  hundred  and  eleven  were  males  and 
eighty-three  females.  The  baptisms  included  all  ages. 
During  this  time  there  were  two  hundred  and  sixty  mar- 
riages solemnized  here  by  Reverend  Mr.  Mason.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  names  of  the  members  who  joined  the  church 
after  its  organization  : — 

Thomas  E.  Hale,  Jacob  Orcutt,  Doty  Little,  John  Darby, 
Jonathan  Hatch,  William  Abbott,  David  Coffin,  Mary 
Perkins,  Hannah  Fay,  Agatha  Hale,  Mercy  Little,  Lucy 
Mann,  Elisabeth  Judkins,  Abigail  Mason,  Rebecca  Abbott, 
widow  Mary  Crawford,  Susan  D.  Shaw,  Phebe  Gay,  and 
Temperance  Johnston. 

Reverend  Mr.  Mason  dissolved  his  connection  with  the 
First  Parish,  in  1834.  He  preached  his  farewell  sermon  on 
Sunday  afternoon,  April  27th.  His  text  was  from  2d  Cor. 
13,  yil : — "  Now  I  do  pray  to  God  that  ye  do  no  evil ;  not 
that  we  should  appear  approved,  but  that  ye  should  do  that 
which  is  honest,  though  we  be  as  reprobates." 

He  was  succeeded  by  Reverend  Samuel  Devens,  who 
preached  his  first  sermon,  June  8, 1834,  taking  for  his  text, 
Psalm  107,  v.  8.  Mr.  Devens,  was  followed  by  Reverend 
William  D.  Wiswell,  who  first  preached  here  December  24, 
1835.  In  February,  1838,  Reverend  John  B.  Wight,  was 
pastor.  He  was  the  last  settled  preacher  to  the  old  society, 
though  Mr.  Wiswell  preached  here,  occasionally,  subse- 
quently to  this  time, — alternating  between  this  place  and 
Ellsworth. 

The  First  Parish,  after  this  time,  had  no  worship  in 
town,  until  the  year  18G7,  when,  by  the  exertions  of  the 
Maine  State  Missionary  of  the  American  Unitarian  Associa- 
tion, the  religious  society  was  revived,  and  in  the  year 
1868,  Reverend  George  F,  Clark  was  settled  as  the  minis- 

17 


126  HISTORY   OF   CAS  TINE, 

ter  over  it.  He  was  succeeded  in  1870,  by  Reverend 
Henry  L.  Myrick,  who  resigned  his  charge  in  1873.  The 
society  still  exists  in  a  prosperous  condition,  under  the 
pastoral  care  of  Reverend  John  W.  Winkley. 

As  the  First  Parish  was,  at  the  time  of  the  incorpora- 
tion of  the  town,  the  only  parish  in  Castine,  the  duties  of 
the  sexton  were  prescribed  by  the  town.  The  town  agreed 
to  pay  him  twenty-five  dollais  annually,  and  he  was  to 
receive  by  subscription  thirty- five  dollars.  The  following 
were  the 

Rules  and  Regulations  for  the  Sexton. 

"1.  TheMeeting-House  shall  be  kept  clean  by  sweeping 
the  floors,  dusting  the  seats,  and  sweeping  down  the  cob- 
webs and  dust  from  the  windows. 

2.  The  Sexton  shall  see  that  the  door  is  shut  when 
necessary,  and  take  care  that  the  dogs  make  no  disturb- 
ance. 

3.  When  any  child  is  to  be  baptized,  he  shall  see  that 
water  is  prepared. 

4.  He  shall  ring  the  bell  every  Sunday  morning  at 
nine  o'clock  and  half-past  ten — =the  second  bell  to  be  tolled 
till  the  minister  gets  into  meeting.  He  shall  also  ring  the 
bell  on  Fast,  Thanksgiving,  Lecture,  and  Town  Meeting 
days,  at  the  hours  usual  on  such  days. 

5.  He  shall  attend  to  the  customary  business  of  sex- 
tons at  funerals,  for  which  he  is  to  be  paid  a  reasonable 
sum  by  the  persons  who  employ  him. 

6.  He  is  to  ring  the  bell  every  day  in  the  week,  (except 
Sunday,)  at  one  o'clock  p.  m.,  and  at  nine  o'clock  in  the 
evening." 

The  meeting-house  was  not  completed  for  many  years 
after  its  occupation,  and  was  not  warmed  in  winter  until 
the  year  1817.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  the  total 
amount  expended  upon  this  building  up.  to  the  present 
time  ;  but  the  accounts  are  imperfect,  and  some  of  them 
missing,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  tell  with  any  exactness. 

Second  Congregational,  or  First  Trinitarian 
Church.* 

The  Trinitarian  Church  was  organized,  by  an  Ecclesias- 
tical Council  called  for  that  purpose,  July  26th,  1820. 
The  Council  was  called  by  Thomas  Adams,  Thomas  E. 

♦This  sketch,  and  that  of  the  P"'irst  Church  of  Penobscot,  were  fyrnislie4 
by  Reverend  Alfred  E.  Ives,  of  this  town. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  127 

Hale,  and  Bradford  Harlow,  "  to  form  them  and  others  in 
the  place  into  a  church,  should  they  see  fit,"  and  met  first, 
for  that  purpose,  on  July  the  fourth.  These  individuals 
had  united^  the  year  before,  with  the  church  in  Bluehill.* 
The  Council,  after  duly  considering  the  ^communications 
laid  before  them,  and  learning  the  general  state  of  things, 
invited  Reverend  Mr.  Mason,  and  others  of  his  church,  to 
«,  conference,  with  reference  to  some  arrangement  that 
should  be  satisfactory,  by  which  the}'  could  "  unite  in  one 
body  for  religious  Avorship,  and  the  enjoyment  of  Christian 
ordinances."  The  invitation  was  accepted  ;  there  was  a 
free  and  friendly  conference,  "  it  being  agreed  on  all 
hands  that  a  union  was  exceedingl}'  desirable."  On  a 
comparison  of  views,  however,  the  parties  were  found  to 
differ  so  materially,  that  the  Council  "  could  not  see  it 
expedient  to  advise  a  union ; "  but  not  wishing  to  be 
hasty,  and  "  to  give  time  for  the  removal,  if  possiVjle,  of 
existing  difficulties,"  they  adjourned  to  July  the  twenty- 
sixth.  The  condition  of  things  remaining  unchanged,  the 
church  was  organized  upon  that  day.f 

Tlie  three  individuals  calling  the  Council,  three  belong- 
ing to  the  old  First  Church  in  Penobscot,  and  nine  others 
— fifteen  in  all — constituted  the  church,  as  first  organized, 
namely  : — Mark  Hatch,  Thomas  E.  Hale,  Thomas  Adams, 
Bradford  Harlow,  Amos  Bowden,  Avis  Hatch,  Cynthia 
Holbrook,  Jane  Adams,  Nancy  Fuller,  Mary  W.  Foster, 
Abigail  Hatch,  Eunice  Parker,  Phebe  P.  Stevens,  Rebecca 
Fickey,  and  Lois  Myrick.  Four  others  fi'om  the  Penob- 
scot church  afterwards  united  with  this — these  seven 
forming  a  bond  of  connection  with  the  church  whose 
house  of  worship,  and  a  part  of  whose  membership,  were 
in  the  present  limits  of  Castine. 

*In  a  printed  pamphli!!,  entitled  "  Correspondence  between  the  Committee 
of  the  Trinitarian  Society  and  tlie  Committee  of  the  First  Societv  in  (Jastine, 
on  the  subject  of  a  union  of  said  So(!ieties,  &c.,"  it  is  stated  [p.  23, J  that 
these  individuals  were  members  of  Mr.  Mason's  Society.  Tliis  was  true ; 
but  only  one  (Mr.  Hale,)  was  a  niembc^r  of  liis  church.  Mr.  Hale  received  no 
dismissal  from  the  church  of  the  First  Society,  and  consequently  his  beinj; 
received  into  the  church  at  Bluehill,  caused,  at  that  time,  considerable  ani- 
madversion. At  the  i»res(;nt  time — when  the  Hues  of  division  are  so  widely 
drawn — nothing  would  be  thought  of  it. 

tit  is  proper  to  state,  in  this  connec^tion,  that  Reverend  ]Mr.  Mason,  and  the 
members  of  his  church,  objected  stronj^ly  to  what  they  considered  the  irrc<i- 
ularity  of  these  proceedings,  and  elaiml'd  that  the  Council  had  no  jurisdic- 
tion. No  objection  was  ever  made  against  the  moral  character  of  Mr.  Mason, 
or  of  any  nn^mber  of  his  church;  and  the  formation  of  the  new  Society  was 
made  solely  on  account  of  the  different  views  entertained  in  regard  to  certain 
matters  of  Faith — chiefly  "respecting  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity  and  the 
doctrine  of  Election." 


128  HISTORY   OF  CASTING, 

For  eight  years  after  its  orG^anization,  the  church  had  no 
settled  pastor.  On  May  12th,  1828,  Mr.  John  Crosby,  of 
Andover  Seminary,  was  invited  to  become  their  minister 
with  a  saLary  of  six  hundred  dolhirs,  and,  in  addition,  a 
"  settlement"  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  Mr, 
Crosby  accepted  the  invitation,  and  was  ordained  and, 
installed  on  June  11th,  of  the  same  year.  The  ordination 
sermon  was  by  Reverend  Mighill  Blood,  of  Bucks  port 
The  church  at  this  time  consisted  of  thirty  members. 

About  two  years  after  his  ordination,  his  health  failing", 
Mr.  Crosby  was  obliged  to  be  absent,  most  of  the  time,  till 
February  26,  1832,  when  he  sent  in  his  resignation.  He 
was  dismissed  by  Council,  on  May  3d,  of  the  same  year. 
He  afterwards  visited  the  West  Indies,  for  his  health,  and 
died  at  Barbadoes,  May  26,  1833,  aged  thirty  years. 

On  the  twenty-third  of  May,  1832,  an  invitation  to 
become  their  pastor,  was  extended  to  Reverend  Wooster 
Parker,  of  Bangor  Seminary,  with  a  salary  of  five  hundred 
dollars.  Mr.  Parker  accepted  the  invitation,  and  was 
ordained  and  installed  September  20,  1832,  Reverend 
Doctor  Pond,  of  Bangor  Theological  Seminary,  preaching 
the  sermon.  Mr.  Parker  continued  here  for  about  three 
and  a  half  years,  when,  at  his  own  request,  he  was  dismissed, 
January  18,  1836.  During  the  pastorate  of  Mr.  Parker, 
forty-one  were  received  into  the  church, — thirty-two  by 
profession.  The  whole  membership  at  this  time,  was  about 
forty -five. 

On  the  twenty-fourth  of  May,  1837,  Reverend  Baruch 
B.  Beckwith,  was  installed  as  pastor,  the  sermon  on  the 
occasion  being  preached  by  Reverend  Mighill  Blood,  of 
Bucksport.  Mr.  Beckwith  received  a  salary  of  six  hundred 
dollars.  After  laboring  with  the  church  for  about  five 
years,  the  ill  health  of  his  wife  making  a  change  of  climate 
desirable,  Mr.  Beckwith  asked  for  a  dismission.  His  pas- 
toral labors  ceased,  June  20,  1842.  His  formal  dismission 
occurred  February  13, 1844.  During  Mr.  Beckwith's  pas- 
torate, thirty-eight  were  admitted  to  the  church,  thirty  on 
profession  of  faith.  Mr.  Beckwith,  after  leaving  Castine, 
became  pastor  of  the  church  in  Gouverneur,  N.  Y.,  retain- 
ing his  pastoral  charge  there,  till  a  short  time  before  his 
death,  which  occurred  July  4,  1870,  at  the  age  of  forty-five 
years.  From  1833  to  1839,  inclusive,  fifty-one  were 
received  into  the  church  on  profession  of  faith ;  from  that 


BUOOKSVILLE  AIJD  PENOBSCOT.  129 

date  to   the  close  of  1S44,  forty-two  were   received   on 
profession. 

On  the  fifth  of  November,  1845,  Reverend  Daniel  Sewall 
was  installed  pastor  of  the  church,  the  sermon  on  the  occa- 
sion, being  preached  by  Reverend  Stephen  Thurston,  of 
Searsport.  His.  salary  was  five  hundred  dollars  per  annum. 
Mr.  Sewall's  pastorate  continued  for  about  seven  and  a  half 
years,  he  being  dismissed  April  5,  1853.  During  the  period 
of  his  pastoral  charge,  fourteen  were  received  into  the 
church,  including  five  by  letter.  Mr.  Sewall  died  at 
Augusta,  April  21,  1866,  aged  fifty-seven  years.  The 
whole  membership  of  the  church  in  1854,  was  seventy-five. 

January  1,  1855,  Reverend  Alfred  E.  Ives  was  invited  to 
become  pastor  of  the  church.  Mr.  Ives  was  installed  by 
Council,  June '  20,  1855,  Reverend  Doctor  Shepard,  of 
Bangor  Seminary,  preacliing  the  sermon.  The  yearly  salary 
was  eight  hundred  dollars.  The  pastorate  of  Mr.  Ivea 
still  continues,  the  twentieth  year  now  commencing.  Up 
to  this  time,  during  his  ministry,  eighty  have  been  added 
to  the  church.* 

On  August  27,  1838,  Sewall  Watson  and  Samuel  Adams 
were  elected  deacons  of  the  church.  On  June  31,  1841, 
Francis  Vanv/yck  was  chosen  to  succeed  Deacon  Watson, 
who  had  removed  from  the  place.  Deacon  Vanwyck  hav- 
ing also  removed,  in  December,  1843,  Mark  P.  Hatch  was 
chosen  deacon.  Deacon  Adams  has  been  Superintendent 
of  the  Sabbath  School  for  thirty-six  years. 

The  church,  at  its  organization,  having  no  meeting-house, 
occupied  the  Court  House  for  public  worship.  It  continued 
to  do  so  for  about  nine  years.  In  1829,  a  church  building 
was  erected  on  Main  street,  which  was  dedicated  on  the 
sixth  of  October  of  that  year,  at  which  time  the  Hancock 
and  Waldo  County  Conference  held  their  session  here.  A 
nari'ow  room,  in  the  front  of  the  building — back  of  the 
singing  gallery — was  occupied  for  conference  and  prayer 
meetings. 

In  the  year  1848,  the  church  was  enlarged,  making  an 
addition  of  eighteen  slips,  in  the  audience  room. 

The  last  Sabbath  service  in  the  church,  in  its  old  form, 

*Mr.  Ives  lias  ahvtiyH  been  earnest  in  proinotins  tlie  ecl>(C(Uio7ialand  moral 
interests  of  the  town,  and  liis  long  resitlent-e  liere  has  caused  him  to 
be  greatly  lulovcd  by  all  our  citizens.  As  his  name  does  not  appear  in  our 
Bio^rapliii;al  Sketches,  it  is  proper  to  remark,  in  this  connection,  that  he  is 
Well  known  for  his  literary  attainments,  anil  has  received  favoral>le  notice  ii) 
Allil)one's  Dictionary  of  British  and  American  Authors.  He  was  graduated 
at  Yale  College,  in  1837. 


130  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

was  on  July  21,  1867.  The  edifice  was  reconstructed,  the 
work  commencing  the  same  week.  The  building  was 
raised  nine  feet,  with  an  excavation  adding  three  more 
feet,  giving  room  for  a  basement  of  brick,  and  for  a  large, 
airy,  dry,  and  well  ventilated  vestry,  ladies'  room,  kitchen, 
etc.  The  old  edifice  was  thoroughly  rebuilt.  A  new  spire, 
of  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  in  height,  was  added, 
which,  in  proportion,  grace  and  beauty,  is  perhaps,  not  sur- 
passed by  any  in  the  State.  A  new  chancel  was  added, 
•and  an  orchestra  ;  new  windows  of  stained  glass  ;  the  seats 
remodeled  and  newly  arranged ;  the  walls  handsomely 
frescoed  ;  the  whole  carpeted  and  the  seats  all  uniformly 
cushioned  ;  the  pulpit  and  its  furniture,  chandelier  and 
lamps,  all  new.  The  rooms  below,  also,  are  furnished  com- 
plete, and — except  the  kitchen — carpeted.*  A  new,  finely 
toned  bell,  of  about  one  thousand  six  hundred  pounds 
weight,  was  presented  by  N.  Wilson  Brooks,  Esq.,  of 
Detroit,  Michigan.  The  cost  of  re-building,  including 
everything,  was  about  twelve  thousand  dollars.  The  build- 
ing, within  and  without,  has  no  sign  of  its  former  self,  and 
is  commended  by  all  for  its  convenience  and  comeliness, 
being  an  ornament  to  the  village.  The  house  was  re-dedi- 
cated February  3,  1868,  the  sermon  by  the  pastor.* 

The  First  Methodist  Society  of  Castine.! 

The    First   Methodist  sermon   in   Castine   village,  was 

preached  about  the  year  1800,  by  Reverend  Joshua  Taylor. 

According  to  traditionary  accounts,  Mr.  Taylor,  instead  of 

being  received  and  treated  as  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  was 

sent  away  after  being  "  shamefully  handled. "J      This  will 

not  occasion  surprise  to  any  one  conversant  with  the  general 

state  of  intolerance    common  to  all  of  the  more  powerful 

sects,  even  at  so  late  a  date  as  that.     The  Methodist  heresy 

*0n  November  30, 1872,  at  noon,  this  edifice  was  discovered  to  be  on  fire. 
The  tire  hud  been  started  for  Sunday,  and  the  cold-air  boxes  closed.  The 
wind  blew  a  gale  at  the  time,  and  the  fire  iu  the  furnace  burned  so  fiercely  as 
to  ie^nite  the  lathing  and  studding,  through  the  plaster  forming  one  side  of  the 
cold  air  duct.  The  weather  was  intensely  cold  and  the  difliculty  of  handling 
the  hose  and  of  getting  at  the  tire  was  very  great.  By  the  earnest  exertions 
of  all,  it  was  at  last  extinguished.  The  damage  to  the  building  was  repaired 
at  an  expense  of  one  thousand  two  hundred  dollars,  but  had  the  fire  succeeded 
in  getting  headway,  the  greater  portion  of  the  village  must  have  been  destroyed. 

tFrom  a  manuscript  "  History  of  3Iethodism  in  Castine  Village,"  furnished 
the  author  by  Reverend  James  A.  Morelin. 

Jlt  is  said  he  was  "  rode  on  a  rail"  over  the  line  into  Penobscot.  He  is  re- 
ported to  have  been  considerably  injured,  and  was  taken  home  and  his  wounds 
dressed  by  a  grandfather  of  Mr.  Hosea  Wardwell. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  131 

was  no  more  to  be  tolerated  here,  it  was  thought,  than  that 
of  the  Quakers  or  Baptists  had  been  in  other  parts  of  New 
England.  Notwithstanding  the  opposition  to  the  new  form 
of  worship  and  belief — perhaps,  somewhat  in  consequence 
thereof — a  small  class  was  formed,  but  was  not  long  sus- 
tained, for  want  of  teachers.  In  1834,  Reverend  Mark 
Trafton  was  stationed  on  the  North  Castine  circuit.  He 
preached  an  occasional  lecture  in  the  village,  and  organized 
a  class  of  five  members.  Reverend  Messrs.  Moore,  Palmer 
and  G'erry,  succeeded  Trafton  on  the  North  Castine  circuit, 
and  occasionally  visited  and  preached  to  this  class.  But  lit- 
tle accession,  though,  was  made  to  their  number  until  the 
year  1841.  In  1840,  Reverend  Theodore  Hill,  who  was 
stationed  on  that  circuit,  commenced  preaching  on  the 
Sabbath  at  the  village.  His  first  sermon  was  preached  from 
the  embankment  of  Fort  George.  His  next,  was  in  the 
ship-yard.  In  the  meantime  the  little  class  of  eight  or  ten, 
"  began  to  cry  to  God,"  says  Mr.  Hill,  "and  as  our  faith 
increased,  '  we  began  to  see  a  small  cloud  gathering  over 
this  dark  spot'  where  there  had  been  no  revival  for  a  num- 
ber of  years."  The  result  of  Mr.  Hill's  labors  was  a  revi- 
val, and  at  the  close  of  the  year,  the  class  numbered  about 
thirty.  Mr.  Hill  was  stationed  on  the  North  Castine  cir- 
cuit for  two  years,  holding  regular  services,  one-half  the 
time,  at  the  Court  House  in  this  village. 

In  1842,  agreeably  to  a  petition  from  this  village,  the 
Maine  Annual  Conference  reported  Castine  village  as  a 
separate  station,  and  Reverend  Charles  Munger  was 
appointed  as  the  regular  pastor  for  the  ensuing  year. 
The  appointment  was  very  fortunate  in  its  results.  The 
congregation  was  invited  to  occupy  the  meeting-house  of 
the  First  Society,  which  was  at  that  time  unoccupied. 
Mr.  Munger  served  here  a  second  year,  during  which  the 
society  was  under  the  necessity  of  returning  to  the  Court 
House  as  a  place  of  worship.  He  received  three  hundred 
dollars  per  annum.  The  Methodist  chapel  was  built  in 
the  year  1844,  chiefly — if  not  entirely — by  Mr.  John  Jar- 
via.  It  cost  about  two  thousand  dollars.  The  successors 
of  Mr.  Munger  were  : — 

Abner  Hillman,  1843-4.  Obediah  Huse,  1849. 

David    Iliggins,  1845-6.  Cvrus  Scammon,  1850. 

George  Pratt,  1847.  John  Atwell,  1851-2. 

Phineas  Higgins,  1848.  Charles  B.  Dunn,  1853. 


132  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

William  J.  Robinson,  1854-5.    George  D.  Strout,        1862. 
W.  J.  Wilson,  1856.    W.  t.  Jewell,      1864-5-6. 

John  N.  Marsh,  1857.    Josiah  Fletcher,  1867. 

L.  D.   Wardwell,         1858-9.    B.  B.  Byrne,       1868-9-70. 
M.  D.  Matthews,        1860-61.    J.  A.  Morelin,  1871-3. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Penobscot.* 

The  first  Methodist  preacher  in  Penobscot  was  Joshua 
Hall,  who  preached  there  in  the  year  1795.  In  the  suc- 
ceeding year.  Reverend  E.  Hull  preached  there.  The 
number  of  Methodists  in  town  at  that  time  was  ninety- 
three.  The  Penobscot  circuit  was  formed  in  the  year 
1798,  by  Peter  Jayne,  a  deacon  in  the  M.  E.  church, 
who  preached  with  great  success.  In  1799,  Reuben 
Hubbard  was  appointed  to  this  circuit  by  the  New 
England  Conference,  and,  under  the  presiding  eldership  of 
Joshua  Taylor,  regulated  the  circuit,  and  established  the 
church  on  a  firm  basis.  The  church  had  a  healthy  and 
vigorous  growth,  but  the  year  1819  was  the  most  remarka- 
ble for  its  rapid  increase  of  members,  under  the  preaching 
of  John  S.  Ayer.  The  following  year,  seventy  persons 
were  added  to  the  church.  It  is  recorded  that  at  a  prayer- 
meeting  held  at  the  house  of  William  Hutchings,  Jr.,  nine 
persons  were  instantly  converted,  and  all  the  others 
present  "  convicted."  "  The  shouts  of  the  converts  in 
praise  of  God,  and  the  cries  of  the  others  for  mercy,  occa- 
sioned so  great  a  noise  that  the  shouts  and  cries  could 
scarcely  be  distinguished  from  each  other."  In  1834,  the 
Methodists  complained  that  "  in  Castine  we  were  some 
troubled  with  Universalism,  some  members  withdrawing 
from  our  society,  having  embraced  that  pernicious  doc- 
trine." In  1841  and  1842,  under  the  j)reaching  of  Theo- 
dore Hill,  large  numbers  were  added  to  the  church.  In 
1871,  the  membership  was  one  hundred  and  seventy-one, 
and  the  value  of  the  church  property  was  five  thousand 
seven  hundred  dollars.  There  are  three  churches  belong- 
ing to  the  denomination  in  this  place.  One  was  erected  at 
North  Penobscot,  in  1837,  and  dedicated  in  December  of 
the  same  year.  One  was  erected  in  1858,  at  the  Head  of 
the  Bay,  and  was  dedicated  January,  1859.  The  thii"d 
was  erected  in  1864,  upon  the  Doshen  shore. f 

*From  the  Records  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Penobscot, 
abridged  by  Mr.  Hosea  B.  Wardwell. 

tThis  name  is  applied  to  the  western  shore  of  Penobscot,  between  Hard- 
scrabble  and  the  Castine  line.  The  derivation  of  the  word  is  uncertain. 
There  are  several  traditions  concerning  it,  but  none  are  satisfactory^ 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  133 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  ministers,  so  far  as 
known,  with  the  date  of  their  ministry :  Joshua  Hall, 
1795 ;  E.  Hull,  1796 ;  P.  Merritt,  and  E.  Mudge,  1797  ; 
Peter  Jayne,  1798;  J.  Merrick,  1799;  J.  Gore,  1800; 
J.  Baker,  1801  ;  A.  Metcalf,  1802 ;  P.  Munger,  1803 ; 
W.  Goodhue,  1804;  Levi  Washer,  1805;  E.  Fairbanks, 
1806;  Daniel  Ricker,  1807;  D.  Kilburn,  1808;  D.  Stimp- 
son,  1809  ;  B.  Jones,  1810  ;  J.  Wilkinson,  1811 ;  J.  Emer- 
son, 1812;  Thomas  F.  Norris,  1813  ;  John  S.  Ayer,  1819; 
John  Briggs,  and  H.  Nickerson,  1821  ;  Samuel  Baker,  and 
David  Richards,  1822  ;  Thomas  Smith,  and  William 
Douglass,  1823-4 ;  John  Lewis,  1825  ;  James  Jaquis, 
1826-28;  David  Stinsou,  1829;  Jesse  Stone,  1830-31; 
Benj.  D.  Eastman,  1832  ;  Abel  Allton,  1833  ;  Mark  Traf- 
ton,  1834 ;  Joseph  C.  Aspenwall,  1835 ;  J.  Batchelor, 
1836  ;  Asahel  Moore,  1837  ;  Moses  Palmer,  1888  ;  Joseph 
Gerry,  1839  ;  Theodore  Hill,  1840-42,  '54  and  '55 ;  J.  W. 
True,  1842  ;  Mace  R.  Clough,  and  Benjamin  Lufkin,  1843; 
Asa  Green,  1844 ;  E.  H.  Small,  1845,  '48  and  '49 ;  John 
Taggart,  1846 ;  Mr.  Chase,  1847 ;  B.  B.  Byrne,  1850 ; 
R."S.  Dixon,  1851;  C.  B.  Roberts,  1856-57  ;  Samuel  S. 
Lang,  1858-59  :  E.  Bryant,  1860  ;  Joseph  King,  1861-62  ; 
William  Read,  1863  ;  A.  Plummer,  1864  ;  C.  L.  Plummer, 
1865-66  ;  F.  P.  Caldwell,  1867-68  ;  Students  from  Bangor 
Theological  Seminary,  1869;  O.  R.  Wilson,  1870-71; 
Fred.  A.  Bragdon,  1872-73. 

First  Baptist  Society  of  Brooksville. 

This  Society  was  organized  while  Brooksville  was  a  part 
of  Castine,  and  was  known  at  that  time  as  the  First 
Baptist  Society  of  Castine.  It  was  probably  formed  about 
the  year  1813,  as  certificates  of  membershif)  to  if.,  at  that 
date,  are  now  on  file  in  the  Town  Clerk's  office  at  Castine. 
Israel  Redman,  and  Benjamin  Rea,  were  the  Parish  Com- 
mittee at  that  time.  We  have  been  unable  to  obtain  any 
further  information  in  regard  to  this  Society. 

Congregational  Societies  of  Brooksville. 

The  First  Congregational  Society  was  organized  in 
West  Brooksville,  January  4th,  1826.  It  was  an  off  shoot 
from  the  First  Church  of  Penobscot,  of  whicli  a  portion  of 

18 


134  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

its    first   members    originally   constituted   a    part.     This 

Society   has   had,    we   believe,  a   steady   and  wholesome 

growth,  notwithstanding  the  formation  of  a  Second  Society 

in  South  Brooksville.* 

*We  have  been  unable  to  obtain  any  further  particulars  in  regard  to  the 
other  religious  societies  in  this  town  and  in  Penobscot. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND  PENOBSCOT.  135 


CHAPTER    VI. 

EDUCATIONAL  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE. 

Law  IK  Regard  to  Education. — Establishment  of 
Public  Schools. — Establishment  of  School  Dis- 
TkicTS. — Fjrst  School  Committees. —  Re:-district- 
iNG  OF  Schools. — School  Fund. — School  Appropri- 
ations.— District  Meetings. — Attempt  to  Estab- 
lish AN  Academy. — Private  Schools. — State  Nor- 
mal School. — School  Statistics. — School  Teach- 
ers.— School  Reports. — High  School  Diplomas. 

Education  and  religion  in  olden  times,  went  hand  in 
hand.  The  commonwealth  of  Massachusetts  from  the  ear- 
liest period  of  its  history  made  strong  efforts  to  promote 
the  general  education  of  its  citizens  ;  believing  the  truth  of 
the  adage,  that  "  knowledge  is  power"  as  well  as  that 
"  education  is  the  pillar  of  a  State."  In  bestowing  tracts 
of  land  upon  proprietors,  it  invariably  required  that  a  lot 
should  be  set  apart  for  educational  purposes,  and  also,  as 
mentioned  in  the  preceding  chapter,  one  for  the  ministry 
and  for  the  first  settled  minister.  In  addition  to  this  it  was 
required  by  law,  as  early  as  1693,  that  every  town  of  fifty 
householders  that  failed  in  employing  a  schoolmaster,  eon- 
stantlt/,  should  be  fined.  In  all  towns  embracing  one 
hundred  householders,  the  teacher  was  required  to  be 
capable  of  teaching  the  sciences  and  learned  languages. 

This  town  early  displayed  an  unusual  interest  in  the 
subject  of  education,  and,  taking  the  entire  period  of  its 
corporate  existence,  has  probably  not  been  surpassed  in 
zeal  by  any  town  in  the  State. 

As  early  as  May,  1796,  a  special  town  meeting  was  called 
to  take  action  in  regard  to  the  establishment  of  pul)lic 
schools.  The  town  was  divided  into  four  school  districts. 
North  Castine  constituted  one  district ;  Castine  village 
made  the  second  ;  Cape  Rozier  the  third ;  and  the  remain- 
der, of  what  is  now  Brooksville,  constituted  the  fourth,  and 
was  called  the  I  kick's  Harbor  district.  The  school  house 
in  the  first  named  district  was  located  ''  in  the  crotgh  of 


136  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

the  road,  between  the  bridge  and  Scott's  house."  That 
for  the  village,  or  Peninsula  district,  as  it  was  called,  was 
located  upon  the  "  common  lot."  The  location  of  the 
school  houses  in  the  Buck's  Harbor  and  Cape  Rozier  dis- 
tricts, was  left  to  the  residents  in  those  districts  to  deter- 
mine for  themselves.  The  first  school  committee  consisted 
of  six  persons,  viz.  : — Captain  Ephraim  Blake,  Mr.  Eben- 
ezer  Leland,  Mr.  Jacob  Orcutt,  Captain  John  Perkins, 
Captain  Mark  Hatch,  and  Captain  Stover  Perkins.  The 
town  appropriated,  this  year,  the  sum  of  two  hundred 
dollars  for  the  support  of  the  schools.  This  sum,  though 
apparently  small,  was  in  reality  an  assessment  of  one  dollar 
and  twelve  and  one-half  cents  upon  every  individual  in 
town  ;  about  what  the  the  average  percentage  has  been  in 
the  most  prosperous  years.  Of  this  sum,  the  Northern  dis- 
trict received  seventeen  dollars  and  fifteen  cents  ;  Buck's 
Harbor  district,  twenty-one  dollars  and  seventeen  cents ; 
the  Cape  district,  twenty-eight  dollars  and  fifty-seven  cents ; 
and  the  Peninsula  district,  one  hundred  and  thirty-three 
dollars  and  sixteen  cents.  The  old  citizens  of  the  town, 
apparently  believed  that  the  public  schools  needed  consid- 
erable inspection  and  supervision,  for  we  find  in  1813,  when 
the  number  of  scholars  was  only  seventy,  that  Uvelve  per- 
sons were  elected  members  of  the  school  committee.  At 
its  annual  meeting  this  year,  the  town  found  it  necessrr?}"  to 
direct  the  school  committee  "to  employ  school  masters  and 
mistresses,  and  to  appropriate  the  money  raised  for  schools 
to  the  best  advantage."  Whether  these  instructions  were 
rendered  necessary  in  consequence  of  the  unusual  number 
of  members  upon  the  committee  may,  perhaps,  admit  of  a 
doubt. 

In  1817,  the  town  voted :  "  That  the  money  raised  for 
the  support  of  schools,  etc.,  be  divided  in  proportion  to  the 
number  of  scholars  in  each  school  district."  Also,  "  that 
the  money  belonging  to  any  school  districts  in  which  a 
private  school  or  schools  are  kept,  be  applied  to  the  sup- 
port of  those  private  schools,  in  proportion  to  the  number 
of  scholars  taught  in  them,  under  the  authority  of  the 
school  committee."  The  town,  moreover,  instructed  the 
school  committee  to  return  to  the  Assessors  the  number  and 
names  of  scholars  in  each  district,  between  the  ages  of  three 
and  sixteen  years,  in  order  to  ascertain  correctly  the  res- 
pective proportions  of  the  school  money  to  which  each  dis- 
trict was  entitled. 


BKOOKSTILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  137 

In  1818,  the  school  committee  were  instructed  to  districfe 
the  town  anew,  but  this,  for  some  reason,  not  having  been 
attended  to,  the  town  at  its  next  annual  meeting,  voted 
that  the  Selectmen  should  proportion  the  number  of  schol- 
ars to  each  district,  and  alter  the  districts  if  necessary. 
The  action  of  the  Selectmen  not,  however,  being  satisfac- 
tory, the  town  voted  the  next  year,  "that  Jonathan  Hatch, 
Thatcher  Avery,  John  Wilson,  Joshua  Hooper  and  Richard 
Hawes,  be  a  committee  to  divide  the  part  of  the  town  situ- 
ated off  the  peninsula,  into  school  districts,  in  such  a  man- 
ner as  they  shall  think  proper."  The  town  in  1821,  acting 
upon  the  suggestion  of  this  committee,  divided  the  por- 
tion of  the  town  oif  the  peninsula  into  two  districts.  This 
year,  for  the  first  time,  school  agents  were  elected  by  the 
town.  In  1828,  a  new  school  district  was  made  out  of  the 
two  off  the  peninsula,  and  the  districts  were  named  and 
numbered  as  follows  : — 

The  Peninsula  district  was  called  No.  1. 

The  Middle  (new)  district  was  called  No.  2. 

The  Northeast  "  "         "       "     3. 

The  Northwest  "  ''         "       "     4.* 

In  1834,  the  town  passed  a  vote  :  "  That  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  the  Castine  School  Fund,  consist  of  five  per- 
sons, viz.  :  Thon:ias  Adams,  Charles  J.  Abbott,  Samuel 
Adams,  Hezekiah  Williams,  and  Frederic  Webber."  This 
school  fund  originated  from  the  sale  of  the  land  belonging 
to  the  "ministerial  and  school  lot." 

In  1836,  the  school  committee,  for  the  first  time,  made  a 
report  to  the  town  of  the  condition  of  the  schools.  The 
subsequent  year  it  was  voted  :  "  That  the  town  will  receive 
from  the  State  its  proportion  of  United  States  moneys,  and, 
after  deducting  twelve  hundred  dollars,  for  paying  town 
debts,  the  balance  to  be  loaned  by  the  Selectmen,  at  six 
per  cent,  per  annum,  the  interest  to  be  paid  semi-annually, 
and  appropriated  to  the  support  of  schools."  Unfortunately, 
however,  the  interest  in  education  at  this  time  began  to 
wane,  and  the  citizens  accordingly,  at  their  next  aunual 
meeting,  foregoing  the  certainty  of  future  benefit  for  the 
sake  of  present  gain,  reconsidered  the  above  vote,  and 
voted,  instead,  to  pay  out  this  money,  per  capita,  to  the 
people. 

In  the  year  1845,  the  town  voted : — "  That  the  interest 
of  the  Ministerial  and  School  fund,  as  it  existed  on  the 
*The  districts  are  tlius  Uesignuted  at  the  present  day. 


138  HISTORY   OF   CASTIKE, 

first  day  of  January  last,  be  used  for  the  support  of  schools 
annually,  and  that  sufficient  security  be  obtained  for  the 
principal."  The  ministerial  fund  had  vested  in  the  First 
Congregational  Society.  This  vote  of  the  town  was 
resisted  by  those  interested  in  the  Society,  and,  after  a 
resort  to  the  Legislature,  without  success,  for  an  act  to 
divert  the  fund,  the  attempt  to  have  it  appropriated  for 
schools  was  abandoned. 

The  appropriations  made  by  the  town  for  the  support  of 
its  schools,-  have  always  depended  somewhat",  of  course, 
upon  the  state  of  its  financial  prosperity ;  but  quite  a 
steady  correspondence  exists  between  the  amounts  appro- 
priated each  year,  and  the  population  of  the  town  at  the 
time.  Thus  from  1796,  to  1804,  the  annual  appi'opriations 
were  pretty  uniformly  two  hundred  dollars.  From  1806 
to  1810,  there  were  between  five  and  six  hundred  dollars. 
In  1811,  the  appropriation  was  eight  hundred  and  fifty 
dollars.  In  1812,  it  was  twelve  hundred.  From  that 
time  until  1815,  it  decreased  gradually  to  five  hundred. 
From  1815  to  1833,  it  was  between  one  thousand  and 
one  thousand  five  hundred.  From  1834  to  1844,  it  fell  off 
gradually  to  between  six  and  eight  hundred  dollars.  From 
1845  to  1856,  it  was  between  one  thousand  and  one 
thousand  seven  hundred.  From  1857  to  1864,  it  ranged 
from  two  thousand  to  two  thousand  five  hundred.  The 
whole  amount  of  money  appropriated  by  the  town,  for 
the  support  of  its  schools,  exclusive  of  that  raised  by  the 
several  districts,  and  of  that  derived  from  the  "  ministerial 
and  school  fund,"  amounted,  in  1864,  to  about  seventy-two 
thousand  dollars.  This  is  an  average  of  over  eight  hun- 
dred dollars  per  annum — the  average  of  the  entire  popu- 
lation for  that  length  of  time  being  about  one  thousand. 

District  Meetings. 

The  first  account  we  have  of  a  school-house  in  the 
Northern  district,  was  in  1804,  when  a  meeting  was  held, 
to  see  if  the  inhabitants  of  that  district  would  build  a 
school-house,  and  determine  where  it  sliould  be  located. 
The  matter  was  not  decided  at  this  meeting,  but  the  next 
year  the  district  voted  an  appropriation  of  one  hundred 
and  eighty  dollars,  to  defray  the  expense  of  building  one. 
Where  the  school-house  was  situated,  is  nowhere  stated. 
It  could  not  have  been  the  first  one  off  the  peninsula,  as 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  139 

there  was  one  in  1796  situated,  as  before  mentioned,  "  in 
the  crotch  of  the  road."  We  are  unable  to  ascertain  at 
what  time  the  school-houses  in  the  Northeastern  and 
Northwestern  districts  were  built,  or  the  cost  of  the  same, 
as  the  records  of  these  districts  are  not  to  be  found. 

School-meetings  were  called  in  the  Buck's  Harbor  dis- 
trict in  1800,  and  again  in  1806,  to  decide  where  the 
school  should  be  kept.  As  only  the  warrants  for  these 
meetings  have  been  preserved,  it  is  not  possible  to  state 
when  the  school-house  was  built,  or  where  it  was  located. 

In  the  Cape  district,  a  school-meeting  was  called — as 
shown  by  the  warrant — to  choose  a  committee  to  build  a 
school-house,  and  to  select  a  master  for  the  school.  In 
the  year  1817,  there  were  two  school-meetings  held  in 
this  district.  At  the  second  meeting,  the  following  votes 
were  passed : — 1.  To  build  a  school-house  between  David 
Dyer's  and  John  Bakeman's — at  a  cost  not  exceeding 
three  hundred  dollars.  2.  To  build  another  school  house 
near  John  Redman's — the  cost  not  to  exceed  one  hundred. 
3.  To  reconsider  the  vote  in  regard  to  petitioning  the 
town  to  divide  the  district.  4.  That  any  material  needed 
in  building  should  be  a  lawful  tender,  if  ready  when 
wanted. 

The  first  school-house  in  the  Peninsula  district  was 
located  on  the  "  common  lot."  The  exact  time  when  it 
was  built,  its  dimensions,  etc.,  we  have  been  unable  to 
ascertain.  On  April  5th,  1802,  this  district  voted  to  build 
a  school-house  two  stories  in  height,  thirty-six  feet  long 
by  thirty  feet  wide,  with  a  cupola  on  top  ;  the  back  thereof 
to  be  "  on  the  northwesterly  line  of  the  common,  square 
with  the  southwesterly  side  of  the  meeting-house."  The 
sura  of  seven  hundred  dollars  was  appropriated,  to  defray 
the  cost  of  erecting  the  same,  and  it  was  voted  to  allow 
the  use  of  one  story  for  an  Academy.  Captain  John 
Perkins,  Captain  Mark  Hatch,  and  Captain  Joseph  Per- 
kins, were  chosen  a  committee  to  superintend  the  erection 
of  the  building.  At  a  meeting  held  July  the  fifth,  it  was 
voted  to  reconsider  so  much  of  the  previous  vote  as 
related  to  having  the  building  two  stories  high.  Messrs. 
Otis  Little,  Thomas  Stevens,  and  JNIoses  Gay,  were  chosen 
a  committee  to  draw  up  a  plan  for  the  building.  As 
there  has  never  been  any  Academy  in  this  town,  the  cause 
of  the  above  votes  requires  explanation. 

It  appears  that  in  the  year  1797,  the  General  Court  of 


140  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

Massachusetts,  by  an  act  passed  February  twenty-seventh, 
offered  one  half-township  of  the  pubhc  fands  to  such  appli- 
cants, for  a  charter  for  an  Academy,  in  each  county,  as 
should  secure  for  it,  by  private  subscription,  funds  to  the 
amount  of  three  thousand  dollars.  About  the  time  of  the 
passage  of  these  votes  by  the  district,  there  being  no 
incorporated  Academy  in  Hancock  County,  several  towns 
attempted  to  establish  one — and  this  town,  as  well  as 
others.  A  paper  was  circulated  here,  and  subscriptions 
made  to  more  than  the  required  amount.  The  above  vote 
was  taken  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  Village  district,  and 
the  following  petition  was  sent  to  the  Legislature  of 
Massachusetts : — 

*'  To  the  honorable,  the  Senate  and  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives of  the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  in  Gen- 
eral Court  assembled,  at  Boston,  Januar}^  1803. 
Humbly  shew  your  petitioners,  that  the  inhabitants  of 
Castine,  in  the  County  of  Hancock,  and  its  vicinity,  con- 
ceiving that  an  Academy  in  the  said  town  of  Castine 
would  be  of  great  public  utility  in  promoting  piety, 
religion,  and  morality,  and  for  the  education  of  youth  in 
the  languages,  liberal  arts  and  sciences,  have  subscribed 
three  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty  dollars,  for  the 
purpose  of  erecting  and  supporting  the  same,  as  will 
appear  by  the  subscription  paper  accompanying  this  peti- 
tion* ;  provided^  the  General  Court  will  endow  said  Acad- 
emy with  an  half-township  of  laud,  six  miles  square,  of 
the  unappropriated  lands  in  the  District  of  Maine. 

We  would  humbly  beg  leave  to  represent  to  your  honors, 
that  we  conceive  great  benefit  would  result  to  the  county 
at  large  from  the  said  Academy  being  established  at  Cas- 
tine. At  least,  this  place  has  as  many  advantages  as  any 
town  in  the  county  ;  and  many  more  than  the  towns  in 
general.  -  It  is  free  of  access  both  by  land  and  water,  at 
all  seasons  of  the  year  ;  and  the  peninsula  on  which  it  is 
proposed  to  erect  the  building,  is  one  of  the  most  healthy 
spots  in  the  United  States.  Such  is  the  population  of  the 
place,  that  probably  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  good 
accommodations  may  be  found  for  as  many  students  as 
will  ever  be  at  the  Academy  ;  and  we  will  venture  to  say 
[they]  can  be  supplied  at  as  cheap  a  rate  as  at  any  place 
in  the  county.  The  place  is  generally  supplied  with  an 
abundance  of  fresh  provisions  of  different  kinds ;  and 
♦This  list  has  not  been  preserved  in  tlie  files  of  town  papers. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  141 

there  is  a  constant  intercourse  with  Boston,  so  that  what- 
ever is  necessary  to  be  obtained  from  thence,  may  be 
easily  and  clieaply  obtained.  For  these,  and  varions 
other  reasons,  which  it  would  be  eas}^  were  it  necessary, 
to  set  before  your  honors,  we  flatter  ourselves  the  prayei- 
of  our  petition  will  be  granted.  Impressed  with  this 
idea,  and  believing  that  such  characters  as  are  best  quali- 
fied for  trustees,  could  not  so  well  be  known  to  your 
honors  as  to  those  among  whom  they  live,  the  subscribers 
aforesaid,  at  a  full  meeting,  unanimously  agreed  to  men- 
tion a  number  of  gentlemen,  out  of  which  number,  should 
the  prayer  of  this  petition  be  granted,  they  pray  your 
honors  the  trustees  may  be  appointed. 

Wherefore  the  subscribers  and  others  have  appointed 
your  petitioners  a  committee  to  pray  your  honors,  that  an 
Academy  may  be  established  in  said  Castine,  by  the  name 
of  Castine  Academy,  and  that  one  half-township  of  land 
may  be  granted  for  supporting  the  same,  and  trustees 
incorporated  for  managing  the  prudential  affairs  of  said 
Academy,  with  the  privileges,  powers,  and  authority 
usually  vested  in  such  corporations  ;  and  as  in  duty  bound 
will  ever  pray."  [Signed  by  the  committee  in  the  original, 
but  no  names  given  in  the  copy  on  file.]  Doctor  Oliver 
Mann  was  the  Representative  to  the  General  Court  this 
year,  and  did  his  utmost  to  induce  that  body  to  locate 
the  Academy  in  this  town.  The  following  copy  of  a 
letter  to  him  from  the  committee  who  drew  up  and  for- 
warded the  above  mentioned  petition,  will  show  still  more 
clearly  the  efforts  that  were  made  b}^  the  citizens  of  this 
town : — 

"Sir:  We  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  the 
business  of  the  Academy  you  have  so  much  at  heart,  now 
looks  with  a  pleasing  appearance,  as  you  will  see  by  the 
petition  and  subscription  paper  which  we  now  inclose 
you,  to  present  to  the  Honorable  Court.  By  a  vote  of  the 
petitioners,  we  are  appointed  a  committee  to  write  to  you, 
and  forward  the  petition,  &c.  It  was  thought  best  by 
them,  at  a  full  meeting,  to  nominate  and  recommend  sucli 
persons  for  trustees  as  the  petitioners  were  fully  acquainted 
with — and  in  order  to  assist  you  in  the  nomination,  as  tlu; 
names  might  not  readily  occur  to  3'ou  at  the  time.  We 
have  in  the  petition  mentioned  some  of  the  advantages 
that  Castiue  possesses  over  the  other  towns  ;  but  we  tliink 
there  are  a  number  of  others  which   it  will  be  better  lor 

19 


142  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

joii  to  mention,  than  to  have  a  very  long  petition.  There 
is  one  thing  which  we  suppose  will  be  very  much  urged 
by  the  opposition,  to  wit ;  that  scholars  cannot  be  boarded 
as  cheap  as  at  the  other  towns  that  have  applied  for  the 
grant.  This  we  think  you  can  oppose  with  the  greatest 
propriety,  as  it  is  a  fact  that  the  advantages  Castine  pos- 
sesses will  enable  the  inhabitants  to  board  the  scbolare  as 
cheap  as,  if  not  cheaper  than,  any  town  in  the  county. 
There  is  another  thing  you  can  mention  from  your  knowl- 
edge of  the  petitioners,  to  wit :  that  they  are  all  able  to 
pay  the  sums  set  against  their  names,  and  that  no  names 
are  put  there  for  a  mere  show.  There  was  some  de- 
ficiency in  the  form  of  the  old  subscription  paper,  and  it 
was  therefore,  at  this  meeting,  proposed  to  draw  a  new 
one.  The  names  are  all  upon  it  but  yours — when  you  add 
that  with  the  sum  you  subscribed  on  the  old  one,  it  will 
make  just  the  sum  mentioned  in  the  petition,  as  you  will 
observe.  Not  doubting  but  you  will  pay  every  attention 
to  the  business,  we  remain. 

Your  friends  and  humble  Servants." 

Notwithstanding  the  exertions  that  were  made  to  have 
the  Academy  located  in  this  village,  the  town  of  Bluehill 
must  either  have  possessed  better  claims,  or  have  urged 
them  more  persistently  upon  the  attention  of  the  General 
Court,  for  the  Academy  in  that  town  was  incorporated  at 
this  session  of  the  Court.  In  consequence  of  the  failure  to 
establish  an  Academy  here,  the  district  this  year  voted  to 
reconsider  their  vote  of  1802. 

In  the  year  1811,  a  lot  of  land,  one  hundred  by  fifty 
feet,  running  northwest  from  "Center"  street,  was  deeded 
to  the  district,  by  Messrs.  Joseph  and  John  Perkins.  A 
meeting  of  the  district  was  called  this  year,  to  decide 
whether  the  school-house  should  be  altered,  or  a  new  one 
built.  Probably  but  little,  if  anything,  was  done  to  the 
building,  as  a  district  meeting  was  again  called  in  1815,  to 
decide  the  same  question.  What  was  decided  upon  at  this 
latter  meeting,  we  do  not  know  ;  but  in  1823,  a  school- 
house  was  built,  by  Mr.  Edwaid  Lawrence,  for  which  the 
district  paid  him  three  hundred  and  forty-one  dollars.  In 
1840,  the  district  voted  to  sell  the  land  and  buildings  on 
the  Northeast  side  of  Center  (or  Green)  street ;  and  they 
were  accordingly  purchased  by  Jonathan  Hatch,  for  one 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars.     In  1841,  the  district  voted  to 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  143 

raise  the  roof  of  the  Northwestern  school-house,  and  to 
reduce   the  wages  of  female  teachers  to  two  dollars  and 
sevent5^-five  cents  a  week.     On   April  5th,  1847,     Messrs. 
Charles    J.   Abbott,    William   Witherle,    Charles    Rogers, 
John  Dresser,  and   Benjamin  I).  Gay,  were  chosen  a  com- 
mittee to  procure  a  site  for  a  new  school-house,  and  to 
make   arrangements    for   building    the    same.     Upon   the 
twenty-fourth  of  this  month,  Messrs.  Charles  J.   Abbott, 
Stover  P.    Hatch,  Samuel   Adams,  William   Jarvis,    and 
Josiah   B.    Woods,  were  chosen  a  committee,  to  superin- 
tend the   erection  of  the  building.     An  appropriation  of 
six   hundred    dollars,  was   also  voted.     On   a  subsequent 
meeting,  held  May  8th,  the  committee  elected  on  the  fifth 
of  April  was  excused  from  further  service,  and  the  build- 
ing committee  was  instructed  to  purchase  a  lot,  but  was 
restricted    to    the   sum   of    one   hundred    dollars.     At   a 
meeting  held  December  22d,  it  was  decided,  if  the  consent 
of  the  town  could  be  obtained,  to  alter  the  town-house,  so 
as  to  make  it  suitable  for  a  school-house.     On  March  27th, 
1848,  the  district  voted  to  discharge  their  building  com- 
mittee, and  Messrs.  Josiah  B.  Woods,  Charles  Rogers,  and 
Charles  J.    Abbott,    were    chosen   in  place  of   those  dis- 
charged.    At  this  meeting,  it  was  voted  that  this  commit- 
tee superintend  the  fitting  up  of  the  town-house  into  a 
school-house,  and  cause  the  necessary  repairs  to  be. made 
upon  the  Western  school-house.     The  appropriation  voted 
at  a  previous  meeting  was  reduced  to  four  hundred  dol- 
lars, and  was  to  be  spent  in  making   the   above   named 
repairs.     On   March  2t)th,  1849,  by  vote  of  the  district, 
the  agent  sold  to  Mr.  George  Vose  the  lot  of  land  (then 
occupied  by  him)  adjoining  the  Western  school-house,  for 
the  sum  of  thirty  dollars.     On  March  7th,  1851,  it  was 
voted :  "  that  the  school  agent  be  authorized  to  pay  Mr. 
Hunt  six  hundred  dolhirs,  for  teaching  the  high  school  the 
ensuing  year."    Mr.  Hunt  was  to  employ  an  assistant  in  the 
school,  at  his  own  expense,  and  to  have  the  privilege  of 
receiving  scholars  from  other  towns  into  his  school,  j^f'o- 
vided  this  did  not  interfere  with  the  privileges  of  scholars 
in    the    district.     On    March    8th,    1853,  Messrs.  Charles 
Rogers,  Joseph  L.  Stephens,  and   William  Witherle,  were 
chosen  a  committee  to  procure  a  suitable  lot  of  land  upon 
which  to  erect  a  school-house ;  to  fix  upon   a  plan  of  the 
same,   and   to   estimate   the   expense.     At   a   subsequent 
meotiug,  this  committee  reported  that  they  bad  bargained 


144  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

with  Jotham  S.  Gardner  for  the  land,  for  the  sum  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars.     They  recommended  the  build-  , 
ing  of  a  double  house,  and  set  the  estimated  expense  of 
the  same  at  about  two  thousand  eight  hundred  dollars. 
Their  report  was  accepted,  and  the  amount  above  specified 
Avas   voted.     Messrs.   Stover   P.    Hatch,   Charles  Rogers, 
Ithiel  Lawrence,  Charles  J.  Abbott,  and  Charles  K.  Tilden, 
were  chosen  a  building  committee.     The   committee  was 
authorized  to  borrow  the  amount  of  money  that  had  been 
appropriated,    and   was   instructed   to    have   the    school- 
house  completed  within  eight  months.     In  the  year  1856, 
the  sum  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  was  appropri- 
priated  for  philosophical  apparatus,  and  the  agent  author- 
ized to  procure  the  same.     In  1857,  the  district  voted  to 
relinquish    the    right  of  occupying  the  town-house  as  at 
school-house.     On  March  19th,  1859,  the  district  voted  to 
build  a  school-house  two  stories  in  height,  near  the  site  of 
the  Intermediate  school-house.     It  also  voted  to  raise  the 
money   by  loan — to  be  paid  in    ten  annual  installments. 
Messrs.  Samuel  Adams,  Jr.,  Stover  P.  Hatch,  Ithiel  Law- 
rence, Stephen  W.  Webster,  and  Charles  J.  Abbott,  were 
chosen  a  building  committee.     The  sum  of  four  thousand 
dollars  was  appropriated,  and  the  committee  was  instructed 
to  dispose  of  the  Intermediate  school-house.     At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  district,  held  September  24th,  it  was  voted  to 
have  a  cupola  upon  the  building  ;  also,  to  accept  the  report 
of  the  committee  upon  the  completion  of  the  "  Abbott " 
school-house.     In  the  year  1861,  the  district  decided  that 
the  Apprentice  school  should  be  commenced  in  November, 
and  be  continued  as  long  as  it  was  found  profitable.     The 
district  also  voted  at  this  meeting  that  the  High  school- 
house  should  hereafter  be  known  as  the  "  Adams  "  school- 
house.     On  September  1st,  1863,  the  district  voted  to  allow 
one   of  the  school-houses  to  be  used   for  five  years,  for  a 
State  Normal  School,  and  to  have  it  suitably  altered  for 
this  purpose.     Messrs.  Charles  J.  Abbott,  Samuel  Adams, 
and  William  H.    Witherle,  Avere  chosen  a  committee  to 
make  an  offer  to  the  State,  of  one  of  the  buildings,  and  to 
make   all  necessary  preparations  for   the   transfer.     This 
committee  thereupon,  very  shortly  after,  made  the  follow- 
ing offer  to  the  commissioners  appointed  by  the  State  : — 
*•'  The  undersigned  a  committee  of  the  citizens  of  Cas- 
tine,  pursuant  to  votes  at  a  public  meeting  of  said  citizens, 
and  of  the  inhabitants  of  School  District  Number  One  in 


BKOOK:S^^LLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  145 

Castine,  qualified  to  vote  in  school-district  affairs,  at  a 
legal  meeting  of  said  district,  hereby  offer  to  the  State  of 
Maine,  under  the  Act  of  March  25th,  1863,  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  Normal  Schools,  the  Abbott  school  house  in 
Castine,  for  the  Use  of  a  Normal  School,  for  five  years. 
This  school-house  is  of  two  stories,  with  a  basement,  and 
is  fifty-eight  feet  by  thirty-foUr,  giving  school-rooms  fort}^- 
five  feet  by  thirt3^-two,  and  was  built  in  1859,  in  the  best 
manner.  The  citizens  will  furnish  double  desks  and  fixed 
chairs' — of  Boston  manufacture— and  settees  for  two  hun- 
dred scholars.  They  will,  if  necessary,  have  one  of  the 
school-rooms  fitted  with  sliding  doors,  so  as  to  be  used  for 
two  recitation  rooms  ;  and  the  attic,  which  is  fifty-eight 
by  fourteen  feet,  shall  be  finished  off,  and  properly  fur- 
nished, lighted,  and  ventilated,  for  a  recitation  room. 
Two  rooms  suitable  for  apparatus  and  library  rooms  are 
connected  with  the  school-rooms.  Suitable  clothes  room 
accommodation  shall  be  provided.  A  Philosophical  Appar- 
atus belonging  to  the  High  school,  and  the  Public  Library, 
of  seven  or  eight  hundred  volumes,  may  be  used  by  the 
Normal  School.  Board  at  a  rate  not  exceeding  two  dol- 
lars and  a  half  a  week,  can  be  obtained  by  the  Normal 
School  scholars.*" 

The  third  article  of  the  warrant  for  the  district  meeting, 
on  April  9th,  1864,  read  as  follows  : — "  To  see  if  the 
district  will  divide  the  Primary  school  into  two  independent 
schools,  with  a  teacher  for  each.  The  schools  to  be  called 
the  First  and  Second  Primary  schools.  Eacli  to  be  kept 
for  two  terms  in  a  year.  The  first  to  have  an  assistant ; 
to  commence  as  soon  as  possible,  and  to  continue  thirteen 
weeks.  The  second  to  commence  in  August,  and  continue 
seventeen  weeks.  Each  to  be  taught  by  a  female."  The 
other  articles  of  the  warrant  were  :— To  see  if  the  district 
would  vote  to  have  three  terms  of  the  Intermediate  and 
Select  schools — all  the  terms  to  be  taught  by  females  ;  to 
employ  a  master  for  a  Free  school  for  both  sexes,  to  com- 
mence in  December,  and  to  continue  sixteen  weeks  ;  to 
choose  a  committee  of  three,  to  classif}^  the  scholars,  and 
transfer   them,   as  found  needed,   from   school  to  school. 

♦In  the  Spring  of  1873,  the  State  relinquished  the  use  of  this  building,  the 
new  Normal  School-house  having  been  completed.  The  district  did  not, 
howevcjr,  cease  to  extenil  its  patronage  to  this  institution,  but  gave  it  a  louu 
of  all  the  furniture  then  in  use  in  it.  In  aildition  to  this,  Deacon  Samuel 
Adams  presented  it  with  a  handsome  bell,  and  Mr.  .Tolin  Jarvis  with  a  very 
superior  clock.  The  town  bad  previously  deeded  to  the  State  the  land  oil 
whicb  the  building  i^taud:). 


146  msroR'?  w  CASTtNie, 

tJpoii  tlie  tliird  article  being  called  for  consictel'.itiott,  tlie 
following  petition  was  presented:— 

"  The  undei'signed,  L{idies  of  Sclrcol  District  Kuinber 
One,  in  Castine,  deeply  interested  in  the  cause  of  educa* 
tion,  respectfully  beg  leove,  in  their  own  behalf,  in  behalf 
•of  the  children,  and  of  the  present  and  future  welfare  of 
society,  to  express  to  the  meeting  to  be  holden  in  said  dis- 
trict, on  the  ninth  insttmt,  their  most  earnest  desire  that 
no  change  should  take  place  in  the  present  admirable  sys* 
tem  of  our  schools,  and  that  they  be  maintained,  zvithout 
interruption,  on  their  present  footiiig."  This  petition  was 
signed  by  al'.nost  every  female  in  the  district.  Probably 
induced  thereto  more  by  their  fears  of  what  might  happen, 
than  by  anything  expressed  in  the  warrant  itself.  This 
petition  was  respectfully  laid  on  the  table,  and  all  the 
articles  were  adopted.  Messrs.  Josiah  B.  Woods,  Alfred 
F.  Adams,  and  Joshua  Hooper^  were  chosen  a  committee 
to  classify  the  scholars. 

Private  Schools. 

There  have  been,  frem  time  to  time,  ever  since  the 
incorporation  of  the  town,  if  not  before,  schools  kept  here 
by  teachers  who  were  not  employed  to  act  in  this  capacity 
by  the  town  authorities.  As  no  record  of  these  schools 
was  required  by  the  town,  our  sources  of  information 
in  regard  to  them  are  necessarily  very  meager.  The 
Misses  Almira  A.,  and  Sarah  H.  Hawes,  taught  private 
schools  for  thirty  or  forty  years.  They  were  very  success- 
ful in  their  teaching,  and  usmilly  had  full  schools.  Nearly 
all  of  the  present  adult  population  of  the  town  have,  at 
some  time,  been  under  their  tuition.  A  number  of  other 
persons  have  also,  from  time  to  time,  taught  private 
schools,  to  the  satisfaction  of  their  patrons,  but  we  are 
unable  to  obtain  any  particulars  as  to  their  schools,  and 
none  of  them  have  taught  for  so  long  a  time  as  the  ladies 
mentioned. 

Eastern  State  Normal  School. 

This  school  was  opened  in  the  Abbott  school-house, 
September  7th,  1867.  The  opening  exercises  were  con- 
ducted by  Reverend  Doctor  Ballard,  State  Superintend- 
ent of  Schools,  who  delivered  the  keys  of  the  building  to 
Mr.    G,    T.  Fletcher,   of   Augusta,  the    Principal  of  the 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  147 

school.  Appropriate  remarks  were  made  by  citizens  of 
the  town,  and  by  others  present.  A  class  of  thirteen  was 
admitted  to  the  school.  The  school  increasing  in  size^ 
Mrs.  Fletcher  was  appointed  assistant  teacher  at  the 
beginning  of  the  second  term. 

The  exercises  at  the  close  of  the  year  were  very  intei- 
esting.  Governor  Chamberlain  and  Council,  and  many 
friends  of  education  wei'e  present.  Mrs.  Fletcher  having 
declined  to  serve  longer,  at  the  beginning  of  the  second 
year — in  August,  1868 — Mrs.  Julia  E.  Sweet,  of  Boston^ 
was  appointed  assistant.  Mr.  John  W.  Dresser,  of  tliis 
town,  who  had  kindly  given  his  services  for  two  terras, 
adding  much  to  the  interest  and  profit  of  the  school,  was 
appointed  teacher  of  music.  At  the  commencement  of 
the  winter  term.  Miss  Anna  P.  Cate,  of  Castine,  was 
added  to  the  corps  of  teachers,  and  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Spring  term,  Miss  Helen  B.  Coffin,  was  trans- 
ferred from  the  Normal  school  at  Farmington  to  this,  and 
Miss  Lucy  V.  Little,  of  this  town,  was  employed  tempo- 
rarily. 

'  The  close  of  the  Spring  term  of  1869,  marked  an  era  in 
the  progress  of  the  school,  by  the  graduation  of  its  first 
class,  of  eight  pupils.  Governor  Chamberlain  and  Coun- 
cil were  present,  and  all  expressed  the  feeling  that  the  two 
years  of  trial  had  established  the  school  on  a  firm  basis. 
The  Fall  term  of  this  year  opened  with  an  attendance  of 
fifty-one  pupils.  At  the  commencement  of  the  Winter 
term,  Miss  Eliza  A.  Lufkin,  of  this  town,  a  graduate  of 
the  school,  was  appointed  assistant,  in  place  of  Miss 
Sweet,  who  had  resigned. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  Spring  term  of  1870,  Miss 
Mary  E.  Hughes,  of  Pennsylvania,  was  added  to  the  corps 
of  teachers.  At  the  close  of  this  term,  the  second  class — 
of  twenty-six — was  graduated.  The  Fall  term  opened 
with  an  attendance  of  one  hundred  and  nineteen  pupils. 
Miss  Cate  having  resigned  her  position,  Miss  Ellen  G. 
Fisher,  of  Massachusetts,  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy. 
Mr.  Park  S.  Warren,  teacher  of  the  High  school,  was 
appointed  teacher  of  Music,  in  the  place  of  Mr.  Dresser, 
who  had  resigned. 

The  Spring  term  of  1871,  opened  with  an  attendance  of 
one  hundred  and  forty  pupils,  and  closed  witli  the  gradua- 
tion of  the  third  class — consisting  of  twenty.  At  the 
close  of  the  Fall  term,  Miss  Fisher  resigned  her  position 


148  HISTORY   OP   CASTING, 

for  one  in  Boston,  and  Miss  Clara  Hartley,  of  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  At  differ- 
ent times  during  these  years,  Doctor  George  A.  Wheeler, 
of  Castine,  and  Doctors  George  B.  Stevens,  and  Calvin 
Cutter,  of  Massachusetts,  favored  the  school  with  lectures 
on  Physiology,  and  Doctor  N.  T.  True,  of  Maine,  with 
lectures  on  Geology. 

The  Spring  term  of  1872  closed  with  the  graduation  of 
a  class  of  fifteen.  The  town  having  presented  to  the 
State  a  fine  lot  of  land,  at  a  cost  of  about  one  thousand 
dollars,  an  appropriation  of  twenty  thousand  was  made 
by  the  Legislature,  to  build  a  new  Normal  school-house. 
Plans  drawn  by  Mr.  Alfred  F.  Adams,  of  this  town,  hav- 
ing been  accepted,  the  contract  for  the  building  was 
awarded  to  Messrs.  Foster  &  Dutton,  of  Bethel.  The 
ground  was  broken  in  May  of  this  year,  but,  the  season 
being  unfavorable,  the  house  was  not  completed  until 
January,  1873.  The  school  was  moved  into  the  new 
house  in  February,  but,  on  account  of  the  severe  weather, 
and  bad  travelling,  the  dedicatory  exercises  were  post^ 
poned  until  the  close  of  the  term  in  May.  The  closing 
examination  of  the  year  took  place  on  Wednesday,  May 
22d,  and  on  the  same  evening  the  house  was  dedicated. 
Governor  Perham  and  Council,  the  Board  of  Trustees, 
members  of  the  Press,  friends  of  education  and  of  the 
pupils,  and  citizens,  made  an  audience  of  five  hundred 
people  in  Normal  Hall,  and  there  was  still  room  for  a  hun- 
dred more.  The  exercises  were  very  interesting.  Speeches 
were  made  by  the  Governor  and  members  of  the  Council, 
and  by  other  officials,  by  citizens,  and  people  from  other 
States,  and  other  parts  of  our  own  State  ;  and,  in  behalf 
of  the  school,  by  the  Principal.  The  Normal  choir,  and  the 
Lawrance  Cornet  Band,  of  Castine,  furnished  excellent 
music.  On  the  succeeding  day,  the  fifth  class  graduated, 
with  honor  to  themselves  and  the  school.  The  new  build- 
ing is  an  ornament  to  the  town,  and  is  in  many  respects 
one  of  the  best  school-houses  in  the  State.  It  has  ample 
accommodations  for  two  hundred  pupils.* 

School  Statistics. 

The  average  annual  number  of  scholars  in  each  district, 

from  1813  to  1845,  was,  omitting  fractions,  as  follows  : — 

*  We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Fletcher,  the  Principal  of  the  school,  for  the 
material  for  the  foregoing  account. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  149 

In  District  Number  One,  two  hundred  and  eighty-seven. 

"         "  "  Two,  fifty-one. 

"         "  "  Three,  forty-three. 

"         "  "  Four,  thirty. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  all  the  teachers  men- 
tioned in  the  records  of  the  several  districts,  or  which  we 
have  been  enabled  to  obtain,  from  other  sources,  and  the 
decade  in  which  their  names  occur.  The  exact  dates  it  is 
impossible,  in  most  cases,  to  ascertain.  The  records  are 
very  defective,  and  consequently  many  names  are,  without 
doubt,  omitted  from  this  list  which  would  otherwise  appear. 

The  teachers  in  District  Number  One  were  : — From 
1820  to  1830.— Hannah  D.  Gay,  Cynthia  Holbrook,  Miss 
C.  S.  Jellison,  Joseph  Lull,  Susan  Stevens,  and  E.  M. 
Porter  Wells.  From  1830  to  1840.— Emehne  Perkins, 
Andrew  Pingree,  Nancy  Vose,  Sarah  Vose,  Nancv  Watson. 
From  1840  to  1850.— Mr.  Abbott,  Mr.  George  Adams,  Mr. 
Collins,  Rev.  Mr.  Farwell,  Sarah  H.  Hawes,  Frances 
Hosmer,  Abigail  Mead,  Richard  Potter,  Mehitable  Rog- 
ers, and  Mr.  Savage.  From  1850  to  1860. — L.  H.  Hatch, 
Mary  E.  Field,  L.  Hunt,  Georgie  Lane,  Charlotte  Y. 
Little,  Lizzie  H.  Morse,  Hannah  M.  Perry,  Ellis  Peterson, 
Bertha  Rogers,  Hannah  D.  Robbins,  Emeline  C.  Sawyer, 
Cornelia  Upham,  Susan  R.  Upham,  L.  D.  Ward  well,  David 
W.  Webster,  Jr.,  Zadoc  Witham,  and  Miss  H.  A.  Wood. 
From  1860  to  1865. — Fannie  J.  Gardner,  Miss  Condon, 
Anna  P.  Cate,  Marietta  Hatch,  Ellis  Peterson,  Miss  A.  G. 
Porter,  Miss  E.  E.  Sawyer,  and  Miss  A.  Wilder. 

In  District  Number  Two  : — 

From  1820  to  1830.— Miss  Abigail  Hatch.  From  1830 
to  1840. — William  F.  Nelson,  Alexander  Perkins,  Miss 
Wright.  From  1840  to  1850.— J.  W.  Hutchins,  Fannie 
Little,  and  David  W.  Webster,  Jr.  From  1850  to  1860. 
Phcebe  Ellis,  Fannie  Little,  Hester  Lull,  G.  S.  Hill,  Rev- 
erend William  J.  Robinson,  Hosea  B.  Ward  well,  Laura 
Webber,  Clara  Wescott,  Sarah  N.  Wescott,  Irene  Witham, 
and  Zadoc  Witham.  From  1860  to  1865. — Lucy  Hatch, 
Sarah  Hooke,  Mary  Lufkin,  Mary  J.  Robbins,  Hannah 
Robbins,  Reverend  Mr.  Wardwell,  and  David  W.  Webster, 
Jr. 

In  District  Number  Three  : — 

From  1820  to  1830.- Sarah  Hayden,   and  William  B. 
20 


150  HISTORY   OF   CASTI^^E, 

Webber.  From  1850  to  1865. — George  E.  Brown,  Mary 
E.  Dodge,  Edwin  Ginn,  Clara  A.  Littlefield,  Hosea  B. 
Wardwell,  David  W.  Webster,  Jr.,  Sarah  M.  Wescott,  and 
Zadoc  Witham. 

In  District  Number  Four : — 

A  school  is  said  to  have  been  taught  in  this  district  two 
years  before  the  incoi-'poration  of  the  town,  by  a  Mrs. 
Parker,  in  her  dwelling-house.  The  following  winter  it 
was  taught  by  a  Mr.  Downes.  In  1801,  the  school  was 
taught  by  an  Englishman  named  Bowlin.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  an  escaped  convict,  and  to  have  been  carried 
back  to  England  by  the  British,  when  they  left  here  in  1815, 
and  to  have  been  afterwards  huijg.  It  is  further  said  of 
him,  that  his  mode  of  punishing  unruly  scholars,  was  to 
cause  them  to  sit  down  on  a  ''  peaked  brick."  From  1806 
to  1820. — Mr.  Rowlinson,  and  Reverend  Mr.  Ricker,  taught 
in  this  district.  From  1820  to  1880.— Andrew  Steele.  — 
From  1830  to  1840. — Harriet  Devereux,  Sarah  H.  Hawes, 
Charles  Hutchings,  Harrison  Hutchings,  Ursula  Lawrence, 
Miss  Minot,  Louisa  Rogers,  Betsey  Steele,  Angelina  Steele, 
Lucretia  Stone,  Theodosia  M.  Wescott,  Robert  WardAvell, 
Jeremiah  Wardwell,  and  Zadoc  Witham.  1840  to  1850. — 
Nehemiah  Basset,  Clara  Basset,  Franklin  Chatman,  Harriet 
Dresser,  Lucy  Osmore,  Miriam  Fatten,  Nathan  Patterson, 
Hannah  Perry,  Sarah  Trott,  Betsey  Turner,  Jeremiah 
Wardwell,  Zadoc  Witham,  Samuel  Wasson,  Sarah  Wescott, 
Lucy  J.  Wescott,  and  Clara  White.  From  1850  to  1865. 
Rufus  Cole,  Lizzie  Dodge,  Henry  Folsom,  Harrison  Ginn, 
Amanda  Hatch,  Amelia  Harriman,  Caroline  Higgins,  Ellen 
S.  Hutchings,  Harrison  Hutchings,  Ruby  King,  Abby 
Oakes,  Louisa  Perkins,  Mary  J.  Robbins,  Sarah  Rowell, 
Louisa  Springfield,  S.  D.  Staples,  Rebecca  Trott,  Austin 
Wardwell,  Eliakim  Wardwell,  Evan  Wardwell,  Mary  E. 
Wardwell,  David  W.  Webster,  Jr.,  and  Zadoc  Witham. 

Owing  to  the  loss  of  so  many  of  the  school  returns,  it  is 
impossible  to  estimate,  with  any  exactness,  the  average 
wages,  for  each  term,  of  the  teachers,  in  the  different  dis- 
tricts. All  that  it  is  possible  to  state  is  that  the  average  of 
the  districts  off  the  peninsula  has  been  somewhat  below 
fifty  dollars  a  term,  and  of  district  Number  One,  somewhat 
below  seventy-five  dollars. 


brooksville  and  penobscot.  151 

School    Reports. 

The  first  report  of  any  school  committee  was  in  1836. 
It  was  very  short ;  gave  no  particulars  in  regard  to  the 
schools :  contained  no  recommendations,  and  simply  reported 
the  schools  as  in  a  very  prosperous  condition. 

In  the  next  report,  in  1841,  the  committee  complain  of  a 
great  want  of  attendance,  and  lack  of  punctuality  on  the 
part  of  the  scholars.  They  recommend  fewer  studies  ;  a 
greater  uniformity  of  books  ;  more  frequent  visiting  by 
parents  and  others  ;  an  improvement  of  the  school  houses  ; 
and  that  the  school  on  the  peninsula  be  kept  for  forty-two 
weeks  in  the  year,  by  a  male  teacher.  They  also  recom- 
mend, Ave  regret  to  say,  that  the  wages  of  all  the  teachers 
be  reduced.  This  report  is  signed:  B.  B.  Beckwith,/or 
the  committee. 

The  superintending  school  committee  in  their  report  for 
1856,  recommend  the  introduction,  into  all  the  schools,  of 
Tower's  series  of  Grammars,  and  also  recommend  a  change 
in  the  Readers.  "  Believing  that  an  interest  in  the  subject 
of  education  may  be  awakened  by  the  printing  and  circu- 
lation of  the  Annual  School  Reports  among  the  families  of 
this  town,"  they  recommend  that  subsequent  committees 
be  authorized,  at  their  discretion,  to  have  the  report  thus 
printed  and  circulated.  Joseph  L.  Stevens  signs  for  this 
committee. 

The  report  for  1857,  is  printed.  In  this  report  the  Pri- 
mary school  is  declared  to  be  altogether  too  large  for  one 
teacher,  numbering,  as  it  did,  one  hundred  and  three  schol- 
ars. In  his  remarks  the  writer  says :  "  We  are  more  and 
more  impressed  with  the  importance  of  having  a  teacher 
of  thorough  training  and  ample  qualifications,  placed  in 
charge  of  this  school.  Perhaps  there  is  no  one  in  the  series 
requiring  in  the  teacher,  for  the  best  success,  such  an 
unusual  combination  of  qualities  as  does  the  Primar3^ 
Here  it  is  that  systematic  effort  is  first  made  to  aAvaken 
in  the  young  mind  its  slumbering  capacities ;  here,  that  it 
is  first  taught  to  act  and  think  ;  and  here  it  is  that  character 
is  most  impressible."  The  Apprentice  school  is  well  spoken 
of  in  this  report,  though  it,  like  the  other  schools,  is  said 
to  have  suffered  from  unsteady  attendance.  It  is  stated  in 
this  report  that  there  were  two  principal  objects  sought  to 
be  accomplished  in  the  establishment  of  this  school.  One, 
"  the  efficient  instruction  in  the  essential  branches  of  prac- 


152  HlSTOHY  01?  CASTINE, 

tical  education  of  those  who  could  attend  school  only  for 
some  weeks  of  the  winter  season.  This  could  be  done 
only  in  a  school  especially  designed  for  them."  The  other 
object  was  "  that  the  High  school  might  reach  the  condi- 
tion of  a  high  school."  In  his  remarks  in  regard  to  the 
High  school,  the  writer  speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  the 
ability  and  devotion  of  the  teacher,  Mr.  Ellis  Peterson. 
This  school  is  declared  to  afford  "  better  advantages  of 
education  than  can  be  enjoyed  in  most  of  the  Boarding- 
schools  and  Academies  in  the  County."  The  closing  par- 
agraphs of  this  report  refer  to  the  "  Labor  question." 
They  are  full  of  sound  sense,  and  wotild  be  especially  appli- 
cable at  the  present  day,  the  drift  of  them  being  that  Labor 
to  compete  successfully  with  Capital,  ^mtst  be  educated. 

In  their  report  for  1858,  the  committee  state  that  the 
condition  of  the  schools  off  the  peninsula  is  not  what  it 
ought  to  be.  They  fail,  however,  to  give  the  reason  why 
such  is  the  case.  The  report  speaks  commendably  of  all 
the  village  schools.  It  states  also,  that  the  grading  of  the 
schools  on  the  peninsula  was,  this  year  completed.*  They 
were  divided  into  four  schools,  called  the  Primary,  Inter- 
mediate, Select  and  High.  For  transfer  from  the  Primary 
to  the  Intermediate  school,  the  scholar  was  required  to  be 
able  to  read  fluently  in  Sargent's  First  Reader,  and  to  pass 
a  satisfactory  examination  in  Emerson's  Arithmetic,  and  in 
the  addition  and  multiplication  tables.  For  transfer  to  the 
Select  school,  the  scholar  must  have  passed  through  Mitch- 
ell's Primary  Geography,  Colburn's  Arithmetic — as  far  as 
section  7,  page  79 — and  through  the  simple  rules  of  com- 
mon Arithmetic.  Fortransferto  the  High  school,  Colburn's 
Arithmetic  must  have  been  finished  ;  also,  Mitchell's  Com- 
mon School  Geography,  Tower's  Elements  of  Grammar, 
Quackenbos's  History  of  the  United  States,  and  Greenleaf 's 
Introduction  to  the  Common  School  Arithmetic,  as  far  as 
decimal  fractions.  Sargent's  Readers,  and  Worcester's 
Spelling  Book,  were  introduced  into  the  schools  this  year, 
the  old  books  having  been  in  use  for  twelve  years.  The 
committee  recommend  the  fixing  up  of  the  Western 
school  house  for  an  Apprentice  school,  and  the  erection  of 
a  new  building  for  the  Primary  and  Intermediate  schools. 

*The  grading  principle  began  to  be  acted  on  in  oirr  schools  in  1840.  Joseph 
L.  Stevens,  Hezekiah  W^illiams,  and  Charles  J.  AbTjott,  being  the  school  com- 
mittee who  inaugurated  it,  and  from  whom  we  obtain  our  iufonnatiou. 


BUOOKSVILLE  A>It)  PENOBSCOT.  153 

This  latter  suggestion  they  urge  strongly,  not  only  on 
account  of  the  interests  of  the  schools  themselves,  but  also 
as  a  means  of  counteracting,  somewhat,  the  great  depres- 
sion of  business  which  was  being  felt  by  the  laboring  classes 
of  the  town. 

The  report  for  1 860,  shows  a  very  commendable  improve- 
ment in  all  the  schools.  The  committee  are  very  decidedly 
in  favor  of  strict  discipline  in  school.  The  report  concludes 
by  expressing  the  obligation  the  people  of  District  Number 
One  were  under,  to  Mr.  John  W.  Dresser,  for  the  gratui- 
tous instruction  in  music,  given  by  him  for  manj^  months, 
to  the  members  of  the  High  and  Select  schools.  The  last 
three  reports  are  signed, /or  the  committees^  by  Mr.  Charles 
J.  Abbott. 

The  report  for  the  year  1862,  is  printed.  In  it  the  com- 
mittee remark  that  the  schools,  taken  as  a  whole,  have  been 
more  successful  than  in  any  former  year,  the  result  of  the 
steady  liberal  support  yielded  them.  The  report  dwells 
much  upon  the  importance  of  educating  the  children,  rather 
than  allowing  them  to  educate  themselves.  This  report  is 
signed, /or  the  committee^  by  Mr.  David  W.  Webster,  Jr. 

In  the  year  1864,  Diplomas  were,  for  the  first  time,  given 
to  those  who  graduated  from  the  High  school.  These 
diplomas  w^ere  upon  parchment,  and  read  as  follows : — 

Diploma 

of  Castine  High  School. 

Awarded 

To '. 

Who  has  attended  the  Castine  High  School  for  more  than 
four  years;  has  been  distinguished  for  Constant  Attendance, 
Exemplary  Deportment,  and  Diligent  and  Thorough 
Study ;  and  who  is  believed  to  be  entitled  by  Culture  and 
Scholarship,  to  this  Diploma. 

)  School  Committee 

of 
)  Castine. 

Teacher 

Castine, 186 


154  History  o^  castine, 

A  large  class  of  young  gentlemen  and  ladies  Was  gradu- 
ated this  year.  A  few  classes  have,  we  believe,  received 
diplomas  since  then,  but  of  late  years  no  graduations  have 
taken  place.* 

From  the  foregoing  rather  incomplete  account  of  the 
attention  paid  to  educational  matters  in  this  town,  it  is 
plainly  to  be  seen,  that  the  citizens  of  Castine,  have  a 
right  to  feel  a  pride  in  the  past  history  of  their  public 
achools.  It  is  equally  to  be  seen  that  these  schools  have  at 
no  time  been  free  from  imperfections.  Perfection  can  no 
more  be  looked  for  in  the  future  than  in  the  past,  but  it  is 
hoped  that  this  record  of  what  was  done  for  the  cause  of 
education  by  our  forefathers,  may  incite  all  to  increased 
zeal  in  the  matter  of  a  common  education  provided  by  the 
people  for  the  people. 

*Until  this  year  (1874),  when  a  class  of  seven  or  eight  wefe  publicly  grad- 
uated. It  is  to  be  hoped  that  in  future,  each  year  will  see  a  class  ready  for 
graduation. 


BIlOOKS\aLLE   AND  PENOBSCOT. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

MILITARY  HISTORY. 

(Subsequent  to  Incoepoeation  of  Penobscot.) 

Importance  of  Castine  as  a  Military  Post. — Mili- 
tia AND  Regulars  here  in  1787  to  1812. — War 
OF  1812.  —  British  Expedition.  —  British  Occu- 
pation.—  British  Garrison  Evacuated.  —  Fort 
George  Re-occupied  by  the  Americans. — Roster  of 
Castine  Artillery  Company. — Hancock  Guards. — 
Troops  Sent  to  the  Aroostook. — Castine  Light 
Infantry. — It  Volunteers  for  Service  in  1861. — 
Services  Rkndered  by  the  three  Towns  in  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion. 

Probably  no  place  in  the  State  of  Maine  has  passed 
through  so  many  changes,  as  the  peninsula  of  Castine. 
Indians,  French,  Flemish  pirates,  Dutch,  English,  and 
Americans,  have  each  occupied  it.  France  held  posses- 
sion of  it  for  almost  the  entire  seventeenth  century.  No 
less  than  five  naval  engagements  have  taken  place  in  its 
harbor.  To  use  the  language  of  another:  "it  has  never 
been  without  a  garrison  from  1680  to  1783,  and  has  always 
been  dealt  with  by  the  nations  in  whose  possession  it  has 
been  as  a  place  of  great  importance."  General  De  Peyster 
remarks  :  "  This  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  points  all 
along  our  coasts ;  which,  under  any  other  government 
than  our  own,  would  have  long  since  been  transformed 
into  a  naval  and  military  fortress  of  the  first  class." 
[Dutch  at  North  Pole,  and  Dutch  in  Maine,  p.  49.] 
Such  was  the  military  character  of  the  place  before  its 
incorporation  ;  and  although  since  that  time,  the  foot 
of  the  invader  has  pressed  its  soil  but  once,  yet  even  its 
later  military  history  will  be  found  not  devoid  of  interest. 

As  early  as  1787,  there  was  a  company  of  the  1st  Regi- 


156  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

ment,  2d  Brigade,  8th  Division  of  Massachusetts  Militia 
here — of  which  Mr.  Jeremiah  Wardwell  was  Captain. 
On  Jnly  10th.  1799,  a  recruiting  office  for  the  15th  U.  S. 
Regiment  was  opened  here.  The  recruiting  officer  was 
Captain  John  Bhxke.  Eli  Forbes  was  made  the  Captain  of 
a  company,  Doctor  Oliver  Mann  a  Surgeon  in  the  regi- 
ment, and  Tliomas  Stevens  a  Lieutenant  in  Captain  Hun- 
newell's  company.  On  November  1st,  forty  men  left 
town,  to  join  their  regiment.  These  men  were  all  regulars^ 
but  we  find  it  stated  in  the  Castine  Journal  of  this  date, 
that  an  artillery  company,  of  which  Lieutenant  Lee  had 
command,  paraded  here  upon  that  day.  This  company 
formed,  probably,  a  part  of  the  State  militia.  During  the 
first  six  months  of  the  year  1800,  this  company  was  in 
mourning  for  General  Washington.  In  1810,  a  meeting 
of  the  regiment  to  which  it  belonged  was  called,  in  Castine, 
to  elect  a  Colonel,  to  take  the  place  of  Joseph  Lee,  who 
had  resigned. 

In  the  year  1804,  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  of  Penobscot, 
was  in  command  of  some  regiment,  possibly  of  the  one 
above  mentioned.  The  following  letter  proves  this  fact, 
and  also  shows  that  they  were  called  into  service,  though 
it  is  not  certain  that  they  ever  left  town  : 

''  Col.  J.  Wardwell,  Sir  : 

It  appears  that  an  insurrection  has  broken  out  in  the 
settlement  west  of  Belfast,  and  the  insurgents  threaten  to 
burn  the  town  of  Belfast,  and  it  appears  necessary  that 
the  militia  should  be  put  in  readiness  to  march  at  the 
shortest  notice. 

You  are  hereby  ordered  to  examine  the  town  stocks  of 
ammunition  within  the  limits  of  your  regiment,  and  have 
them  filled  up  immediately,  and  have  fifty  men  equipped 
and  ready  to  march,  if  they  should  be  called  for. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  and  humble  Servant," 

JOHN  CROSBY,  B.  General. 

Hampden,  June  29,  1804." 

The  only  time,  since  the  municipal  period  of  the  town 
commenced,  that  it  has  been  in  possession  of  a  foreign 
foe,  was  during  what  is  generally  known  as  the  War  of 


BROOKS^^LLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  157 

1812.  The  long  continued  impressment  of  American  sea- 
men by  the  British — which  was  upheld  by  them — together 
with  numberless  insults  to  our  flag,  and  the  superior  pol- 
icy of  Napoleon,  in  abandoning  the  right  to  search  neutral 
vessels ;  all  these  things  combined  to  compel  the  United 
States,  on  June  18th,  of  that  year,  to  declare  War  against 
Great  Britain.  Active  hostilities  did  not  commence  for 
more  than  a  year,  but  the  note  of  preparation  began  at 
once  to  be  heard.  Sometime  in  the  year  1813,  a  detach- 
ment of  regular  trooi^s,  belonging  to  the  brigade  of  General 
Blake,  was  stationed  in  town.  [Williamson,  Vol.  2,  p. 
632.]*  In  April,  1814,  there  were  at  this  place  nineteen 
men  belonging  to  Captain  Fillebrown's  company,  of  the 
40th  Infantry,  viz  :  one  3d  Lieutenant,  one  Sergeant,  two 
Corporals,  and  fifteen  privates.  On  May  16th,  a  detach- 
ment of  the  same  company,  commanded  by  Lieutenant 
Andrew  Lewis,  was  added.  On  the  thirty-first  of  July, 
the  detachment,  which  had  been  converted  into  one  of 
artillery,  consisted  of  one  2d  Lieutenant,  one  Sergeant, 
and  six  privates.  The  ordnance  consisted  of  one  24- 
pounder,  twelve  hand-spikes,  nine  muskets,  and  six  bayo- 
nets. [Monthly  returns  of  40th  Regt.]  This  year  a  body  of 
men  from  two  British  armed  vessels  entered,  in  the  night, 
the  fort  at  Thomaston,  spiked  the  guns,  destroyed  the  build- 
ings and  ammunition,  set  fire  to  one  vessel,  and  towed 
off  two  others.  This  daring  exploit  created  such  general 
alarm,  that  the  militia  of  the  State  were  ordered  out  to 
act  as  a  coast  guard,  and  a  draft  was  made  upon  the  militia 
at  Bangor  and  vicinity,  in  order  to  increase  the  force  at  this 
garrison.  [Williamson,  Vol.  2,  p.  642.]  An  expedition 
was  planned  by  the  English,  at  Halifax,  against  Penob- 
scot and  Machias.  Tlie  fleet  consisted  of  the  following 
vessels  : 

Three  74s — The  Dragon,  Spencer  and  Bulwark;  two 
frigates — the  Biu-Jiante  and  Tenedos  ;  two  sloops  —  the 
Sylph  and  Peruvian  ;  one  schooner — the  Fictu  ;  one  large 
tender,  and  ten  transports.  Upon  these,  three  thousand 
five  hundred  men  embarked,  besides  the  usual  camp  fol- 
lowers. They  consisted  of  the  29th,  62d,  98th,  two  rifle 
companies  of  the  60th,  and  a  detaclimeut  of  the  Royal 
Artillery,  regiments.     The  29th  Regiment  Avas  called  the 

*Tlierc  had  been,  as  mentioned  before,  an  artillery  company  in  tliis  town 
for  several  years.  We  are  uiiecrtain  whetlur  these  were  the  same  trooiid 
referred  to  by  Williamson,  but  we  think  not. 

21 


158  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

Boston  Mer/iment,  it  bein^  the  same  that  perpetrated  the 
Boston  3Iassacre.  One  man  who  was  a  private  at  tlie  time 
of  the  massacre,  was  here  with  the  regiment  at  this  time. 
[Niles'  Weekly  Register,  VoL  7,  p.  280.]  The  troops 
had  composed  a  part  of  Wellington's  army,  and  many  of 
them  were  said  to  be  Germans.  [Ibid.  Vol.  7,  p.  51.] 
Lientenant  General  Sir  John  C.  Sherbrooke  had  the  chief, 
and  Major  General  Gerard  Gosselin  the  immediate  com- 
mand of  the  land  forces,  and  Edward  Griftith,  Rear 
Admiral  of  the  White,  had  the  command  of  the  naval 
squadron.  The  fleet  siiiled  from  Halifax  on  the  twenty- 
sixth  of  August,  and  arrived  at  the  Back  Cove  on  Thurs- 
day, September  1st.  They  seized  at  once  upon  a  reve- 
nue cutter,  and  upon  all  the  shipping  in  the  harbor. 
[Eaton's  Thomaston,  So.  Thomaston  and  Rockland.]  So 
formidable  an  appearance  did  this  fleet  offer,  that  our 
troops,  which  were  in  garrison  at  the  lower  fort — Fort  Por- 
ter*— without  waiting  to  go  through  the  form  of  a  sur- 
render, immediately  discharged  their  cannon,  blew  up  the 
magazine,  and  fled  up  the  bay.  The  English  at  once 
took  peaceable  possession  of  the  place.  In  the  course  of 
the  day,  they  landed  the  greater  part  of  their  troops,  took 
possession  of  Fort  George,  seized  the  Court  House  and 
Custom  House — which  were  used  as  barracks  for  the 
soldiery — erected  numerous  batteries  and  a  block-liouse, 
and  took  some  of  the  best  and  most  commodious  houses 
for  the  abode  of  the  officers.  They  also  had  a  detach- 
ment at  the  old  church  in  North  Castine,  and  occupied 
Mr.  Hooke's  barn  as  a  hospital.  Captains  Gell  and  Coker, 
and  Lieutenants  Sands  and  Evans,  with  their  servants, 
quartered  in  the  dwelling  house  of  Mr.  Otis  Little.  They 
were  not  aware,  however,  that  a  hundred  muskets,  and  an 
abundance  of  ammunition  were  concealed  under  the  hay- 
mow, in  the  barn.  These  munitions  of  war  Avere  the 
property  of  the  town  and  State,  and  were  not  brought  out 
from  their  liiding-places  until  after  peace  was  proclaimed. 
When  the  fleet  sailed  up  the  harbor,  the  whole  popula- 
tion turned  out  to  witness  the  sight,  though  not  without 
feelings  of  dismay.  The  inhabitants  on  the  Brooksville  side 
ascended  the  high  hill  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town  and 

*Thi.s  fort  mounted  at  the  time,  four  24-pounilers.  It  was  evidently 
untenable  against  a  force  of  any  ma£;nitude,  being  open  to  an  attack  from  the 
rear,  [Ballard's  man.  Sketch  of  Castine.]  According  to  the  account  in 
Nile's  Register,  [Vol.  7,  p.  61.]  there  were  twenty-four  32-pounders,  four  of 
which  were  destined  for  the  new  fort  at  Portland. 


BROOKS VILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  159 

waited,  with  intense  anxiety,  to  obtain  a  view  of  the 
expected  conflict.  Making  tliis  place  the  head-quarters  of 
their  forces,  the  British  soon  began  to  send  out  foraging 
parties  through  the  region  round  about  and  even  across  the 
bay.  In  a  very  short  time  also,  they  sent  detachments  up 
.the  river  and  succeeded  in  capturing  the  towns  of  Hamp- 
den, Bangor,  Frankfort,  and  Bucksport.  Tliey  brought 
back  from  their  incursion,  some  eighteen  or  twenty  horses, 
a  large  number  of  oxen,  sheep,  etc.,  and  six  vessels.  These 
vessels  were  the  Bangor-  Packet^  the  schooner  Oliver  Spear^ 
the  Hancock^ — which  was  retaken — the  Lucy^ — which  was 
lost — the  Polly ^ — which  was  ransomed— and  the  "beautiful 
boat"  Cato.  Making  but  four  vessels  actually  brought  into 
this  harbor.  The  Liverpool  Trader,  belonging  to  Mr. 
Joseph  Perkins,  was  burned.  They  burned  and  destroyed 
many  other  vessels,  and  required  bonds  from  the  several 
towns  to  deliver  up  at  Castine,  within  about  a  month,  all 
the  remainder  that  were  uninjured.  Upon  the  first  and 
fifth  of  September,  General  Sherbrooke  and  Admiral 
Griffith  issued  proclamations  to  the  effect  that,  if  the 
people  would  remain  quietly  at  their  homes  and  continue 
to  ]Dursue  their  usual  avocations,  would  surrender  all  their 
arms,  and  would  refrain  from  communicating  intelligence 
to  the  Americans,  they  should  have  protection  and  safety 
ensured  to  them.  Also,  that  the  municipal  laws  and  civil 
magistrates  would  be  supported,  and  that  all  citizens  who 
would  furnish  the  troops  with  provisions,  should  receive 
pay  for  the  same.  There  were  frequent  changes  of  the 
British  forces  and  vessels,  occurring  during  the  3'ear,  but 
there  were  seldom  less  than  fourteen  or  fifteen  sail  of  this 
squadron  in  the  harbor.  The  English  repaired  Fort  George, 
occupied  it  with  a  garrison,  and  mounted  some  sixty 
cannon  there.  They  also  enlarged  the  trench,  said  to  have 
been  made  by  Mowatt,  in  1779,  so  as  to  form  a  canal  ten 
or  twelve  feet  in  width  and  eighty  rods  in  length.  This 
canal  was  dug  fully  as  much  to  prevent  desertions  as  to 
guard  against  a  surprise.  Desertions  were  becoming  of 
daily  occurrence,  and  still  took  place  after  this  canal  was 
dug.  Two  deserters  were  ciiptured,  tried,  sentenced,  and 
shot.  One  was  shot  while  attempting  to  cross  the  canal. 
The  English  about  this  time  made  Castine  a  port  of  entry, 
and  appointed  William  Newton,  Collector  of  the  Customs. 
The  property  of  Mr.  Ilooke,  the  former  Collector — who 
had  succeeded  in  escaping  with  all  the  public  papers — was 


160  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE, 

confiscated.  All  the  vessels  belonging  here  previous  to  the 
surrender  of  the  place  were,  however,  returned  to  their 
owners,  and  were  allowed  a  clearance  and  free  intercourse 
with  New  Brunswick,  and  other  British  Provinces.  [Niles' 
Register,  Vol.  7,  p.  110.]  Upon  the  twelfth  of  September, 
General  Sherbrooke  and  Admiral  Griffith,  with  about  one- 
half  the  forces,  left  for  Machias.  Rear  Xdrairal  Milne  and 
Gerard  Gosselin  were  left  in  command  of  the  naval  and 
land  forces.  All  intercourse  between  the  eastern  and  west- 
ern sides  of  the  Penobscot  was  prevented,  as  much  as 
possible,  by  both  the  British  and  the  United  States  author- 
ities. The  following  order  was  issued  by  the  Post  Office 
Department  at  Washington  : — 

General  Post  Office,  September  26, 1814. 

Sundry  Post-offices  in  the  District  of  Maine,  being 
possessed  by,  or  under  the  control  of,  the  public  enemy,  and 
it  being  possible  that  others  may  be  in  the  same  situation, 
it  is  hereby  ordered,  that  the  Post  Master  (at  the  nearest 
safe  Post-office  to  those  offices  so  possessed  or  controlled 
by  the  enemy)  detain,  open  and  account  for  the  mails 
addressed  to  them,  in  the  same  manner  as  if  addressed  to 
his  own  office.  Whenever  it  shall  become  safe  to  forward 
mails  to  such  Post-offices,  the  letters  and  papers  remaining 
undelivered,  are  to  be  remailed  and  forwarded  immediately 
to  their  places  of  destination,  either  by  special  express,  at 
the  expense  of  this  office,  or  by  the  regular  carrier. 

(Signed.)     R.  J.  MEIGS,  Jr., 

Postmaster  General. 

From  the  above  order  it  would  appear  probable  that  all 
letters  for  Castine  were,  at  this  time,  left  either  at  Belfast, 
or  at  Prospect. 

On  November  the  third,  a  small  fleet  of  merchant  vessels 
arrived  here  from  Eastport,  under  convoy  of  the  war-brig 
Fantine.  One  unarmed  schooner,  lately  the  American 
privateer  "  tShiap  Dragooi,^'  having  on  board  some  British 
Marines,  was  hailed  by  a  boat  from  Waldoboro' — Captain 
Cook — was  fired  upon  and  had  two  men  killed  and  two 
wounded.  The  boat  then  returned  to  port.  Sometime  in 
January,  1815,  a  transport  from  Halifax,  with  a  re-inforce- 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  l*ENOBSCOT.  161 

ment  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  soldiers  for  the  garrison  at 
this  place,  was  chased  ashore,  not  far  from  here,  by  three 
American  privateers,  and  lost.  The  troops,  however,  got 
safely  to  land  and  marched  to  town.  [Niles'  Register,  Vol. 
8,  p.  108.] 

During  the  whole  time  of  the  British  occupation,  no 
attempt  was  made  on  the  part  of  either  the  State  or  United 
States  authorities  to  regain  possession  of  the  place.  The 
question  was  discussed  in  the  Senate  of  the  commonwealth, 
but  it  Avas  decided  that  any  attempt  to  recover  the  place, 
even  should  it  succeed,  would  involve  too  much  bloodshed. 
The  National  government  would  probably  have  attempted 
the  expulsion  of  the  enemy  from  the  place,  had  it  not  been 
for  the  refusal  of  Governor  Strong,  of  Massachusetts,  to 
assist.  However  cogent  may  have  been  the  reasons  on  the 
part  of  the  Governor,  his  indisposition  to  make  any  attempt 
to  regain  the  place,  caused  him  to  be  very  unpopular,  not 
only  in  portions  of  his  own  State,  but  pretty  generally 
throughout  the  country.  He  was  dubbed  "•  the  Hero 
of  Castine,"  and  according  to  the  National  Advocate^  it 
was  proposed  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  District  of  Maine, 
to  present  him  with  a  sword  "  as  a  mark  of  their  estimation 
of  his  patriotic  and  gallant  defence  of  Castine,  and  the 
prompt  and  efficient  protection  he  afforded  that  District 
when  invaded  by  the  enemy."  The  sword  was  to  be  con- 
structed of  the  best  tvhite  pine,  and  to  be  ornamented  with 
appropriate  emblems !  [Niles'  Register,  Vol.  7,  p.  280, 
and  Vol.  8,  Supplement,  p.  187.]  During  this  time  our 
citizens  had,  naturally,  to  endure  very  many  inconveniences 
and  annoyances,  especially  from  officers  like  Barrie,  Cap- 
tain of  the  Dragon^  a  rough  sailor,  who  "  was  a  total  stran- 
ger to  literature,  to  every  generous  sentiment,  and  even  to 
good  breeding."  Notwithstanding  these  inconveniences, 
however,  there  was  much,  in  the  rapid  growth  of  business — 
in  the  social  amenities  observed  by  some  high-minded  and 
generous-dispositioned  officers,  both  of  superior  and  infe- 
rior rank — and  in  the  amusements  afforded  by  the  mere 
presence  of  so  large  a  number  of  people,  as  was  at  that 
time  here,  to  render  the  period  one  of  some  considerable 
gayety.  No  regret  was  experienced,  however,  by  the 
majority,  when  at  length — April  15,  1815 — the  garrison 
was  evacuated,  and  the  town  resumed  its  usual  intercourse 
with  its  neighbors. 

After  Fort  George  was  evacuated  by  the  British,  our 


162  HISTORY   OF  CASTllJE, 

forces  took  possession,  and  a  company  was  sent  here  to  gar- 
rison it.  About  the  year  1818,  a  Board  of  Engineers  was 
appointed  by  the  United  States  Government,  to  survey  the 
Coast  of  Maine,  with  a  view  to  fortifying  it.  This  Board 
reported  in  favor  of  abandoning  Castine,  and  fortifying 
Bucksport  Narrows.  Accordingly,  in  March,  1819,  the 
garrison  was  evacuated  by  our  troops.  Captain  Leonard, 
and  Lieutenant  Mclntyre,  were  the  officers  in  command 
here  at  the  time,  and  Doctor  William  Ballard,  the  Surgeon. 

There  was  in  Penobscot,  at  this  time,  and  had  probably 
been  for  some  years,  a  company  of  militia.  About  this 
time  it  was  commanded  by  Captain  Eben  Hutchings.  We 
have  been  unable  to  ascertain  any  further  particulars  in 
regard  to  it. 

The  organization  of  the  Artillery  company— mentioned 
in  the  first  part  of  this  chapter— was  kept  up  for  quite  a 
number  of  years  after  the  evacuation  of  the  town  by  the 
British.*  This  company  mustered  in  Brooksville,  Septem- 
ber 18,  1834,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Eben  P. 
Parker,  and  the  members  were  paid  fifty  cents  each  for 
their  services  on  that  day.  The  following  is  the  roster  of 
the  company  at  that  time : 

Captain  Eben  P.  Parker,         Otis  Morey, 

Edward  Lawrence,  William  F.  Nelson, 

William  Jarvis,  Thomas  A.  Murch, 

William  Averill,  Reuben  Turner, 

Rufus  P.  Parker,  James  Turner, 

Otis  Hatch,  John  Bridges, 

Daniel  Moore,  Miles  Gardner, 

Stephen  Witham,  Robert  Stockbridge, 

John  Blake,  Jr.,  Isaac  Stockbridge, 

Robert  C.  Straw,  Benjamin  Wilson, 

Darius  Lawrence,  Zimri  Bryant, 

Ithiel  Lawrence,  Eldridge  Bridges, 

John  Wilson,  John  B.  Wilson, 

David  C.  Wilson,  James  Foster, 

Jotham  Gardner,  Jonathan  L.  Moor, 
Robert  Moor. 

How  long  the  organization  of  this  company  was  kept 
up,  is  uncertain  ;   but  the  military  spirit  of  the  community 

*Ciipt:un  Charles  Rogers,  the  present  Postmaster  at  Castine,  was  at  one 
time  in  command  of  this  company,  but  is  unable  to  give  the  date  in  which  he 
held  that  office. 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.         1G3 

was  preserved  and  fostered  by  the  formation^  about  this 
time,  of  a  company  of  Light  Infantry,  by  the  name  of  the 
Hancock  Guards. 

They  constituted  Company  "  D "  of  the  First  Regi- 
ment, First  Brigade,  Tliird  Division  of  the  State  Militia. 
No  account  of  this  company  is  to  be  found  prior  to  the 
year  1839,  and  the  opinion  of  former  members  is  that  it 
was  formed  that  year.  On  February  17th,  of  this  year, 
the  State,  fearing  an  invasion',  on  account  of  the  difficulties 
with  England,  in  regard  to  the  settlement  of  the  North- 
eastern Boundary  question,  ordered  all  the  Militia  to  the 
Northeastern  frontier.  Twenty-one  members  of  Company 
D  went  to  Aroostook  County,  and  performed  military 
duty  for  some  two  months — though  they  saw  no  enemy.* 
This  calling  out  of  the  State  Militia  is  popularly  known  as 
the  "  Aroostook  War,"  and  has  to  this  day,  rather  unfairly, 
we  think,  been  the  source  of  much  amusement  and  raillery, 
at  the  expense  of  those  who  participated  in  it.  It  cer- 
tainly required  no  small  degree  of  courage,  to  brave  the 
deep  snows  and  excessive  cold  of  an  unbroken  wilder- 
ness, in  the  most  Northern  portion  of  the  United  States, 
for  the  express  purpose  of  meeting,  as  they  supposed,  an 
armed  foe.  The  men  who  could  cheerfully  do  this,  would, 
without  doubt,  have  acquitted  themselves  honorably  in 
actual  battle,  had  occasion  required.  The  expenses  of  this 
Company  cost  the  town-  the  sum  of  three  hundred  and 
ninety-six  dollars  and  thirty-seven  cents,  which  amount 
was,  however,  reimbursed  by  the  State.  The  following 
bill  and  vouchers  show  to  whom  this  money  Avas  paid,  and 
for  what  purposes : 

"  Dr.  THE  STATE  OF  MAINE, 

TO  THE  TOWN  OF  CASTINE. 

Upon  Requisition  of  17th  February,  1839. 

1839. 

Feb.  17th.  For  am't  of  H.  Rowell's                bill,  832.72 

"      19th.  ^'  "       "  Witherle   &  Jarvis's     "  34.92 

"       "  "  "       "  William  Chamberlain's "  52.64 

''       '*  "  "       "  Adams  &  Gay's             "  35.60 

"       "  "  "       "  J.  Hooper, J r's,               "  .55 

•The  namos  of  those  members  of  Company  D,  who  went  to  the  Aroostook, 
will  be  fuiiud  in  Part  III. 


164 

HISTORY   OP   CASTINE, 

Feb.  17th. 

For 

am't 

of  Richard  Hawes's 

bill, 

4.00 

"      21st. 

(( 

(4 

"  H.  M.  &  J.  J.  Hyde' 

's  " 

16.09 

"      22d. 

li 

(( 

"  Pond  &  Johnson's 

19.50 

(I       li 

ii, 

(( 

*'  Joseph  Bryant's 

20.65 

((       a 

«( 

H 

"  Joshua  Norwood's 

24.00 

"       23d. 

(( 

(( 

"  John  A.  Avery's 

15.38 

"      — 

(( 

a 

"  Fayette  Buker's 

20.02 

Marcli  11th. 

(( 

a 

"  D.  Montgomery's 

68.00 

Upon  Requisition  of  9th  of  March,  1839. 
March  13.  For  amount  of  Charles  Rogers'  bill,19,68]  1363.75 
"    interest  upon  1363.75  to  Feb  13, 
1840—11  mos.,  120.00 

"  "    commissions  to  Selectmen  upon 

purchases,  &c.,  .05  per  cent,  18.18 


1401.93 


Contra  Cr. 

By  amount  of  sales  of  camp  utensils,  &c.,  returned,    $5.56 


.37 

The  undersigned,  a  majority  of  the  Selectmen  of  the 
town  of  Castine,  hereby  certify  that  the  expenditures 
charged  in  the  foregoing  account,  were  made  for  the  pur- 
pose of  furnishing  a  detachment  of  the  Militia  belonging 
to  said  town,  which  were  ordered  into  actual  service  by 
the  authority  of  the  State,  in  February  and  March  last, 
with  transportation,  supplies  of  provisions,  camp  equipage, 
and  camp  utensils,  as  provided  by  law ;  and  that  the 
account  is  just  and  true,  according  to  our  best  knowledge 
and  belief. 

C.  J.  ABBOTT,  )  Selectmen  of 

CHARLES   ROGERS,  \      Castine. 

From  the  accompanying  account,  certificates,  and  vouch- 
ers, it  appears  '  the  number  of  men  for  which  transporta- 
tion was  furnished'  was  eighteen,  and  with  Captain  Wing, 
nineteen.  One  man  and  a  one-horse  team  to  Milford 
from  Castine,  forty-seven  miles  ;  one  man  and  a  two-horse 
team  to  Houlton,  from  Castine,  one  hundred  and  sixty 
miles.  The  name  of  the  Commanding  Officer — late  Cap- 
tain— now  Lieutenant  Colonel  Win^. 


BROOKSVTLLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  16." 

The  number  of  men  for  which  supplies  were  furnished, 
was  eighteen,  and  with  Capt.  Wing,  nineteen. 

Supplies  commenced  February  21st,  1839,  and  those 
furnished  were  consumed  mostly  by  the  tenth  of  March. 

The  camp  utensils  will  be  found  in  the  several  vouchers 
— chiefly  in  the  bills  of  H.  Roweil,  R.  Hawes,  and  Adams 
&  Gay — and  those  returned  in  the  memoranda  of  William 
Chamberlain,  auctioneer. 

Upon  Requisition  of  9th  of  March,  1839,  three  soldiers, 
accompanied  by  Mr.  Charles  Rogers,  one  of  the  Select- 
men, went  to  Bangor.  Mr.  Rogers  paid  for  their  board 
while  there,  in  preference  to  purchasing  rations,  etc.,  and 
the  charge  appears  in  his  bill. 

I  hereby  certify  that  the  camp  utensils,  supplies,  ser- 
vices, &c.,  charged  in  the  several  bills  in  the  foregoing- 
account,  under  Requisition  of  17th  February,  1839,  were 
actually  furnished  for  myself  and  eighteen  men  from  said 
Castine,  of  the  Hancock  Guards  under  my  command,  and 
that  Fayette  Buker,  with  his  one-horse  team,  and  David 
Montgomery,  with  his  two-horse  team,  attended  said 
troops  with  said  camp  utensils,  supplies,  &c.,  to  wit: 
Fayette  Buker  from  Castine  to  Milford,  forty-seven  miles ; 
and  David  Montgomery  from  Castine  to  Houlton,  one 
hundred  and  sixty  miles,  and  that  the  certificate  marked 
A,  signed  by  William  Chamberlain,  contains  a  true  list 
of  the  camp  utensils  returned. 

CHAS.  H.  WING,  Capt.  of  D  Co.,  L.  Inft., 

1st  Regt.,  1st  Brig.,  3d  Division. 


We  hereby  certify  that  the  disbursements  for  necessary 
supplies  of  transportation,  provisions,  camp  equipage,  and 
camp  utensils,  charged  in  the  foregoing  account,  were 
actually  made,  and  are  agreeable  to  the  provisions  of  law, 
and  that  said  account  is  just  and  true. 

(Signed,) 

C.  J.  ABBOTT,  }  Selectmen  of 

CHARLES  ROGERS,  \       Castine. 

(Dated)  January  20th,  1840." 

The  next  reference  to  this  company  is  to  a  meeting  of  it 
in  1840.  when  they  offered  to  do  duty  for  the  town   as 


166  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

Engine  Men.     The  following  letter  was  sent  to  the  Select- 
men of  the  town: 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  Hancock  Guards,  on  Monday,  the 
fourth  inst.,  a  qitestion  was  laid  before  said  H.  Guards,  by 
Captain  O.  Hatch,  '  whether  or  no  the  said  H.  Guards 
would  volunteer  themselves  to  do  the  duty  of  Engine 
Men,  for  the  town  of  Castine  ?  '  The  above  question  was 
tried  by  a  vote  of  said  H.  Guards,  and  decided  in  the 
affirmative.  And  said  H.  Guards,  therefore,  volunteer 
themselves  to  do  the  duty  of  Engine  Men.  By  so  doing, 
the}^  do  not  wish  to  injure  any  one,  but  have  only  the 
public  good  in  view.  We,  the  subscribers,  were  chosen  to 
lay  the  above  proceedings  before  the  Board  of  Selectmen. 
D.  S.  O.  WILLSON,  )  Committee  for 
OTIS    HATCH,  \    H.  Guards." 


No  further  reference  to  this  company  is  to  be  found,  but 
it  is  most  likely  that  its  organization  was  not  long  kept  up. 

On  July  17th,  1858,  forty-eight  citizens — including  a 
number  of  the  prominent  men  of  the  town — petitioned  the 
Governor  and  Council  for  authority  to  be  organized  into  a 
military  company,  by  the  name  of  the  Castine  Light 
Infantry.  On  September  22d,  an  order  was  issued  by 
the  Governor,  granting  the  petitions  and  assigning  them, 
under  the  designation  of  Company  "  B,"  to  the  first  Regi- 
ment, first  Brigade,  and  seventh  Division  of  the  State 
Militia.  On  August  3d,  a  temporary  organization  was 
formed,  and  upon  August  12th,  a  requisition  was  made 
upon  the  Arsenal-keeper  at  Portland,  for  arms  and  equip- 
ments. On  the  thirty-first  of  the  month,  the  company 
joined  the  Encampment  at  Belfast,  and  were  the  recip- 
ients of  much  praise,  as  well  as  of  a  beautiful  bouquet, 
presented  to  them  by  the  ladies  of  Belfast.  At  a  meeting 
of  the  company  held  October  20th,  Adjutant  General 
Webster  presided,  and  the  company  was  legally  organized 
by  the  election  and  commission  of  the  following  officers, 
viz  : — Samuel  K.  Devereux,  Captain  ;  Charles  W.  Tilden, 
First  Lieutenant :  Stephen  W.  Webster,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant ;  Alfred  F.  Adams,  Third  Lieutenant ;  John  B.  Wilson, 
Fourth  Lieutenant.  The  fourth  of  July,  1859,  was  cele- 
brated by  the  first  appearance  of  this  company  in  uniform. 
We  quote  the  proceedings  of  that  day  from  the  records  of 
the  company. 


BEOOKSTILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  167 

*'  After  marching  through  many  of  the  principal  streets, 
received  a  pretty  thorough  drill  upon  the  common,  where 
many  of  our  '  noble  women'  were  assembled  for  the  pur- 
pose of  presenting  us  with  a  beautiful  silk  banner.  Miss 
Helen  S.  Bridgham,  from  whose  hands  we  received  the 
same,  made  a  very  inspiring  and  appropriate  speech,  to 
which  Mr.  John  M.  Dennett,  our  faithful  Standard  Bearer, 
replied  in  a  few  well  chosen  and  happy  remarks.  After 
receiving  our  banner,  we  proceeded  to  the  Universalist 
churcli  where  we  were  favored  with  an  oration  by  Reverend 
Mr,  Ives,  of  the  Congregational  church,  which  was  truly 
worthy  its  author.  We  dined  at  our  armory,  and  after  din- 
ner, listened  to  a  number  of  excellent  toasts  from  friends  who 
were  invited  to  partake  with  us.  Concluded  the  celebra- 
tion by  a  social  dance  and  a  good  time  generally,  at  our 
armory,  in  the  evening."  On  the  twenty-eighth  of  the 
same  month,  this  company  attended  the  Centennial  Cele- 
bration at  Fort  Point.  October  4th,  1859,  they  attended  a 
Muster  at  Bangor.  On  October  20th,  they  celebrated  the 
anniversary  of  their  organization  by  a  march  to  North 
Castine,  where  they  were  received  by  their  friends,  and 
entertained  with  a  collation  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Emerson. 
On  June  18th,  1860,  the  company  assembled  for  the  pur- 
pose of  target  shooting.  The  first  prize  at  this  contest,  a 
SILVER  CUP,  was  awarded  to  James  C.  Collins,  wlio  made 
the  best  average  shots.  The  second  prize,  a  large  silver 
SPOON,  was  awarded  to  William  M.  Lawrence.  The  third 
prize,  "a  nicely  marked  and  valuable  tin  cup,  manufactured 
by  Messrs.  B.  &  B. — was,  after  due  consideration,  solemnly 
awarded  to  Lieutenant  J.  B.  Wilson."  Jul}^  the  fourth, 
of  this  year,  the  company  spent  in  Belfast,  as  the  guests  of 
the  "  City  Grays."  The  last  record  of  this  company  is 
dated  April  26th,  1861,  and  was  written  only  a  short  time 
before  it  left  town  to  join  the  army.  When  the  first  call 
for  troops  was  made,  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  War  of  the 
Rebellion  in  1861,  this  company  volunteered  its  services,  and 
was  the  first  company  to  start  for  the  rendezvous  of  the 
Second  Regiment.  Soon  after  leaving  the  State,  Captain 
Devereux  received  an  appointment  as  Collector  of  Cus- 
toms at  this  port,  and  consequently  resigned  his  commission 
in  the  army,  and  Lieutenant  Tihlen  was  promoted  to  fill 
the  vacancy  thus  occasioned.*     The  hist  record  in  the  jour- 

*Ca])taiii   Dovcrciix    received  his   anpoiutmcnt  its  Collector,  and   left  the 
Rej^itticut  while  at  Willetls'  Point,  N,  Y.,  en  route  for  Washington,  D.  0. 


168 


HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 


nal  of  this  company,  was  left  unfinished,  but  its  subsequent 
history,  during  the  war,  forms  no  unworthy  portion  of  that 
of  the  Second  Maine  Regiment,  and  is  to  be  found  in  the 
records  of  that  regiment.  For  further  information  in 
regard  to  its  particular  members,  the  reader  is  referred  to 
the  Roll  of  Honor,  in  Part  III. 

The  towns  whose  history  is  being  narrated,  were  all  three 
intensely  patriotic,  and  their  efforts  to  sustain  the  authority 
of  the  government  and  the  supremacy  of  the  Union,  place 
them  in  the  front  rank  of  the  towns  of  this  State.  This 
unhappy  contest  is,  however,  of  too  recent  occurrence  to 
require,  in  this  place,  any  lengthy  account  of  all  that  was 
done  by  the  towns  referred  to,  either  in  their  corporate 
capacity,  or  by  their  individual  citizens.  The  following 
statistics,  though,  will  show  that  no  unfair  claim  of  supe- 
riority is  made  over  many  towns  of  the  State,  and  will 
afford  a  fitting  close  to  the  military  history  of  these  towns. 
They  are  taken  from  the  published  reports  of  the  Adjutant 
General  of  Maine. 


Town  Credits. — (Including  Call  of  '63.) 

Brooksville,  _            _            -            -  130  men. 

Castine,  _             _             -             -  167  men. 

Penobscot,  ,             -            _            _  158  men. 


Total, 


445  men. 


Town  Aid  to  Families,  from  1862  to  1866. 


Town. 


Brooksville, 

Castine, 

Penobscot, 

Total, 


Number  of 
Families. 

92 

187 

73 


Number  of 
Persons. 

203 
432 
223 


352 


858 


Amount 
Allowed. 

$3,621.90 
7,345.67 
3,172.88 

$14,140.45 


Town  Bounties,  up  to  1865,  Inclusive. 

Brooksville,          .             .            -            -  $22,086.00 

Castine,          -            -            -             -  15,834.07 
Penobscot,  ($23,782.00,  reimbursed  by  State, 

to  the  amount  of  $600,)  23,182.00 


Total, 


$61,102.07 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  169 

Amount  of  MoNEr  Donated  by  Citizens,  &c. 


1^ 

in 

,2 

, 

O 

4-^ 

o 

^ 

O 

m 

^ 

-M 

u. 

c3 

OJ 

o 

<A 

o 

Q^ 

H 

U.  S.  Sanitary  Com- 

mission, 

$300 

$400 

$700 

U.  S.  Christian  Com- 

mission, 

200 

200 

400 

To  soldiers  in  Maine 

Camps, 

400 

800 

700 

To   General    Hospi- 

tals, 

100 

100 

200 

To   Regt.    Hospitals 

and  Individuals, 

200 

300 

500 

To  New  York,  Phil- 

adelphia.   Bosion, 

and   other  places, 

250 

100 

350 

$1,450  $1,400  $2,850 

♦Amount  not  given  in  Adjutant  General's  lieport. 


170  HISTORY  or  cAsTt^E^ 


CHAPTER  VIIL 

COMMERCIAL  HISTORY  OF  CASTINE. 

Natueal  Advaktages,  and  Early  Trade.— A  Bill 
OF  Sale,  etc.,  in  1779.— -Provisions  in  1781.— The 
Value  of  Labor  in  1783. — Business  Men  of  the 
Town,  from  1799  to  1814. — Business  During  the 
British  Occupation,  1814-15.— Duties  on  Goods. 
Smuggling. — Application  of  Certain  Merchants 
TO  Congress  for  Relief.  —  Report  of  Congres- 
sional Committee.  —  Price  Current  in  1828. — 
Customs  and  Revenue. — Navigation.  —  Corpora- 
tions AND  Manufactures.  —  Town  Valuation. — 
The  Seasons  of  Greatest  Prosperity  of  the 
Town,  and  Causes  of  its  Decline. 

At  a  very  early  elate  the  French  voyagers  found  the 
region  of  Pentagoet  an  excellent  location  for  fishing,  and 
for  trading  with  the  Indians.  The  Plymouth  Colony 
recognized  the  commercial  importance  of  the  place,  and 
carried  on  here  a  prosperous  trade  with  the  natives,  for  a 
period  of  nine  years.  Its  importance  as  a  trading  post,  even 
more  than  its  advantages  for  military  purposes,  induced  its 
capture  by  the  French  under  Aulney.  The  Baron  de  St. 
Castin  was  also,  doubtless,  influenced  by  the  natural  advan- 
tages afforded  for  trade,  to  make  this  his  residence.  The 
fisheries  are  described  as  abundant  in  1670,  though  the 
privilege  of  fishing  was  only  granted  by  the  English  upon 
the  payment  of  a  duty  of  twenty-five  crowns — equivalent 
to  about  thirty  dollars — upon  each  boat.  In  the  year  1698 
one  Caldin  (or  Alden,)  traded  here — bought  furs  of  and 
sold  goods  to  a  son-in-law  of  Castin,  and  others.  The  price 
of  beaver  skins  at  this  time  was  from  fifteen  to  fifty  cents, 
according  to  the  quality.  During  the  period  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary war  there  was,  in  all  probability,  no  business  car- 
ried on  here  but  farming  and  fishing — except  such  as  would 
necessarily  follow  a  military  occupation  of  the  place.  The 
following  bill  of  sale,  of  that  period,  may  prove  not  un- 
interesting : 


BROOKSYILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  Ill 

"Majorbaguaduce,  January  21,  1779. 

Received  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  the  sum  of  two 
hundred  pounds,  Lawful  money,  in  full  for  one-half  part  of 
my  Jebacco  Boat,  that  I  bought  of  Capt.  Mark  Hatch, 
with  her  Rigging,  Sails,  Anchors,  and  all  other  appurten- 
ances belonging  to  the  same,  which  I  warrant  and  defend 
from  all  persons  whatsoever,  as  witness  my  hand. 

NATHAN  PHILLIPS. 

Witness,  Aaeon  Banks. 

N.  B.  If  you  are  a  mind  to  sell  the  boat,  please  to  sell 
my  part  with  yours." 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  clothing  worn  at  this  time 
was  purchased  at  Halifax,  and  the  following  bill  will  give 
some  idea  of  the  cost  of  different  articles  of  apparel : 

"July,  1779. 
To  cash  paid  Grant  &  Clearing  for  2  ps. 

Linen  and  ps.  Calaminca,  <£lo  lis.  2d. 

To  cash  paid  for  3  White  Cloaks,  3  16  6 

To     do.       do.     3  Hats,  2  9  0 
To     do.     to  Mr.  Schwartz  for  2 

Suits  Cloth,  trimmings,  &c.,  13  1  8^-" 

The  cost  of  living,  in  1781,  can  be  seen  from  the  following 
list  of  the  prices  of  a  few  staple  commodities  : 

Pork     per  lb.,        6^  cts. 

Pease      "       quart,        3  " 

Butter    "  lb.,      16^  " 

Flour      "  112  lbs.,  $5.33  « 

At  what  time  the  first  store  was  opened  in  this  vicinity, 
it  is  impossible  to  ascertain.  It  was  probably  some 
years  prior  to  the  incorporation  of  Castine,  and  very  likely 
even  before  the  incorporation  of  Penobscot.  Daniel  Low 
had  a  tannery  here  as  early  as  1784.  The  following  copy 
of  an  account  will  give  some  idea  of  the  value  of  labor,  &c., 
at  this  period : 

"Majorbigwaduce,  December  4,  1783. 

Findly  McCullum  to  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  Dr. 

To  Cutting  timber  and  hauling  and  building 

a  Hovel  and  covering,"  and  fix  for  tving 

Cattle,  30.  Halifax  Currency  "'        XI.      10s.    Od. 


3 

15 

0 

3 

10 

0 

0 

4 

0 

3 

0 

0 

0 

4 

0 

0 

13 

4 

3 

15 

0 

2 

9 

0 

£20, 

,  18s 

1.  2d. 

172  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

To  building  a  yard  for  liay  10,  £0.    10s.  Od. 

To  butchering  two  oxen  0       5     0 

To  fetching  liome  your  cows  and 

calves  from  the  Head  of  the  Bav,  0       5     0 

Jan.  5th,  1784.  To  butchering  a  Cow  f ,  0       3     4 

To  fetching  one  load  of  hay 

by  water  10,  0     10     0 

16th.    To  cash  sent  to  Brown  to  bear 

against  the  Proprietors  4-6,  0       4     6 

To  hauling  hay  and  tending  cattle 

and  sheep, 

To  one  load  f  of  hay  40, 
MsLj.       To  shearing  of  your  sheep,  4, 
1785.       To  wintering  3,  year-olds,  20, 
May  24,  To  shearing  sheep,  4, 

To  400  of  hay  |, 
1793.      To  one  more  boat  and  sails,  3-15, 
May  8th.  To  an  order  from  Woodman,  49, 


Credit  to  Findley  McCullum,  Majorbagaduce,  1784. 

By  5  bushels  of  wheat,  7,  8,  1£     15s.     Od. 

By  6  bushels  i  of  Rye,  5, 
Sept.,  by  1  cow,  80, 

By  two  lambs  sold,  10, 
Oct.  10,  by  one  calf,  20, 
Dec.  26,  1788,  by  three  sheep,  20, 

12£    00s.    3d." 

In  the  year  1799,  David  Howe,  Otis  Little,  David  John- 
ston, George  Haliburton,  and  James  Crawford,  sold  miscel- 
laneous goods,  and  the  first  named  is  known  to  have  had  con- 
siderable trade  with  the  Indians ;  Holbrook  &  Martin  had 
a  hat  store  ;  Isaac  Stockbridge  carried  on  the  sail  making 
business ;  William  Wetmore  practiced  law,  and  Oliver 
Mann  was  the  first  settled  physician — although  Doctor 
William  Crawford  had  practiced  in  this  region  during  the 
ante-manicipal  period. 

In  the  year  1800,  Doctor  Moses  Adams  commenced 
practice  here,  and  William  Abbott,  Esq.,  opened  a  law 
oftice  near  Woodman's  tavern. 


1 

11 

3 

4 

0 

0 

1 

0 

0 

1 

0 

0 

1 

10 

0 

BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  173 

In  1802,  Mr.  Richard  Hawes  commenced  trade  here. 
There  were  also,  at  this  time  seven  warehouses  here:  a  tan- 
nery, kept  by  Mr.  Freeman;  a  rope-walk,  by  Mr.  ISamuel 
Whitney,  and  several  saw  and  grist  mills. 

In  1809,  Doctor  J.  Thurston  settled  in  town.  This  year 
Mr.  Bradshaw  Hall  commenced  the  pump  and  block  mak- 
ing business  ;  Mr.  Noah  Mead  had  a  hardware  store  ;  Mr. 
William  Allison,  a  chair  manufactor}^ ;  Enis  Barr  opened  a 
sail  loft ;  and  Messrs.  Judkins  &  Adams,  William  Witherle, 
and  Samuel  Adams,  were  in  trade  here. 

In  the  year  1810,  Messrs.  Doty  Little,  Daniel  Johnston, 
Samuel  Littlefield,  Jonathan  L.  Stevens,  John  Brooks, 
John  A.  Smith,  David  Howe,  Hosmer  &  Moor,  Otis  Little, 
Bradford  Harlow,  Judkins  &  Adams,  Witherle  &  Jarvis, 
Andrew  &  David  Allison,  Hooper  &  Fuller,  Joseph  Cleave- 
land,  Stevens,  Rowell  &  Co.,  and  James  Crawford — seven- 
teen in  all — were  in  trade  here.  [See  advertisements  in 
Castine  '•'■  JEaffle,'^  1810.]  Brick  making  was  also  carried 
on  quite  extensively  this  year,  by  Mr.  Mark  Hatch;  and 
there  was  a  tannery  here,  owned  by  Mr.  John  Wadlin. 
The  business  at  this  time  was  principally  in  West  India 
goods,  rum,  fish  and  groceries. 

During  the  British  occupation  of  the  town — in  1814  and 
'15 — large,  and  almost  daily  importations  of  English  goods 
were  made  here.  One  vessel,  captured  on  her  way  to  this 
port  by  a  barge  commanded  by  Major  Noah  Miller,  of 
Lincolnville,  carried  a  cargo  invoiced  at  forty  thousand  dol- 
lars. Another,  captured  on  her  way  hither  from  Halifax, 
had  a  cargo  valued  at  twenty  thousand  pounds.  The 
schooner  Betsey  tf  Jane^  taken  on  her  way  here  from  St. 
John,  had  dry  goods  valued  at  one  hundred  and  fifty  thou- 
sand dollars.  Another  schooner,  taken  on  her  way  from 
Halifax,  carried  one  hundred  and  forty  cases  of  dry  goods, 
twenty  barrels  of  sugar,  and  some  glass  and  hardware.  A 
brig,  bound  from  here  to  Jamaica,  with  fish  and  lumber, 
was  also  taken.  [Niles'  Register.]  Provisions  and  lumber 
were  brouglit  here  to  market  and  exchanged,  at  high  prices, 
for  European  and  Colonial  produce.  A  great  trade  was 
carried  on  with  all  the  surrounding  country — as  far  up  the 
river  as  Bangor,  and  to  the  eastward  as  far  as  the  Union 
river — but  more  particularly  with  the  inhabitants  upon  the 
western  side  of  the  Penobscot.  The  town  at  this  time  was 
overilowing  witli  people,  and  there  was  a  daily  stage  be- 
tween liere  and  Hallowell.    [  Providence  Patriot,  Jan.  28th, 


174  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

1815.]  Foreign  goods  and  merchandise  at  this  time  were 
abundant  and  cheap,  but  live  stock  was  in  great  demand, 
and  high.  The  Custom-house  was  seized  by  the  British, 
and  duties  levied  by  them  on  all  imports  and  exports.  In- 
surance upon  vessels  from  Halifax  was,  at  this  time,  twenty 
per  cent.  The  duties  on  rum  were  thirty-eight  cents  on  a 
gallon,  and  on  brandy  and  gin,  forty-three  cents.  Molasses 
retailed  for  seventy-five  cents  per  gallon.  Fresh  beef  sold 
for  from  five  to  six  dollars  per  hundred-weight.  Flour  was 
the  same  in  price  as  at  Boston.  Merchantable  boards 
were  worth  ten  dollars  per  thousand.  Calicoes  are  said  to 
have  sold  for  one  dollar  per  yard.  As  the  English  would 
receive  nothing  but  sjyecie — except  provisions  and  lumber — 
so  great  an  amount  of  it  was  brought  hither  that  quite  a 
number  of  banks,  in  different  parts  of  the  State,  were 
obliged,  in  consequence  of  it,  to  suspend  payments.  The 
duties  on  dry  goods,  required  at  this  time  from  the  residents 
of  the  place,  were  two  and  one-half  per  cent.  From  non- 
residents five  per  cent,  was  demanded.  As  duties  were  also 
demanded  by  the  American  authorities,  upon  these  same 
goods  when  they  were  landed  at  other  points,  the  natural 
consequence  was  that  a  vast  amount  of  smuggling  was  car- 
ried on  between  this  and  the  neighboring  towns.  In  the 
winter  time  dry  goods  were  carried  across  the  river,  at 
different  places  on  the  ice.  This  was  generally  done  at 
night,  although  occasionally  one  would  be  found  venture- 
some enough  to  attempt  it  in  broad  da3^-]ight.  There  are 
some  now  living  who  assisted  in  these  exciting  midnight 
adventures,  and  many  others  who  have  listened  to  the 
recital  of  them  at  the  paternal  fireside. 

After  the  departure  of  the  British  forces,  the  Collector 
of  Customs,  upon  his  leturn  to  tliis  place,  conceived  it  to 
be  his  dufy  to  collect  the  duties  upon  all  the  imported  goods 
he  could  find  in  the  town.  Some  of  the  merchants  positive- 
ly refused  to  pay  these  duties,  but  many  of  them  furnished 
bonds.  The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  sustain- 
ing the  action  of  those  who  refused  payment,  the  individuals 
who  had  paid,  or  were  under  bonds  to  pay,  petitioned  Con- 
gress for  relief.  The  matter  was  referred  to  the  Committee 
of  Ways  and  Means,  which  on  January  15th,  1824,  reported 
as  follows: — 

"The   Committee  of  Ways  and  Means,   to  whom  was 
referred  the  several  petitions  of  Joshua  Aubin,  Nathaniel . 
W.  Appleton,  and  C.  H.  Appleton,  John  Tappan,  William 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  175 

Whitehead,  James  Crawford,  Daniel  Johnston,  Otis  Lit- 
tle, David  Howe,  Thatcher  Avery,  Ebenezer  Hodsdon, 
John  Lee,  Benjamin  Haseltine,  Samuel  Adams,  and  James 
Graham, 

Repoht. 

That  the  claim  of  these  petitioners  depends  upon  the  facts 
and  circumstances  connected  with  what  are  commonly 
called  the  Castine  cases;  and,  from  the  documents  referred 
to  the  Committee,  are  substantially  as  follows: — 

Durino'  the  late  war  between  the  L^nited  States  and 
Great  Britain,  the  town  and  harbor  of  Castine,  in  the  col- 
lection district  of  Penobscot,  were  occupied  by  the  forces 
of  the  enemy,  from  the  first  of  September,  1814,  until  the 
twenty-seventh  of  April,  1815,  and  were  in  the  entire  and 
exclusive  control,  and  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  said 
enemy. 

On  the  first  of  September,  1814,  the  Collector  of  the 
Customs  for  the  district  of  Penobscot,  removed,  with  the 
papers  of  his  office,  to  Hampton,  [Hampden  ]  on  the  western 
side  of  Penobscot  river,  and  there  continued  to  transact  the 
business  of  the  Custom-house,  until  after  peace  was  restor- 
ed between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain.  Immedi- 
ately after  the  capture  of  Castine,  the  British  government 
there  established  a  Custom-house,  or  excise-house,  and  ap- 
pointed a  Collector  of  the  Customs,  who  from  that  time 
until  the  twenty-fourth  of  April,  1815,  continued  to  receive 
entries  of  vessels  and  merchandise,  conformably  to  the  laws 
and  regulations  in  the  province  of  Nova  Scotia.  During 
this  period  many  merchants  residing  at  Castine  imported 
goods,  and  entered  them  with  said  British  Collector,  paying 
duties  thereon  to  the  British  government;  and  a  part  of 
said  goods,  on  the  return  of  peace,  remained  in  Castine. 
The  United  States  Collector,  after  the  peace,  but  before 
the  actual  evacuation  of  Castine,  established  his  office  upon, 
or  near  the  British  lines,  and  required  that  all  goods,  of 
foreign  growth  or  manufacture,  which  had  been  imported 
during  the  hostile  occupation,  and  were  still  there,  should 
})e  entered  as  if  then  originally  imported  into  the  L^nited 
States  in  a  foreign  vessel,  and  threatened  to  seize  and  detain 
the  goods,  unless  the  OAvners  or  consignees,  would  immedi- 
ately pay,  or  secure  to  the  United  States,  duties  thereon  as 
aforesaid.  To  avoid  the  great  loss  and  injury  which  would 
have  been  sustained  by  a  seizure  and   detention  of   said 


176  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

goods,  the  owners  or  consignees  thereof,  entered  the  same 
with  said  Collector,  and  gave  bonds  for  the  duties,  includ- 
ing the  additional  duty  for  importation  in  a  foreign  vessel. 
At  the  time  said  bonds  became  due,  some  of  the  persons  who 
had  given  them  paid  the  same,  trusting  to  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  for  restitution,  while  others  refused 
to  pay,  and  suits  were  commenced  against  them  in  the 
district  courts  of  Massachusetts  and  Maine,  for  the  recovery 
of  the  same,  which  suits  were  discontinued  by  order  of  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  in  consequence  of  the  unanimous 
opinion  of  the  Justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United 
States  in  the  case  of  United  States  vs.  Rice,  that  the  act  of 
the  Collector  exacting  said  bonds  was  illegal,  the  goods  not 
being  liable  for  the  duties  to  the  United  States. 

The  petitioners  are  of  the  number  of  those  who  actually 
paid  the  duties  to  the  Government  before  the  suit  against 
Rice,  and  before  the  decision  of  the  Supreme  Court,  pro- 
nouncing their  illegality. 

The  Committee  further  report  that  this  subject  was 
brought  before  Congress  in  the  year  1820,  upon  the  appli- 
cation of  Jonathan  L.  Stevens,  and  others,  situated  similarly 
with  the  petitioners  in  many  respects,  and  on  the  eleventh 
of  April  of  that  3'ear,  an  act  was  passed  for  their  relief,  and 
authorizing  a  refunditure  of  the  duties,  provided  it  should 
be  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  that  the  persons  named  in  the  law  were  residents 
of  Castine  or  Bucksport,  or  were  purchasers  from  residents, 
of  the  goods  on  which  the  duties  have  been  imposed. 

The  Committee  do  not  perceive  that  the  residence  of  the 
importer,  or  owner  of  the  goods,  can  vary  the  law  applica- 
ble to  the  cases.  The  decision  of  the  Supreme  Court  is, 
that  duties  could  not  be  legally  exacted  upon  any  part  of 
these  goods  by  the  United  States,  and  it  is  presumed  that 
those  persons  who  voluntarily  submitted  to  the  authority  of 
the  custom-house  officers,  should  not  be  placed  in  a  worse 
situation,  than  others  who  refused  to  comply  with  the 
requisitions  of  the  Collector. 

The  Committee  do  not  pretend  to  ascertain  the  principle 
upon  which  a  previous  Congress  has  decided,  but  believing 
all  the  cases  to  be  governed  by  the  same  rule  of  law,  they 
submit  to  the  House  the  papers  and  documents  they  have 
been  able  to  collect,  and  that  the  subject  may  be  fairly  con- 
sidered, they  report  a  bill."  [House  Reports,  18th  Con- 
gress, 1st  Session.] 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  177 

In  1828,  the  first  professional  dentist  took  up  his  abode 
in  town.  The  following  list  of  the  j)rices  of  various  com- 
modities^ that  year,  will  prove  not  uninteresting  at  the  pres- 
ent time  : 


Price  Cueeent,  in  1828. 

Beans,  per  bushel,  _             _             _             _         $1.25 

Butter,  per  pound,  _             _             _                   .12 

Cheese,  "         "  -             -         •    -            -             .08 

Cofiee,    "        "  .            -             _                   .14 

Flour,      "    barrel,  _             _             _             _           5.25 

Corn,      "   bushel,  .             _             .                   .38 

Oats,       "   bushel,  _             >             _             _             .50 

Lard,      "    pound,  -             _             .                   .10 

Molasses,  per  gallon,  -             -             _             -             .28 

Spirits,       "         "  -             .           from  35  to  1.20 

Sugar,         "   pound,  -             _             -             _             .12 

Tea,           "          "  -             -            -                   .50 

About  the  year  1831  or  1832,  a  new  rope-walk,  in  place 
of  that  recently  destroyed  by  fire,  was  erected  by  Mr.  John 
Dresser.  It  was  put  up,  at  first,  near  the  shore,  but  was 
afterwards  removed  to  its  present  location. 


Customs  and  Revenue. 

A  Custom  House  for  the  collection  of  revenue,  was  first 
established,  under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  on 
July  31, 1789.  The  collection  district  included  Thomaston, 
Frankfort,  Sedgwick,  and  Deer  Isle.  The  Collector  was 
required  to  reside  here.  Mr.  John  Lee  was  Collector  in 
1793,  and  was,  probably,  the  first  one  appointed  at  this 
place,  under  the  LTnited  States  government.  Whether 
there  was  ever,  prior  to  this  time,  any  collection  of  revenue 
made  here  under  authority  of  the  Colonial  or  any  foreign 
government,  is  not  known ;  but  it  is  extremely  improbable 
that  such  was  the  case.  The  place  Avas  made  a  Port  of 
Entry  in  1814.  During  the  occupation  by  the  British  in 
the  latter  part  of  that  year,  a  Custom  House  was  established 
by  them,  and  Willliam  Newton  was  appointed  Collector. 
In  1833,  the  United  States  l)ought  of  the  Castine  Bank 
Corporation,  the  portion  of  the  County  Iniildiug  previously 


178  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

owned  and  used  by  the  Bank.  In  1846,  the  County  Com- 
missioners refusing  to  make  the  necessary  repairs — on 
account  of  the  Courts  being  no  longer  held  in  this  town — 
a  bill  was  reported  in  Congress,  appropriating  one  thousand 
and  one  hundred  dollars  for  the  purchase  of  a  Custom- 
house. Accordingly,  in  1848,  the  remainder  of  the  build- 
ing, of  which  the  United  States  already  owned  one-fourth, 
was  bought  of  the  County  Commissioners.  The  present 
Custom-House  and  Post-Office  was  erected  in  1870.  Tlie 
first  revenue  cutter  stationed  here  for  the  enforcement  of 
the  laws,  and  the  prevention  of  smuggling,  is  said  to  have 
been  the  sloop  Wealthy  which  was  here  about  the  year 
1800. 


Navigaton. 

The  first  vessel  built  here,  since  the  incorporation  of  the 
town,  is  believed  to  have  been  the  schooner  Nancy,  owned 
by  Hudson  Bishop  and  Oliver  Mann.  She  received  a 
license  as  a  coaster,  from  the  Custom-house,  in  1793.  In 
the  year  1799  there  were  sailing  from  this  port,  and  owned 
here,  wholly  or  in  great  part, — three  ships,  one  brig,  ten 
schooners  and  two  sloops — a  total  of  sixteen  vessels — not 
including  coasters,  of  which  there  were  several.  The  ports 
to  which  they  sailed  were  Liverpool,  Barbadoes,  Dominica, 
Antigua,  Martinique,  and  Grenada.  The  amount  of  ton- 
nage taxed  here  in  1801,  was  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  eighty-five  and  one-half.  We  have  not  been  able  to 
ascertain  the  name  of  the  first  packet  to  run  between  this 
place  and  Belfast,  but  there  was  one  in  1811,  that  plied 
between  these  two  places,  that  was  called  the  Sally.  The 
first  steamboat  ever  known  in  these  waters  was  the 
'"'•Maine,''''  commanded  by  Captain  Daniel  Lunt,  which  run 
between  Bath  and  Eastport,  touching  at  this  place.  She 
made  her  first  trip  May  22,  1824.  On  August  20, 1842,  the 
steam  frigate  Missouri,  arrived  in  this  harbor,  and  remain- 
ed sometime  on  exhibition.  About  the  year  1827,  the 
steamer  Hancock  was  built  here  by  Noyes  and  Chamberlain. 
She  was  built  very  differently  from  modern  steamboats, 
and  had  no  boiler.  Her  steam  apparatus  was  constructed 
on  what  is  called,  we  believe,  the  ''Babcock"  principle. 
Her  machinery  was  put  into  her  in  Boston,  and  on  her 
tri]3  down  the  harbor  she  gave  out,  and  had  to  be  towed 


BROOKS VILLE    AND   PENOBSCOT.  170 

l)ack  to  the  city.  Her  machinery  was  afterwards  changed. 
From  1830  to  1850,  ship  building  flourished  here.  A  great 
many  ships  and  brigs,  of  large  size,  were  built  here,  by  the 
Adamses,  Witherles,  and  others.  Messrs.  Brooks,  Law- 
rence, and  Noyes  were  the  principal  contractors  and  master- 
builders.  The  growth  of  navigation,  not  mily  np  and 
down  the  Penobscot,  but  also  to  this  place,  rendered  the 
establishment  of  a  light-house  at  the  entrance  of  this  harbor, 
a  necessity.  Accordingly,  in  the  year  1828,  the  Dice's 
Head  Light-house  was  built  on  the  north  side  of  the 
entrance  to  the  harbor.*  It  was  originally  built  of  Avood, 
and  was  very  shabbily  constructed.  It  became  so  much  in 
need  of  repairs,  and  so  unsafe,  that  in  1858  it  was  torn 
down,  and  another  one  built  in  (or  near)  its  place.  The 
present  building  is  a  stone  tower,  sheathed  with  wood  and 
painted  white,  attached  to  a  dwelling  of  wood,  one  story  and 
a  half,  painted  brown.  The  light  is  a  fixed  white .,  visible  at 
a  distance  of  seventeen  nautical  miles.  The  height  of  the 
tower,  from  the  base  to  the  focal  plane^  is  forty-two  feet. 
The  height  of  the  lu/ht  above  the  level  of  the  sea  is  one 
hundred  and  thirty  feet.  The  compass  range  of  visibility 
is  East  by  North,  by  Eastward  to  North.  The  lens  appa- 
ratus is  of  the  fourth  order. 

CORPOEATIONS    AND    MANUFACTURES. 

About  the  year  1809,  the  Fort  PoIiNT  Ferry  Company 
was  incorporated.  Mr.  Elisha  Leighton  was  the  President; 
William  Abbott,  Esq.,  the  Agent;  and  Thomas  Adams  one 
of  the  Directors  of  the  company.  The  names  of  the  other 
Directors  are  not  known,  but  they  are  believed  to  have 
been,  mostly,  citizens  of  this  town.  An  attempt  was  made 
by  this  company  to  convey  passengers  and  teams  across 
the  river  in  a  flat  boat,  carrying  a  sail,  but  it  resulted  in  a 
failure,  and  horse-power  was  afterwards  used. 

In  1810,  the  Castine  Mechanic  Association  was 
incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  the  manufacture  of  the 
screw  auger.  At  that  time  this  was  the  only  place  in  the 
world  where  this  kind  of  auger  was  manufactured.  The 
Meads  having  purchased  the  patent  right  some  two  years 
before,  attempted  to  carry  on  the  business  alone,  but  after 
a  trial  of  one  year  the  above  named  association  was  formed. 

*NunK'd,  i)robal)ly,  :ifter  the  first  scUlcr  in  that  juirl  of  tlio  lowii.     Calff 
bpfllcd  the  word  Uycc. 


180  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

In  1816,  the  Castine  Bank  was  established,  with  a 
capital  of  ten  thousand  dollars.  Daniel  Johnston,  Esq., 
was  President ;  John  Brooks,  Cashier ;  and  Samuel  Austin 
Whitney  one  of  the  Directors.  Who  the  other  officers  of 
the  bank  were,  has  not  been  ascertained.  The  bank  closed 
up  its  affairs  and  relinquished  its  charter  somewhere  about 
the  year  1830. 

In  the  year  1828,  the  Penobscot  Steamboat  Nav- 
igation Company  was  incorporated.  It  is  believed  to 
have  been  for  this  company  that  the  steamboat  Hancock^ 
referred  to  in  a  preceding  page,  was  built.  The  company 
met  with  rather  poor  success,  and  did  not  have  a  very  long 
life. 

About  the  year  1835,  a  company  was  organized  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  on  a  Steam  Flour  Mill.  The  build- 
ing was  erected,  three  large  boilers  were  introduced,  and 
two  run  of  stone.  For  some  reason,  however,  the  enter- 
prise did  not  prove  a  success. 

About  this  time,  the  firm  of  Hatch  &  Mead  carried  on  a 
Chain  Manufactory,  for  the  making  of  cables  for 
vessels.  This  business  proved  sufficiently  remunerative 
and  was  continued  many  years. 

In  the  year  1849,  two  corporations  were  established  in 
Brooksville,  both  having  citizens  of  Castine  amongst  the 
number  of  their  stockholders.  The  first  was  the  Brooks- 
ville Manufacturing  Company.  The  stock  was  divided 
into  one  hundred  and  seventy  shares,  and  the  amount  of 
capital  invested  was  five  thousand  and  seventy  dollars. 
The  second,  was  the  South  Bay  Meadow  Dam  Company. 
It  had  a  capital  stock  of  one  thousand  two  hundred  and 
fifty  dollars,  which  was  divided  into  seventy-seven  shares. 

In  the  year  1867,  the  Castine  Brick  Company  was 
incorporated.  It  had  a  capital  stock  of  twenty  thousand 
dollars,  which  was  divided  into  one  hundred  and  ninety- 
two  shares.  The  following  were  its  officers  at  that  time  — 
Seth  K.  Devereux,  President ;  Frederic  A.  Ilooke,  Treas- 
urer; Seth  K.  Devereux,  William  H.  Witherle,  Samuel  K. 
Whiting.  Charles  W.  Tilden,  Mark  P.  Hatch,  and  Fred- 
eric A.  Hooke,  Directors.  This  company  still  continues 
in  a  flourishing  condition,  and  its  business  is,  we  are 
informed,  steadily  increasing. 


beooksville  and  penobscot.  181 

Valuation  of  the  Town. 

The  property  of  the  town  is  shown  by  the  following  sta- 
tistics obtained  from  the  tax  lists.  As  these  lists  were 
made  out  somewhat  differently  in  early  than  in  later  times, 
an  exact  comparison  between  the  different  kinds  of  prop- 
erty owned  at  different  times,  is  a  matter  of  considerable 
difficulty;  but  the  total  valuation  at  the  end  of  each  decade, 
will  give  the  general  rate  of  growth  of  the  town. 

In  1797,  the  valuation  of  the  town  was  as  follows : — 
Polls,  156  ;  Real  Estate,  $2,477  ;  Personal  Estate,  $2,594 ; 
Income  from  professions,  etc.,  $539 ;  unimproved  lands, 
$129  ;  Total  number  of  acres,  4,890  ;  Total  valuation, 
$5,739.  In  1810,  the  total  valuation  was  $26,187.  In 
1820,  $28,686.  In  1830,  $371,560.  In  1840,  $393,880. 
In  1850,  $597,390.  In  1860,  the  number  of  Polls  was  269, 
and  the  total  valuation  was  $812,840.  As  this  valuation 
was  excessive,  it  was  afterwards  reduced,  and  in  1870,  the 
Polls  numbering  258,  it  was  $461,343. 

In  the  decade  from  1800  to  1810,  Brooksville  constituted 
a  part  of  Castine;  and  this  fact  must  be  borne  in  mind  in 
reading  the  statistics  of  the  property  owned  here  in  those 
years.  The  following  description  of  the  propertj^  in  town, 
will  give  an  idea  of  what  constituted  the  wealth  of  that 
period,  and  also  of  the  marked  increase  in  the  prosperity 
of  the  community. 

Description  of  Property,  etc.,  Years    1800,      1810. 

Polls,  .  -  -  . 

Dwellings, 

Shops,  _  _  -  . 

Tanneries,  _  ,  _ 

Ware-houses,  -  -  -  - 

Grist-mills,*  -  _  - 

Barns,  -  -  - 

Rope-walks,  -  .  - 

Saw-mills,        _  -  -  - 

Other  buildings,    - 
Wharfage,  superficial  feet  of  f- 

*0ne  of  these  mills  was,  probably,  the  ■\viiulm111  crectptl  by  Mr.  JIark 
Hatch,  one  was  oil"  the  neck,  and  the  remainder  in  what  is  now  Brooksville. 

fJames  Crawford  owned  six  thousand  feet,  John  Perkins,  live  thousand 
feet,  and  Joseph  Perkins,  eight  thousand  feet. 

tNot  given. 

24 


Number   or 

Value. 

184 

240 

70 

96 

16 

21 

1 

1 

7 

t 

6 

1 

31 

37 

1 

t 

3 

4 

12 

t 

30,560 

t 

182  HISTORY   or   CASTINE, 

Vessels,  tonnage  of 
Plate  (silver  and  gold)  oz.  off 
Improved  land,  acres  of 
Hay,  tons  of    - 

Horses,       _  -  -  - 

Oxen,  _  _  _  _ 

Cows  and  steers, 

Swine,  _  _  _  - 

Money  at  Interest  (in  excess  of  amount 
due)  [1801] 


1,490 
199 
428 
295 
19 
62 
155 


778 
* 

70 
161 
644 
215 


$3,150     13,700 


The  amount  of  money  at  interest,  in  1801,  was  in  the 
hands  of  the  following  named  individuals  : — 


John  Collins, 
George  Haliburton, 
Joseph  Perkhis, 
Stover  Perkins, 
Joshua  Woodman, 
Richard  Hawes, 


had  $600  in  excess  of  his  liabilities. 

200  "  "  " 

"       600  "  "  " 

u      1500  "  "  « 

u        100  "  "  " 

t;  150  i^  u  u 


$3,150 


The  amount  at  interest  in  1810,  was  in  possession  of 
the  following  named  : — 


Mark  Hatch,                 had  $500, 

in   excess  of   liabilities. 

Hezekiah  Rowell,            ' 

'       1000 

Joseph  Perkins,               ' 

'       2400 

John  Perkins,                  ' 

'       5000 

Robert  Perkins,               ' 

'       4000 

Isaiah  Skinner,                ' 

200 

Sylvanus  Upham,           ' 

100 

Benjamin  Willson,          ' 

300 

Josiah  Willson,               ' 

200 

$13,700 

A  perusal  of  the  preceding  pages  will  convince  any  one 
that  the  most  rapid  improvement  in  the  condition  of  the 
inhabitants,  occurred  during  the  first  forty  years.     The 

♦Not  given. 

fjolm  Perkins  and  WaiTen  Hall  owned  eighteen  ounces  each,  and  Samuel 
A.  Whitney  twenty  ounces.  These  three  owned  at  that  time  one-fourth  of  all 
the  plate  in  town. 


BROOKSVILLE    AND   PENOBSCOT.  183 

sessions  of  the  Court  at  this  place  during  that  period,  as  a 
natural  consequence,  caused  a  large  number  of  people  to 
congregate  here  twice  a  year.  Most  of  these  came  from 
motives  of  curiosity  or  pleasure,  but  many  because  their 
attendance  at  court  was  necessary.  This  temporary  increase 
to  the  population  of  the  town,  had,  of  course,  a  very 
favorable  effect  upon  the  business  interests  of  the  place. 
The  occupation  of  the  town,  by  the  English,  in  1814-15, 
however  harrowing  it  may  have  been  to  the  patriotic  feel- 
ings of  the  citizens,  helped  to  fill  their  purses,  and  gave  an 
impetus  to  business  that  was  felt  long  after  the  departure  of 
the  enemy,  In  somewhat  later  times,  the  geiieral  interest 
in  ship-building,  which  was  felt  throughout  New  England, 
was  experienced  here.  The  fitting  out  of  vessels  for  the 
cod  and  mackerel  fisheries,  upon  the  Grand  Banks,  was 
also  carried  on  here  very  extensively. 

Although  Castine  was,  in  times  past,  a  peculiarly  thriv- 
ing town,  its  commercial  and  business  career  has  not  been 
altogether  uniform;  and  within  the  last  twenty-five  years, 
it  has  seen  the  greater  portion  of  its  business  go  to  other 
places.  The  causes  of  its  decline  in  prosperity  have  been 
several. 

The  first  shock  it  received  was  from  the  passage  of  the 
Embargo  Laws  in  1807-12.  This  was  a  serious  infliction 
upon  the  business  of  the  town,  although  it  was  partially 
made  up,  subsequently,  by  the  advantages  afforded  by  the 
British  occupation. 

The  next,  and  by  far  the  most  serious,  injury  occurred 
in  consequence  of  the  removal  of  the  Courts  to  Ellsworth, 
in  1838.  From  this  blow,  the  town  has  never  fairly 
recovered.  The  decline  in  ship-building,  and,  still  more 
recently,  the  repeal  of  the  Act  granting  a  bounty  to  fisher- 
men, were  also  severe  injuries. 

The  loss  to  navigation  caused  by  the  late  civil  war — 
which  is  said  to  have  taken  from  town  shipping  to  the 
value  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars — and  the  inability 
of  our  merchants — for  lack  of  a  near  market — to  compete 
successfully  with  the  merchants  of  Cape  Ann,  engaged  in 
the  fishing  business,  in  consequence  of  which  the  pursuit 
of  that  business  from  this  port  has  been  entirely  given  up, 
have  almost  completed  the  commercial  ruin  of  the  place. 


184  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 


CHAPTER  IX. 

WALKS    AND    DRIVES,    ANCIENT    BUILDINGS, 
FORTS,  RELICS,  ETC. 

Walks  and  Deives. — Old  French  Fort. — Fort 
George.  —  Battery  Furieuse.  —  Battery  Penob- 
scot.—  Old  Windmill.  —  East  Point  Battery. — 
Wescott's  Battery.  —  Battery  Gosselin.  —  Bat- 
tery Sherbrooke.  —  Battery  Griffith. — Site  of 
THE  Block  House. — Fort  Madison. — Other  Bat- 
teries.— Trask's  Rock. — Old  Cannon. — Old  Man- 
sions.—"  Castine  Coins." — Copper  Plate. — "Cot- 
ton's Head." — Other  Relics. 

There  are,  unfortunately,  but  few  roads  in  the  town  of 
Castine.  Starting  from  the  Neck  by  the  only  road  that 
leads  from  it,  going  down  a  long  hill  to  the  canal  that 
severs  it  from  the  main  land,  and  ascending  the  opposite 
hill,  the  tourist  will  come  to  the  "crotch  of  the  roads" 
where,  in  1796 — eighty  years  ago — stood  the  little  old-fash- 
ioned school-house  of  that  period.  Taking  the  right  hand 
— or  stage-road,  he  will  pass  along  in  full  view  of  the  Bag- 
aduce  river,  for  a  distance  of  two  miles,  when  he  will  come 
to  the  crossing  place  of  the  Brooksville  and  Castine  Ferry.* 

Continuing  for  about  a  mile  farther — catching,  as  he  pro- 
ceeds, occasional  views  of  the  same  water  where  it  is  com- 
pressed by  the  hills  into  the  "Narrows" — ^he  will  arrive  at 
the  North  Castine  Post  Office.  At  this  place  the  road  to 
Penobscot  leads  off  upon  the  nght.  Keeping  directly  on, 
the  next  mile  of  his  course  will  take  him  away  from  all 
view  of  the  water;  but  the  road  passing,  as  it  does,  through 
a  more  woody  country,  offers  a  temporary  relief  to  the  eye, 
which  is  not  unwelcome.  After  passing  through  the  grove, 
he  will  arrive  at  a  hill,  upon  the  descent  of  which  he  will 
obtain  a  view  of  the  Penobscot  river,  and  Will  perceive,  upon 

.     *This  ferry  is  supported  by  the  two  towns  jointly.    Tlie  ferryman  also  hav- 
ing what  tolls  be  may  receive. 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  185 

the  opposite  side,  the  fine  hotel  and  the  light-house  at  Fort 
Point.  He  has  now  very  nearly  reached  the  boundary  of 
the  present  town,  and,  turning  to  the  left,  he  will  follow 
the  telegraph  or  shore  road  down  the  Penobscot  river,  un- 
til he  again  reaches  the  stage-road  upon  which  he  started. 
In  passing  along  the  shore  road  he  will  be  in  constant  view 
of  the  Penobscot  river,  and,  in  addition  to  the  numerous 
vessels  sailing  up  or  down  the  river,  he  will  be  able  to  dis- 
cern in  succession  upon  the  opposite  shore  the  towns  of 
Prospect,  Stockton,  Searsport,  and  Belfast,  and  the  beauti- 
ful island  known  as  Brigadier's  or  Sears'  Island.  This 
route  is  known  as  the  "ten  mile  square." 

If  our  tourist  chooses,  he  can,  instead  of  returning,  fol- 
low the  road  up  the  river  over  Hardscrahhle  Mountain,  to 
the  town  of  Orland — or,  by  turning  off  at  the  North  Cas- 
tine  Post-ofQce,  he  can  go  to  the  head  of  Northern  Bay  in 
the  town  of  Penobscot.  This  latter  trip,  while  giving  him 
a  view  of  the  water  nearly  equal  to  either  of  the  others, 
will  take  him  over  a  rough  and  hilly  road.  While  in  Pe- 
nobscot, he  can,  however,  visit  without  much  trouble  North- 
ern Bay  pond — about  one  mile  north  of  the  bay — or,  by 
taking  the  road  to  Bluehill,  can  see  the  Southern  Bay  and 
Pierce's  pond — which  latter,  if  in  the  proper  season,  he 
will  find  covered  with  the  beautiful  white  pond  lily  (iV^m- 
phea  odoratci).  From  this  point  he  can  proceed  to  Blue- 
hill  Mountain,  which  is  nine  hundred  and  fifty  feet  in 
height,  and  which  has  been  visible  all  the  way  from  Castine, 
or  he  can  return  through  the  town  of  Brooksville,  and  cross 
the  ferry  to  North  Castine. 

Visitors  to  Brooksville,  however,  generally  go  from  Cas- 
tine by  water.  To  those  fond  of  yachting,  this  is  by  far  the 
best  way,  as  the  river  and  harbor  have  the  merit  of  being 
unusually  safe  for  boats  of  all  descriptions.  Sudden  squalls, 
such  as  are  often  fatally  experienced  near  high  mountains, 
are  extremely  rare  here.  The  principal  places  of  interest 
in  this  town,  are  the  high  hill  (Tapley's)  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  town,  about  a  mile  from  West  Brooksville; — 
the  high  hill  on  Cape  Rozier  called  Bakeman's  Mountain ; 
Walker's  pond, — a  large  pond  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
town ;  Buck's  Harbor,  the  Granite  Quarries,  and  Orcutt's 
Harbor,  in  the  southern  part.  These  are  all  places  well 
worth  the  trouble  of  visiting  by  any  one  possessing  a  fond- 
ness for  natural  scenery. 

A  village  which  contains  not  a  single  street  from  all  parts 


186  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

of  which  a  pleasant  view  of  the  harbor  cannot  easily  be  ob- 
tained, requires  no  mention  of  its  particular  walks  or 
drives,  when  all  are  alike  pleasant.  The  peninsula  of  Cas- 
tine  has,  however,  so  many  points  of  historic  interest,  as 
well  as  of  natural  beauty,  that  it  deserves  a  somewhat  ex- 
tended and  more  special  notice. 

Forts,  Batteries,  Etc. 

By  far  the  most  important  point  in  the  village,  is  the 
site  of  the  remains  of  an  old  fort — commonly  called  Cas- 
tin's  Fort,  from  having  been  occupied  by  him.  This  fort 
was  built  by  the  French,  as  early,  probably,  as  1626,  and  pos- 
sibly some  years  earlier.  It  is  generally  supposed  to  have 
been  built  by  Aulney;  but  the  latter  did  not  in  all  proba- 
bility build  a  fort,  but  occupied  the  one  formerly  in  posses- 
sion of  the  Plymouth  Colony.  Without  doubt,  it  is  one  of 
the  oldest  forts  in  the  country.  Its  ruins  are  to  be  dis- 
tinctly seen  in  the  southern  part  of  the  village.  At  the 
time  of  its  surrender  to  Grandfontaine — which  was  three 
3'ears  after  Castin's  arrival  here — the  fort  contained  four 
bastions,  each  of  which  measured,  from  the  salient  angle  to 
the  verge  of  the  terrace  inside,  sixteen  feet.  The  terraces 
were  about  eight  feet  from  the  curtains.  It  contained  a 
guard-house  ten  by  fifteen  paces  in  extent ;  a  house  of  the 
same  dimensions,  containing  three  rooms  ;  a  chapel,  occu- 
pying ground  four  by  six  paces ;  a  magazine  ten  by  thirty- 
six  paces ;  and  another  building  of  like  dimensions  with 
the  magazine.  Outside  of  the  fort  was  a  shed  for  housing 
cattle,  and  an  orchard.  Under  a  portion  of  the  magazine 
was  a  small  cellar^  and  in  this  cellar  a  well.  [French  Doc- 
uments— Part  III.]  To  inclose  tlie  dimensions  specified 
above,  the  fort  must  have  contained,  at  least,  fifteen  thou- 
sand three  hundred  square  feet — calling  a  pace  equivalent 
to  two  and  one-half  feet.  As  all  the  embankments  to  be 
seen  in  what  is  called  Castin's  fort,  are  only  about  twenty- 
eight  and  a  half  by  forty-three  and  a  half  paces  in  extent, 
(seven  thousand  seven  hundred  and  seventy-six  square 
feet)  they  could  not  possibly  have  comprised  the  whole 
fort.  Indeed,  the  whole  of  the  present  lot  which  incloses 
them  is  not  large  enough  to  contain  all  the  buildings — 
with  the  requisite  space  around  them.  The  ruins  now  to  be 
seen,  constitute,  therefore,  but  a  small  portion  of  the  origi- 
nal fort.     They  are,  in  fact,  the  remains  of  the   magazine 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  187 

alone,  and  the  embankments  are  the  remains  oi  its /'''unda- 
tions.  The  discovery,  not" many  years  ago,  of  an  old  well, 
almost  in  the  center  of  the  supposed  fort,  proves  this  con- 
clusion to  be  a  correct  one.  This  well  contained  powder- 
horns,  arrow  heads,  hatchets,  and  other  implements  of  a 
war-like  nature.* 

The  site  of  this  fort  was  probably  a  favorite  place  of  re- 
sort for  the  Indians,  long  before  the  advent  of  Europeans. 
This  is  inferred  from  the  existence  here  of  a  vast  shell  de- 
posit— from  which  have  been  extracted  pieces  of  flint,  In- 
dian pipes,  etc. 

Supposed  Plan  of  Fort  Pentagoet, — 1670. 


^^x.«.c^7 


^^GAduCE  RlVERr~ 


REFERENCES.  — No.  1.  Chapel.  No.  2.  Giianl-house.  No.  3.  Officers' 
Quarters,  containing  three  rooms.  No.  4.  Magazine — with  its  enibauknient, 
and  with  well  in  center.  No.  5.  Store-house.  No.  6.  Platform  overlooking 
the  sea — on  which  two  guns  were  mounted.  No.  7.  Row  of  Palisades  in  the 
river. 

*The  annoyance  caused  by  so  many  visitors  to  this  well,  as  also  its  danger- 
ous condition,  bus  been  the  occasion  of  it:!  being  closed  up. 


188 


history  of  ca.stine, 
Plan  of  Fort  George, — 1814. 


Next  in  importance  to  the  fort  just  described,  is  one  sit- 
uated nearly  north  from  it,  upon  the  high  land  in  the  cen- 
ter of  the  peninsula.  It  was  built  by  the  British  in  June, 
1779,  and  was  named  Fort  George  in  honor  of  his  Majesty 
George  III.  The  fort  is  tetragonal  in  form,  with  a  bastion 
at  each  of  the  four  angles,  corresponding  very  nearly  with 
the  four  cardinal  points  of  the  compass.  The  curtains  be- 
tween each  bastion  face,  of  course,  northwest,  northeast, 
southeast  and  southwest.  The  northeast  and  southwest 
curtains  are  each  two  hundred  and  thirty  feet  in  length — 
within  the  area  of  the  fort.  The  northwest  and  southeast 
curtains  are  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  in  length. 
In  the  southeast  curtain  is  the  gateway,  fifteen  feet  wide, 
facing  the  town.  The  moat  or  ditch  is  dug  down  to  the 
ledge — the  dirt  thrown  up  to  form  the  ramparts.  On  ac- 
count of  this  ledge,  it  was  impossible,  without  the  expendi- 


BROOKSVILLE   AIjO)  PENOBSCOT.  189 

ture  of  much  time  and.  labor,  to  dig  the  ditch  deeper.  In 
the  west  bastion  was  the  well;  in  the  south,  the  magazine. 
From  the  bottom  of  the  ditch  to  the  top  of  the  ramparts, 
was  twenty  feet.  The  ramparts  were  six  feet  wide  on  the 
top,  level,  and  guarded  by  fraising  and  palisades.  The  lat- 
ter were  made  with  large  cedar  stakes  but  a  few  inches 
apart,  one  end  inserted  in  the  ramparts  a  few  feet  from  the 
top,  the  other,  sharply  pointed,  extended  horizontally  half 
way  across  the  ditch — rendering  an  assault  difficult  and 
dangerous.  The  bastion  containing  the  magazine,  was 
fully  occupied  by  it.  The  entrances  to  it  were  made  of 
arched  passages  of  brick  and  mortar,  over  which  were  lay- 
ers of  logs — the  whole  covered  with  earth.  A  row  of  bar- 
racks was  built  j)arallel  to  the  northwest  curtain.  After 
the  British  left,  in  1815,  the  American  government  took 
possession  of  and  garrisoned  it.  The  fort  was  repaired 
and  strengthened,  and  new  barracks  were  erected — the 
foundations  of  which  are  still  visible.  This  was  the  fort 
in  which  Wadsworth  and  Burton  were  confined,  and  from 
Avhich  they  made  their  escape.  It  was  in  this  fort  that  the 
gibbet  was  erected  upon  which  Ball,  and,  subsequently, 
Elliot,  were  executed.  The  fort  is  now, — minus  the  build- 
ings and  munitions  of  war,  substantially  the  same  as  when 
the  British  garrison  left  it, — having  suffered  comparatively 
little  injury,  either  from  climatic  causes,  or  from  acts  of 
vandalism.  A  fine  view  in  all  directions  can  be  obtained 
from  its  ramparts,  and  it  serves,  accordingly,  the  place  of 
aoa  observatory  to  the  citizens. 

At  the  distance  of  five  hundred  and  ninety  yards  south 
by  east  from  Fort  George,  and  a  little  over  one  hundred 
yards  northeast  of  the  old  French  fort,  is  the  site  of 
Battery  Furieuse — which  was  erected  by  the  British,  in 
1779,  to  play  against  the  battery  held  by  the  Americans, 
on  Nautilus  Island.  This  battery  was  the  one  mentioned 
in  Calef  s  Journal,  as  the  "  half-moon  battery,  near  Banks' 
house."  Mr.  Ilea's  barn,  on  the  corner  of  Court  and 
Broadway  Streets,  is  said  to  cover  the  site. 

Battery  Penobscot,  erected  by  the  British,  in  the  same 
year  as  the  last  named,  is  seven  hundred  and  twenty  yards 
east  by  north  from  Fort  George.  It  is  near  the  south- 
west entrance  to  the  cemetery,  and  not  far  from  the  site 
of  the  old  unndmill,  which  was  built,  according  to  tradi- 
tional  accounts,  by  Captain  Mark    Ilatc-h,  about   the   time 


190  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

of  the  first  settlement  of  the  town.  The  miller's  name 
was  Higgins ;  and,  according  to  the  old  rhyme,  he  must 
have  had  a  deal  of  trouble  with  it : — 

"  On  Hatch's  hill 
There  stands  a  mill ; 
Old  Higgins  he  doth  tend  it. 
Kvery  time  he  grinds  a  grist 
He  has  to  stop  and  mend  it." 

This  battery  was  rectangular  in  shape,  considerably  larger 
than  the  last  mentioned,  and  its  remains  are  plainly  dis- 
cernible. It  was  called  the  Sea-men's  Battery,  by  the 
English. 

At  the  extremity  of  Hatch's  j)oint,  not  far  from  the 
sand-bar,  is  another  battery,  which  was  erected  by  the 
English,  as  a  defence  against  the  battery  erected  by  the 
Americans,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Cove.  It  was 
called  the  East  Point  Battery.  It  was  built  in  the  shape 
of  a  square  redoubt.  The  site  of  it  is  rather  difficult  to 
find. 

A  little  less  than  half-way  between  this  battery  and 
Fort  George  is  another — a  nameless  battery.  At  the 
right  of  the  road  leading  from  the  peninsula,  a  short  dis- 
tance to  the  right  of  the  bi"idge,  is  also  another.  Both  of 
these  last  mentioned  batteries  were  made  by  the  British, 
in  1779. 

A  little  south  of  the  last  mentioned  battery,  in  the 
alders,  is  a  stone  work  called  the  "  Dutch  OYen,"  the  origin 
of  which  is  popularly  attributed  to  the  Dutch,  who  captured 
the  fort  here,  in  1676.  It  is,  however,  positively  known 
to  have  been  one  of  the  baking  places  of  the  British,  in 
1779,  and  was,  perhaps,  thus  named  by  them. 

On  the  main  land,  opposite  Hatch's  point,  is  another, 
called  Wescott's  Battery,  built  by  the  Americans,  in  1779. 

On  the  left  of  the  road  leading  off  the  peninsula,  at  the 
brow  of  the  hill,  about  four  hundred  and  sixty  yards 
northeast  by  east  from  Fort  George,  is  Battery  Gosselin— 
named  in  honor  of  the  English  General  commanding  the 
garrison  in  1815.  One  hundred  and  sixty-eight  yards 
north  of  Fort  George  are  the  ruins  of  Battery  Sherbrooke, 
a  semi -circular  battery,  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  in  extent, 
enclosing  a  redoubt  about  one  hundred  and  fift}^  feet 
inside,  which  measures  forty-six  feet.  This  battery  was 
named  in  honor  of  the  general  who  had  the  supreme  com- 
mand of  all  the  land  forces  of  the  English  at  this  place,  in 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.         191 

1814.     The  two  last  named  are  small  batteries,  but  are  in 
good  preservation,  and  easily  to  be  found. 

A  little  more  westerly,  and  about  six  hundred  and  six- 
teen yards  from  Fort  George,  not  far  from  the  dwellings 
of  Messrs.  Sawyer  and  Bevan,  is  a  large  redoubt,  named 
Battery  Griffith,  in  honor  of  Rear  Admiral  Griffith,  who 
commanded  the  English  naval  force  here,  in  1814-15. 
The  dimensions  of  this  battery  are  forty-seven  feet  front, 
by  ninety  feet  on  the  sides.  It  is  in  shape  an  irregular 
quadrilateral — like  the  accompanying  figure. 


It  enclosed  barracks,  the  foundations  of  which  measure, 
at  present,  sixteen  by  thirty  feet.  This  battery  commands 
the  back  Cove.*     It  is  in  a  good  state  of  preservation. 

Not  far  from  the  high  bluff  at  the  northern  extremity  of 
the  peninsula,  at  the  top  of  a  steep  hill,  is  the  site  of  the 
Block  House,  erected  in  1814.  Only  the  foundation  can 
be  discerned.  Northeast  of  the  site  of  the  Block  House, 
at  the  very  extremity  of  the  bluff,  are  the  remains  of 
another  small  battery  ;  and  nearly  northwest  from  the  same 
spot,  and  near  the  western  extremity  of  the  bluff,  those  of 
another,  named  the  West  Point  Battery.  These  two 
batteries  and  the  Block  House  were  built  by  the  British. 
The  Block  House  was,  doubtless,  built  as  much  for  an 
observatory  as  for  the  protection  it  would  afford.  It  was 
twenty  feet  square  on  the  ground  floor,  the  second  story 
projected  over  the  first,  and  "  above  this  was  an  area  j^ro- 
tected  by  continuing  the  sides  of  the  building  four  feet 
higher,  as  a  parapet."  [Dr.  Wm.  Ballard,  U.  S.  A. — 
Manuscript  Sketch  of  Castinc] 

In  the  field  at  the  lower  end  of  Perkins  Street,  opposite 
the  house  of  Mrs.  Sylvester,  is  the  largest  battery  of  all. 
It  was  erected  about  1811,  by  the  Americans,  in  anticipa- 

*Tliis  Cove  ought  to  be  called  Wadsworth  Bay,  in  lionor  of  the  gallant 
officer  who  crossed  it,  when  he  made  liis  escape  from  Fort  George. 


192  HISTOEY  OF   CASTINE, 

tion  of  a  war  with  England.  It  was  called,  in  honor  of 
the  President  of  the  United  States,  Fort  Madison.  It  wa» 
first  occupied  by  a  company  of  the  40th  Infantry.  It  was 
afterwards  occupied  by  a  small  detachment  of  the  British,- 
in  1814-15,  and  it  was  probably  from  them  that  it  received 
its  designation  of  Fort  Castine.  Tliis  name  has  often 
caused  it  to  be  confounded  with  the  old  French  fort, 
which  is  commonly  called  Castin's  fort.  This  fort,  for 
such  it  now  is,  was  rebuilt  during  the  late  civil  war,  and 
garrisoned  by  a  company  of  United  States  troops.  It  is  a 
square  fort,  somewhat  similar  to  Fort  George,  though  con- 
siderably smaller.  It  contains  a  magazine,  and,  in  the  last 
war,  mounted  five  guns — two  24-pounders  en  barbette,  and 
three  32-pound  embrasures.  This  fort  is  generally  called, 
now,  the  United  States  Fort,  but  was,  at  one  time,  called 
Fort  Porter.  In  the  rear  of  this  fort,  the  English  erected, 
in  1779,  a  small  battery,  which  was  taken  from  them  by 
the  Americans,  when  they  landed.  It  is  behind  the  barn 
of  Mrs.  Sylvester's  house,  but  cannot  now  be  distin- 
guished. 

The  above  mentioned  comprise  all  the  forts  and  bat- 
teries known  to  have  been  built  within  the  limits  of  the 
present  town  of  Castine.  The  British,  in  1779,  built  a 
small  square  redoubt,  upon  the  height  of  Nautilus  Island, 
which  is  still  visible.  This  battery  was  the  one  first  cap- 
tured by  the  Americans.  The  latter  erected  one  soon 
after,  upon  Hainey's  plantation — what  is  now  known  as 
Henry's  Point — in  Brooksville.  It  has  been  partially 
destroyed,  by  the  crumbling  of  the  bank.  There  was 
another  small  battery  erected  upon  Cape  Rozier,  but  the 
site  of  it  is  not  known.  [See  map,  on  page  42,  for  loca- 
tion of  these  batteries.] 

About  two-thirds  of  the  way  from  the  Light-house  to 
the  Block  House  Point,  was  the  landing-place  of  the 
Americans,  under  General  Lovell.  A  large  white  rock — 
the  only  white  one,  of  any  considerable  size,  upon  the 
shore — marks  the  spot  where  the  ascent  was  made.  It 
was  behind  this  rock  that  Trask,  the  young  fifer,  sat,  while 
his  comrades  were  engaged  in  the  ascent.  [See  view  on 
opposite  page.] 

But  few  of  the  old  guns  or  implements  of  warfare,  used 
in  former  engagements,  remain.  The  greater  part  of  them 
have  been  taken  away  either  by  the  State  or  National 


BROOKS VILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  193 

authorities.  At  the  foot  of  Main  Street  is  a  cannon,  that 
formerly  belonged  to  the  old  ship  Canova;  and  in  front  of 
Fort  George  is  one  of  the  24-pounders  used  here  in  1814  ;• 
and  there  are  also  two  similar  ones  near  the  United  States 
Fort.  There  were — some  thirty  years  ago — two  or  three 
mates  to  these.  They  are  said  to  have  been  taken  from 
town  by  a  party  of  young  men  from  Belfast,  who  came 
over  here  a  night  or  two  before  the  Fourth  of  July,  and 
carried  them  ofi  in  a  scow.  They  are  supposed  to  be  still 
in  Belfast. 

Old  Mansions. 

Nearly  all  of  the  old  houses  built  here,  about  the  time  of 
the  incorporation  of  the  town,  have,  like  their  occupants, 
passed  away.  The  oldest  house  in  town  is  believed  to  be 
that  of  the  late  Doctor  Bridgham,  though  its  exact  age  ia 
unknown.  The  red  house,  on  Perkins  Street,  between 
Main  and  Pleasant  Streets,  is  also  quite  an  old  house  ;  has 
probably  stood  more  than  ninety  years.  As  it  fronts  to 
the  south,  there  is  supposed  to  have  been,  at  the  time  it 
was  built,  a  roadway  there,  running  parallel  to  the  present 
course  of  Pleasant  Street ;  but  this  is  undoubtedly  an 
error,  as  the  oldest  inhabitants  have  no  recollection  of 
such  a  street.  This  house  was  formerly  owned  and  occu- 
pied by  Doctor  Calef,  and  afterwards  by  Doctor  Mann. 
The  long  house  on  Main  Street,  commonly  known  as  the 
"  Mullett  House,"  is  also  quite  an  old  building,  and  was  one 
of  those  occupied  by  the  British,  in  1812.  The  residence  of 
Mr.  Samuel  K.  Whiting,  near  the  common,  was  also  one 
of  those  occupied  by  the  British.  Until  within  a  year  or 
two,  there  was  a  pane  of  glass  in  one  of  the  windows  of 
this  house,  which  had  upon  it,  scratched  with  a  diamond, 
by  Lieutenant  Elliott,  of  the  British  force,  a  representa- 
tion of  the  British  flag,  with  the  "  stars  and  stripes  " 
underneath,  upside  down,  and  the  words,  "  Yankee  doodle 
upset."  The  pane  has  been  broken,  but  the  design  has 
been  preseiwed.  The  Unitarian  meeting-house  is  the 
oldest  church  building  in  this  vicinity.  It  was  built  in 
1790.  The  interior  has  been  remodeled,  however,  and 
the  old  galleries  removed.  The  large  house  on  Perkins 
Street,  near  the  corner  of  Pleasant,  called  the  "  Cobb  " 
House  ;  the  "  Ellis "  House,  on  Water  Street,  nearly 
opposite  the  upper  ship-yard  ;   and  the  "  Hooke"  house, 


194  HISTOEY  OF  CASTTNE, 

on  the  same  street,  are  all  old  buildings,  and  betoken  by 
their  size  and  shape,  and  the  terraced  grounds  in  front  of 
them,  the  prosperity  of  their  former  owners. 

Relics. 

Among  the  most  interesting  relics  of  the  town  are  the 
somewhat  celebrated  "  Castine  Coins."* 

A  lengthy  account  of  the  discovery  of  these  coins,  and 
of  the  coins  themselves,  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Joseph 
Williamson,  in  the  sixth  volume  of  the  Maine  Historical 
Collections.  The  following  account  is,  however,  mainly 
that  of  Doctor  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  who  visited  the  spot  at 
the  time  and  obtained  the  facts  from  the  party  who  found 
them.  It  is  so  interesting  that  we  do  not  hesitate  to  insert 
it  entire : 

"  Late  in  November,  1840,  a  respectable  farmer,  Captain 
Stephen  Grindle,  of  Penobscot,  and  his  son,  Samuel  P. 
Grindle,  now  of  this  town,  while  hauling  wood  from  the 
side  of  a  rocky  hill  to  the  shore,  distant  about  twenty  rods, 
found  a  silver  coin.  It  was  a  French  crown.  The  path  is 
impassable  by  wheels,  requiring  the  wood  to  be  '  snaked 
out' — as  the  rustic  term  is.  This,  of  course,  made  a  fur- 
row, in  which  the  coin  was  found,  new  and  bright  as 
though  recently  issued  from  the  mint- — although  two  hun- 
dred years  old.  This  led  to  further  search,  and  about  twenty 
more  were  found.  Night  coming  on,  with  severe  cold,  fol- 
lowed by  snow,  prevented  any  further  discovery  until  the 
next  spring.  On  searching  then,  another  crown  was  found 
on  top  of  a  large  rock,  covered  with  moss,  and  by  the  side 
of  this  rock  the  bulk  of  the  money  was  found.  In  April, 
1841,  the  writer,  in  company  with  some  friends,  visited  the 
spot.  It  had  been  quite  thoroughly  dug  over,  but  several 
French  half-crowns  were  found  by  our  party,  without  much 
searching,  several  feet  from  the  rock,  which  on  its  lower 
side,  shelved  downwards  towards  the  path.  On  going  to 
the  house,  we  examined  all  that  had  not  been  disposed  of, 
and  each  of  us  purchased  a  number  of  them.  The  writer 
selected,  as  nearly  as  he  could,  a  specimen  of  each,  nine- 
teen in  number.  There  must  have  been  in  all  nearly,  if 
not  quite,  two  thousand  pieces,  but  a  large  proportion  of 
them  were  only  small  fractions  of  crowns  and  dollars. 
The  French  money  largely  predominated ;  next,  the  old 

*These  coins  are  now  in  possession  of  Doctor  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  but  we 
are  glad  to  learn  that  it  is  his  intention  to  present  them,  eventually,  to  the 
Maine  Historical  Society. 


BROOKSVILLB  AND  PENOBSCOT.  195 

Spanish  "  cob "  dollars*.  These  last  were  irregular  in 
shape,  and  much  worn,  yet  of  full  weight,  as  compared 
with  present  standards.  The  dates  on  these  were  mostly 
illegible,  but  the  pillars,  emblems  of  Spanish  sovereignty, 
were  quite  evident.  There  were  quite  a  number  of  Bel- 
gic  and  Portuguese  coins.  The  most  interesting  of  all 
were  the  Massachusetts  pine-tree  shillings  and  sixpences, 
all  of  date  1652,  and  in  number  about  twenty-five  or 
thirty.  I  saw  but  tivo  English  coins,  shillings — worn 
nearly  smooth.  One,  noAV  in  my  possession,  is  of  the 
reign  of  Carolus  I.  or  II.,  and  the  other,  owned  by  a  lady 
in  town,  is  of  the  reign  of  Jacobus  I.  As  the  latter 
monarch  died  in  1625,  it  must  have  been  coined  prior  to 
that  date,  and  is,  probably,  the  oldest  of  the  whole  collec- 
tion. My  theory  was,  at  the  time,  that  they  were  left 
accidentally  by  the  Baron  de  St.  Castin,  when  driven 
from  here  by  the  English,  under  Colonel  Church,  very 
near  to  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century.  They 
probably  followed  the  course  of  the  river  up  to  its  head 
and  source  in  Walker's  pond.  From  the  south  side  of  this 
pond  the  carrying  place  is  only  half  a  mile  to  the  waters  of 
the  ocean  in  Eggemoggin  Reach.  From  thence  to  the 
French  settlements  in  Acadia,  there  could  be  no  difficulty."! 

In  connection  with  the  above,  it  may  be  stated  that  a 
gold  coin  was  found  in  1863,  on  the  beach  below  the 
French  fort.  It  was  a  "  demi  Louis  d'or  "  of  date  1642. 
The  inscription  on  one  side  was, — "LVD.  XIII  D.G. 
FR.ET  NAV.  REX,"  and  on  the  other,  "  REGN. 
VINC.  IMP.  CHRS."  It  was  in  good  preservation,  and 
but  little  worn.  Its  value,  in  gold,  is  two  dollars  seven- 
teen cents  and  five  mills.  There  cannot  be  much  doubt 
but  that  this  coin  was  lost  there  by  some  one  of  the  Castin 
family,  or  by  some  French  settler,  in  the  time  of  the  resi- 
dence here  of  Monsieur  d'Aulney. 

In  the  year  1863,  a  piece  of  sheet-copper,  ten  inches 
long  by  eight  wide,  was  found  in  the  ground  near  the 
United  States  Fort,  by  Mr.  William  H.  Weeks.     He,  not 

♦These  dollars  were  also  ealletl  "  eross-moiH^v"  from  the  cross  on  them.  In 
Mexico,  they  were  caUed  "  windmill  antl  cross-money."  They  do  not  seem  to 
have  been  made  by  a  machine,  but  seem  like  lumps  of  bullion  flattened  and 
impressed  by  means  of  a  han)nier.  They  wcTe  originally  made  for  dollars 
and  are  what  old  writers  called  "pieces  of  eight."  [Castine  Coins,  Vol.  V'l, 
Me,  Hist.  Col.] 

tCastin  left  here  in  1701.  C:hurch  did  not  \isit  the  place  until  ITOl.  This 
money  was,  possibly,  left  thiire  by  some  of  the  Castin  family,  when  they 
departed  for  Canada,  some,  time  during  the  latter  year,  or  it  might  have  been 
left  there  by  the  liaron  Castin,  when  he  took  to  the  woods,  at  the  time  of  the 
visit  of  Governor  Andros,  in  IGSS. 


196  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

noticing  anything  peculiar  about  it,  cut  off  a  piece  to 
mend  his  boat  with.  This  fragment  was  recovered,  how- 
ever, and  has  been  fastened  to  the  plate.  The  letters 
upon  the  plate,  as  shown  by  the  illustration  on  the  oppo- 
site page,  are  evidently  abbreviations  of  the  following 
inscription  : 

1648,  8  Junii,  Frater  Leo  Parisiensis,  in  Capucinorum 
Missione,  posui  hoc  fundamentum  in  honorem  nostrse 
Damse  Sanctse  Spei.      Of  which  this  is  the  translation: — 

"  1648,  Jan.  8.  I,  Friar  Leo,  of  Paris,  Capuchin 
Missionary,  laid  this  foundation  in  honor  of  our 
Lady  of  Holy  Hope."  This  translation  was  first  made 
by  Mr.  George  H.  Witherle,  and  his  reading  of  it  has 
since  been  confirmed  by  antiquarian  scholars.  In  regard 
to  this  Friar  Leo,  nothing  has  ever  been  discovered. 
[Remarks  on  Inscription  &c.,  in  Proceedings  of  Am.  Ant. 
Soc,  April,  1864.]  This  plate  was  evidently  placed  in 
the  foundation  of  some  Catholic  chapel,  and,  probably,  of 
the  one  erected  in  Aulney's  time,  in  the  old  French  fort. 
How  the  plate  came  to  be  where  it  was  found,  will  always 
remain  a  mystery.  In  all  probability  it  was  carried  there 
by  some  one  ignorant  of  its  value.  There  is  no  great 
reason  for  believing  that  there  were  two  chapels  here  at 
nearly  the  same  time,  and  the  only  chapel  we  have  any  doc- 
umentary evidence  of,  was  in  the  fort  which  tradition  places 
some  distance  away  from*where  the  plate  was  found.  We 
have  shown  elsewhere  the  grounds  for  believing  that  the 
so-called  French  fort  is  really  a  portion  of  that  fort.  This 
plate  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  George  H.  Witherle. 

Amongst  the  "ancient  relics"  of  the  town,  some  men- 
tion must  be  made  of  a  unique  piece  of  home-made 
statuary,  called  "  Cotton's  Head."  It  is  not  the  head  of 
an  individual  of  that  name,  but  was  sculptured  by  Mr. 
Isaac  Cotton.  He  was  a  stone-mason  by  trade,  and  was 
engaged  by  the  town  authorities,  somewhere  about  the 
year  1S20,  to  furnish  a  stone  post  for  the  corner  of  Main 
and  Water  Streets.  He  chiselled  out  a  round  stone,  and 
surmounted  it  with  the  before  mentioned  idolatrous  look- 
ing head.  It  stood  on  the  corner  for  many  years,  but  the 
post  being  at  length  broken,  the  head  was  cut  off,  and 
affixed  to  a  square  stone,  which  was  set  up  in  the  same 
place.  Having,  after  a  while,  got  broken  off  again,  it 
came  into  the  possession  of  Messrs.  Witherle  &  Co.,  and 
is  now  on  exhibition  at  their  store. 


198  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 


CHAPTER  X. 

BlOGEAPHICAL  SKETCHES  OF  THE  EaRLY  SeTTLEES,  PRO- 
FESSIONAL Men,  Editors,  etc.,  and  of  Men  Promi- 
nent IN  Nation,  State,  or  Town. 

A  complete  genealoo-ical  table  of  the  former  inhabitants, 
even  of  the  town  of  Castine,  would  involve  the  unremit- 
ting labor  of  several  years;  would  necessarily,  under  any 
circumstances,  be  more  or  less  imperfect  and  incomplete ; 
and  would,  morever,  be  of  no  great  interest  to  the  majority 
of  our  readers.  On  the  other  hand,  no  history  of  a  town 
is  complete,  that  does  not  give  some  special  account  of  its 
founders  and  note-worthy  citizens. 

In  tliis  chapter,  an  attempt  is  made  to  observe  a  just 
mean,  and  to  give  such  sketches — longer  or  shorter,  ac- 
cording to  the  information  aiforded — as  is  desirable  and 
practicable,  of  those  citizens  who  resided  here  during  the 
war  of  the  Revolution,  and  of  the  individuals  subsequent- 
ly prominent  in  the  theological,  legal,  and  medical  profes- 
sions, or  who  were  distinguished  in  literary,  mercantile, 
or  political  circles.  If  the  names  of  any  prominent  citi- 
zens of  former  times  do  not  appear  iii  this  chapter,  it  is 
because  the  parties  who  might  have  furnished  the  required 
information,  have  failed  to  do  so,  or  in  a  few  instances, 
because  no  trace  of  the  descendants  of  sucli  persons  could 
be  found. 

Early  Settlers. 

At  the  time  of  the  English  occupation  in  1779,  Messrs. 
Aaron  Banks,  John  Jacolj  Dyce,  Mark  Hatch,  John  Per- 
kins, and  Joseph  Perkins,  lived  upon  the  peninsula  of 
Castine ;  Mr.  William  Wescott  resided  on  the  mainland, 
just  north  of  the  present  village.  Mr.  Archibald  Hainey 
occupied  the  point  of  land  opposite  the  village — in  Brooks- 
ville — where  the  Misses  Henry  now  reside  ;  and  Mr.  John 
Bakeman  lived  upon  Cape  Rozier. 


brooksville  and  penobscot.  109 

Bakeman,  John. 

Mr.  John  Bakeman  was  born  in  Holland,  in  1731.  He 
married  Christiana  Smart,  who  was  born  in  1744,  and  who 
died  in  Brooksville,  Aug-nst  4,  1818 — aged  seventy-four 
years.  Mr.  Bakeman  died,  in  the  part  of  Castine  which  is 
now  Brooksville,  on  October  29,  1800 — aged  sixty-nine 
years. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  a  cousin  to  Martin  Van 
Buren.  He  had  two  brothers.  One  of  them  settled  in 
New  York,  and  spelled  his  name  Bateraan.  The  other,  a 
clergyman,  named  Garret,  came  to  Penobscot,  but  re- 
mained here  only  a  short  time.  He  returned  to  Holland, 
and  was  never  after  heard  from.  Mr.  Bakeman  came  to 
this  place  at  the  same  time  as  his  brother  Garret,  pur- 
chased a  tract  of  land  on  Cape  Rozier,  erected  some  mills, 
and  engaged  in  ship-building.  Mr.  Bakeman's  wife  was  a 
Tory,  and  it  is  a  family  tradition  that,  trusting  in  her  sym- 
pathy for  the  English  cause.  General  McLean,  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  siege,  intrusted  to  her  care  a  large 
quantity  of  gold,  which  was  honorably  returned  to  him  after 
the  siege  was  raised,  notwithstanding  that  Mr.  Bakeman 
espoused  the  cause  of  the  Federalists,  and  that  his  house 
was  used  as  a  hospital  for  the  woimded  Americans.  After 
the  contest  had  ceased,  some  English  soldiers  were  sent 
over  to  seize  Mr.  Bakeman,  but  he,  having  timely  warn- 
ing, had  escaped  in  a  boat.  A  few  days  later,  the  English 
seized  his  stock  of  cattle,  about  twenty  in  number,  and 
over  one  hundred  sheep.  One  of  his  daughters,  at  that 
time  a  little  girl  of  some  seven  or  eight  years  of  age,  often 
declared  that  she  distinctly  remembered  hearing  the  soldiers 
say,  while  dressing  the  animals,  "  Won't  we  live  fat  now, 
all  the  way  to  Halifax  !  " 

Mr.  Bakeman  went  to  Bath,  Maine,  where  his  family 
soon  joined  hini.  He  engaged  in  making  salt  from  sea- 
water,  at  a  place  near  Bath,  called  New  Meadows.  When 
peace  was  declared,  he  returned  to  Castine,  but  did  not 
find  even  the  foundation  of  his  house  remaining.  The 
English  had  taken  it  down,  and  removed  it  to  Castine 
village,  and  it  was  there  rebuilt  and  occupied  by  Doctor 
Calef. 

Mr.  Bakeman  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  was 
much  respected  for  liis  sound  judgment,  and  tlie  judicnous- 
ness  of  tlie  advice  lie  gave  in  all  matters  rclatinu'  either  to 


200  HISTOEY   OF  CASTINE, 

inclividnal  or  town  interests.  His  death  occurred  so  sud- 
denly from  hemorrhage,  that  he  was  unable  to  give  any 
information  in  regard  to  his  property.  His  family  had  but 
little  doubt  but  that  he  had  gold  and  silver  concealed 
about  the  premises,  though  having  no  proof  thereof,  they 
never  made  any  very  extensive  search.  Spiritualists  and 
people  with  "  divining  rods,"  have,  however,  dug  up  a 
large  portion  of  the  field  near  where  his  house  stood, 
though  without  success. 

After  Mr.  Bakeman's  death,  his  oldest  son,  Francis 
Evans  Bakeman,  succeeded  to  the  estate,  and  became  a 
very  successful  ship-builder.  During  the  occupation  of 
Castine  by  the  British,  in  1814,  his  shipping  was  all  seized, 
and  nothing  left  him  but  his  homestead.  Many  of  Mr. 
Bakeman's  descendants  still  reside  in  Castine  and  vicinity. 


Banks,  Aaron. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  York,  Maine, 
June  1,  1738.  He  married  Mary  Perkins,  of  York,  who 
was  a  sister  of  John  and  Daniel  Perkins,  of  Bagaduce. 
His  death  occurred  on  the  ninth  of  August,  1823,  at 
Penobscot. 

At  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  Mr.  Banks  enlisted  in 
the  provincial  army,  for  the  defense  of  the  colonies  against 
the  French  and  Indians.  He  was  first  stationed  at  Fort 
Pownal,  and  assisted  in  building  that  fort,  early  in  the 
summer  of  1759.  In  July  of  that  year,  he  was  trans- 
ferred to  General  Amherst's  command,  and  was  with  that 
command  at  the  capture  of  Ticonderoga.  He  was  also 
with  General  Amherst,  at  the  capture  of  Montreal,  Sep- 
tember 7,  1760.  A  treaty  of  peace  was  made  at  Paris, 
between  England  and  France,  February  10,  1763.  In 
conseq[uence  of  this,  Mr.  Banks  was  honorably  discharged, 
early  in  the  winter  of  1764.  He,  and  twelve  others,  were 
obliged  to  walk  through  the  wilderness  from  Montreal  to 
York,  in  the  depth  of  winter,  with  no  covering  for  their 
couch  at  night  but  the  "  starry  decked  heavens,"  and 
depending  for  their  food  upon  the  game  shot  upon  the 
way. 

In  the  spring  of  1765,  Mr.  Banks  brought  his  wife  and 
infant  daughter  to  Bagaduce.  He  is  said  to  have  bought 
the  farm  first  settled  by  Reuben  Gray,  on  the  Neck — 


BEOOKSVLLLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  201 

being  that  now  principally  owned  by  Charles  J.  Abbott, 
Esq. — and  to  have  built  his  house  near  the  deep  gully,  not 
far  from  Mr.  Webb's  hoiise. 

At  the  time  of  the  skirmish  at  the  half-moon  battery, 
during  the  siege  of  1779,  Mr.  Banks'  house  was  burned  by 
the  Americans.  He  and  his  family  were  detained,  for 
upwards  of  three  weeks,  as  prisoners  on  board  the  British 
sloop  North.  After  peace  was  declared,  he  moved  to  that 
part  of  Bagaduce  which  is  now  Penobscot,  where  he 
remained  until  his  death.  No  descendants  bearing  his 
name  exist  at  this  day.  His  daughter  Elizabeth,  however, 
who  was  married  to  Colonel  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  became 
the  mother  of  a  famil}-  of  seven  sons  and  four  daughters. 
She  died  in  Penobscot,  November  26,  1853,  aged  89  years 
5  months  and  21  days. 

CUNNESTGHAM.      DyCE.       PhILLIPS. 

Messrs.  Cunningham  and  famil}^  Dyce  and  family,  and 
Nathan  Phillips,  are  referred  to  in  the  Orderly  Book  of 
Sergeant  Lawrence,  as  being  residents  of  this  place,  and  as 
noted  for  their  Tory  proclivities.  Mr.  John  -Jacob  Dyce  had 
a  house  situated  somewhere  near  the  old  French  fort,  and 
owned  the  whole  lower  portion  of  the  peninsula,  which  is 
named  from  him,  "  Dice's  Head."  His  wife's  name  was 
Ockabena.  Nothing  further  is  known  to  the  author  con- 
cerning any  of  these  persons,  but  it  is  not  unlikely  that 
they  were  driven  away  by  the  Notification  of  1 784. 

Hainey,  Archibald. 

Frequent  allusion  is  made  in  the  accounts  of  the  siege  of 
the  town,  to  a  family  of  the  name  of  Hainey,  but  nothing 
is  known  about  them  except  that  Mrs.  Hainey  is  spoken  of 
as  being  a  Tory.  No  reference  to  any  such  family  is  to  be 
found  in  the  town  records  of  Penobscot  or  Castine.  There 
was  a  man  of  that  name,  however,  and  probably  a  descend- 
ant of  this  family,  living  on  Cape  Rozier,  some  years  ago  ; 
and  William  and  Edward  Haney,  of  Penobscot,  and  Charles 
Haney  of  Belfast,  are  also  descendants. 

Hatch,  Mark. 

Mr.  Mark  Hatch,  was  born  August  14, 1746,  in  the  town 
of  Scituate,  Plymouth  Count3%  Massacluisetts,  His  wife's 
name  was  Abigail.     She  was  born  in  Marshheld,  Massa- 


202  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

chusetts,  May  20,  1746,  and  died  in  this  town  on  November 
30,  1831.  Mr.  Hatch  was  one  of  the  four  original  settlers 
here  prior  to  the  Revolutionary  war.  He  owned  the  north- 
eastern portion  of  the  peninsula.  He  removed  his  family 
sometime  after  the  British  took  possesssion  of  the  place,  at 
the  time  of  the  Revolution,  but  returned  here  about  1785. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  the  builder  of  the  Avindraill  which 
formerly  stood  near  the  west  entrance  of  the  cemetery. 
He  had  four  sons.  Mark  Hatch,  Jr.,  was  born  at  this  place, 
November  6,  1771,  it  being  then  a  part  of  Lincoln  County ; 
Jonathan,  was  born  August  28,  1774  ;  John,  was  born 
October  19th,  1777  ;  and  James,  October  21,  1779.  He 
liad  also  three  daughters  ;  Abigail,  born  March  9,  1783, 
died  December  27,  1796  ;  Eggathy  Phillips,  born  April  19, 
1785 ;  and  Lucy,  born  March  20,  1787.  Mr.  Hatch,  the 
father,  died  in  this  town,  November  30,  1831. 

HuTCHiNGS,  Charles. 

Mr.  Charles  Hutchings  was  born  in  York,  Maine,  Octo- 
ber 10,  1742.  His  mother  d3dng  during  his  infancy,  he 
was  brought  up  by  his  elder  sister,  until  he  was  seventeen 
years  old,  when  he  enlisted  in  the  army  raised  for  the 
reduction  of  Louisburg,  Cape  Breton.  He  was  with  Lord 
Loudon,  at  Halifax.  After  the  failure  of  this  expedition, 
he  sailed  for  Boston,  and  was  wrecked  on  the  Londorier, 
off  Cape  Ann.  He  was  afterward  at  Albany,  New  York, 
where  he  was  noted  for  his  diminutive  size,  and  great 
strength.  He  was  honorably  discharged  at  the  close  of 
the  war,  and  returned  to  York,  where  he  soon  after  married 
Miss  Maiy  Perkins.  He  moved  to  Penobscot,  in  1768,  and 
took  up  the  farm  now  owned  and  occupied  by  his  son,  Eben 
Hutchings,  who  is  now  in  his  eighty-sixth  year. 

During  the  siege  of  Bagaduce,  in  1779,  he,  Avith  Daniel, 
Isaac  and  Jacob  Perkins,  lay  in  ambush  on  Hainey's  Point, 
and  fired  into  the  English  guard-boat  as  it  passed.  They 
were  informed  against  by  a  Tory,  and  Mr.  Hutchings 
was  obliged  to  take  his  family,  consisting  of  his  wiie  and 
eight  children,  and  flee  for  his  life.  He  took  a  canoe, 
crossed  the  Penobscot  river  to  Fort  Pownal,  and  walked 
through  the  wilderness  to  Damariscotta,  where  he  resided 
until  the  peace  of  1783.  In  this  journey  through  the 
woods,  two  of  the  children  were  so  small  that  he  and  his 
wife  were  obliged  to  carry  them  all  the  way  in  their  arms. 


BROOK^VILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT. 


203 


They  lodged  on  the  bare  ground.  Their  only  cooking 
utensil  was  a  camp  kettle,  holding  about  two  gallons. 
Their  only  means  of  obtaining  food,  was  afforded,  by  his 
gun. 

The  daughter  Mary,  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  white 
female  child,  born  of  English  parents,  within  the  present 
limits  of  the  town  of  Penobscot. 

Mr.  Hutehings  died  in  Penoljscot,  in  June,  1835,  aged 
92  years  and  8  months. 


Hutch TNGS,  William. 

Mr.  William  Hutehings  was  l)orn  at  York,  Maine, 
October  6,  1764.  He  died  at  Penobscot,  May  2,  186G, 
aged  one  hundred  and  one  years  six  months  and  tAventy- 
six  days.     His  futlier,  Chark'S  Hutehings,  inoved  to  Pk^n- 


204  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

tation  Number  Three, — now  the  town  of  Penobscot — 
when  he  was  four  years  old.  He  was  an  eye-witness  of 
nearly  all  the  transactions  connected  with  the  siege  of 
Majabagaduce,  in  1779 ;  and  when  the  British  were  build- 
ing Fort  George,  he  assisted  in  carrying  the  first  log  that 
was  used  in  the  southeast  bastion.  After  the  destruction 
of  the  American  fleet,  his  father  refusing  to  take  an  oath 
of  allegiance  to  the  British  Sovereign,  his  family  were 
obliged  to  flee  to  a  place  of  safety.  He  went  to  Newcastle, 
Maine,  where  he  remained  until  the  close  of  the  war,  when 
he  returned  to  Penobscot,  and  settled  down  upon  the 
same  farm  that  his  father  had  formerly  occupied.  While 
at  Newcastle,  he  voluntarily  enlisted,  though  only  fifteen 
years  of  age,  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  His 
declaration,  made  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  a  pension 
as  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  is  on  file  in  the  Pension 
Office  at  Washington.  According  to  this  statement,  he 
enlisted  in  a  Massachusetts  regiment,  commanded  by 
Colonel  Samuel  McCobb,  and  was  in  Captain  Benjamin 
Lemont's  Company.  He  Avas  mustered  in  at  Newcastle, 
in  1780  or  '81,  for  six  months  service.  He  joined  his 
regiment  at  a  place  known  then  as  Cox's  Head,  upon  the 
Kennebec  river.  He  was  stationed  there  during  the 
entire  period  of  his  service,  and  was  discharged  at  that 
place.  He  received  a  pension  of  twenty-one  dollars  and 
sixty-six  cents  per  annum  ;  which  was  afterwards,  in 
1865,  increased  to  three  hundred  dollars — there  being  at 
that  time  but  four  Revolutionary  soldiers  surviving.  His 
chief  occupation  in  life  was  farming  and  lumbering, 
tliough  he  engaged  somewhat  in  the  coasting  business. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Methodist  church,  for  many 
years.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  he  was  a  "  total 
abstinence  "  man.  He  had  one  son,  Eliakim,  who  served 
in  the  war  of  1812.  He  had  also  a  grandson,  and  several 
great  grandsons,  who  served  in  Maine  regiments,  in  the 
late  civil  war. 

At  the  commencement  of  our  civil  conflict,  Mr.  Hutch- 
ings  took  a  decided  stand  in  favor  of  maintaining,  at  all 
hazard,  the  supremacy  of  the  union.  It  was  his  earnest 
wish  that  he  might  be  spared  to  see  the  complete  restora- 
tion of  the  country,  and  that  wish  was  granted. 

In  1865,  when  over  one  hundred  years  old,  he  accepted 
an  invitation  from  the  municipal  authorities  of  Bangor,  to 
join  in  the  celebration  of  the  Fourth  of  July,  in  that  city. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  205 

A  revenue  cutter  was  detailed  for  his  conveyance,  and  as 
be  passed  up  the  Penobscot  river,  the  guns  of  Fort  Knox 
fired  a  salute  of  welcome.  The  ovation,  which  was 
bestowed  on  the  occasion,  exceeded  that  ever  before  given 
to  any  person  in  the  State.  Multitudes  rushed  to  catch  a 
glimpse  of  the  old  man,  and  the  sincere  and  grateful 
plaudits  which  constantly  greeted  him,  as,  surrounded  by 
a  guard  of  honor,  he  was  escorted  through  the  streets, 
constituted  the  marked  feature  of  the  day.  His  strengtli 
and  power  of  endurance,  under  the  excitement,  were 
remarkable.  At  the  close  of  the  oration,  which  was 
delivered  by  Senator  Hamlin,  he  responded  at  some  length, 
to  a  toast.  '  My  friends  told  me,'  he  said,  '  that  the  effort 
to  be  here  might  cause  my  death  ;  but  I  thought  I  could 
never  die  any  better  than  bv  celebrating  the  glorious 
Fourth.'  " 

His  funeral  occurred  Monday,  May  7,  18G»>.  Reverend 
Mr.  Plummer  preached  the  funeral  sermon,  from  the  text 
which  had  been  selected  by  Mr.  Hutchings  himself: — 
Mathew  xxii.  40  ;  "  On  these  two  commandments  hang  all 
the  law  and  the  prophets."  An  address  was  afterwards 
made  by  Reverend  Mr.  Ives,  of  Castine. 

"  One  of  the  last  requests  of  Mr.  Hutchings  was,  that 
the  American  flag  should  cover  his  remains,  and  be 
unfurled  at  his  burial.  This  was  done ;  and  in  the  still- 
ness of  a  bright  Spring  afternoon,  in  the  midst  of  an 
assembled  multitude,  upon  the  farm  which  for  nearly  a 
century  had  been  his  home,  ail  that  was  mortal  of  the  old 
hero  Avas  removed  from  earthly  sight,  while  the  stars  and 
stripes  he  had  so  long  honored,  floated  above  his  grave."* 

McCULLOM,    FlNLEY. 

In  regard  to  ]\Ir.  Finley  McCullora,  nothing  is  known, 
except  that  he  is  referred  to  in  Calef  s  Journal,  as  one  of 
tlie  few  individuals  who  were  allowed  access  to  the  Fort 
at  all  times,  Avithout  a  pass;  and  that  he  is  mentioned  in 
I'eters'  field-book  of  the  survey  of  Penobscot,  as  having 
settled  on  h)t  Number  Eighty-Seven,  prior  to  the  year  1787. 
Duncan  McCullom — or  Malcomb,  as  Peters  spells  it — 
settled  on  lot  Numb(,'r  Eighty-Eight.  These  lots  were  at 
the  head  of  Northern  Bay. 

*He  %vas  t)ip  last  X<'W  Enp;liiiul  ponsionor,  and  the  last  but  oiio  upon  the 
rolls. 

27 


206  history  of  castine, 

Perkins,  Daniel. 

Mr.  Daniel  Perkins  was  a  native  of  York,  Maine,  where 
he  was  born  in  1754.  He  married  Abigail  Penney,  who 
was  of  Welsh  parentage,  and  very  shortly  after,  came  to 
Penobscot,  to  engage  in  farming,  having  previously  spent 
one  or  two  winters  here,  in  lumbering.  In  the  war  of  the 
Revolution,  his  sympathies  for  the  Americans  were  so  well 
known  that,  as  he  declined  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  English  Crown,  he  was  for  a  time  imprisoned,  and 
then  banished  to  the  "  Enemy's  Countr3^"  His  cattle  and 
crops  were  confiscated,  and  his  house  was  taken  down  and 
removed  to  the  "  Neck,"  for  barracks.  At  the  close  of  the 
war,  returning  with  his  family  from  York — where  they  had 
spent  that  period — he  again,  himself,  took  down  his  house, 
moved  it  across  the  waters  of  the  Bagaduce,  and  rebuilt  it 
upon  his  farm,  where  lie  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life. 
He  died  in  1831,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven  years. 

Perkins,  John, 

Captain  John  Perkins  was  born  in  York,  Maine,  May 

21,  1745 ;  and  was  married  May  21,  1765,  to  Miss  Phebe 

Perkins,  of  the  same  town.     He  died  April  2,  1817,  aged 

seventy-two   years.      His   wife    Avas   born   November   2B, 

1745,  at  York,  and  died  March  22, 1811,  aged  sixty -six  years. 

Shortly  after  their  marriage,  they  moved  to  this  town, 

where   they  remained  until  their  death.     They  had  ten 

children,  viz : 

Lj'dia, — born    November   22,    17G6  ;    married    to    James 
Russell,  March  26,  1782  ;  died  Sept.  10,  1815. 

Lucy,— born  February  10,  1770  ;  died  May  4,  1782. 

Phebe, — born    August    12,    1771  ;    married    Moses    Gay, 
March  3,  1795  :  died  Februairy  11,  1843. 

Betsey, — born  March  8,  1773  ;  married  Thomas  Stevens, 
July  20,  1798  ;  died  December  27,  1849. 

Sally, — born    August   10,    1775 ;    married    Elisha    Dyer, 
November 'l7,  1796;  died  August  1,  1852. 

Ruth, — born  November  6,  1777  ;  married  Samuel  A  Whit- 
ney, July  28,  1801 ;  died  September  15th,  1849. 

Temperance, — born  June  2,  1779  ;  married  Daniel  Johns- 
ton, Jan.  6,  1805;  date  of  death  unknown. 

Robert, — born   November  5,    1781  ;    married    Miriam    C. 
Plumraer,  November  30, 1808  ;  died  March  26, 1854, 

Lucy, — born  February  16,  1785  ;  married  Henry  Whiting, 
March  27,  1808  ;  date  of  death  unknown. 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  207 

Poll  J, — born  November  15,  1787  ;  married  Frederic  Spof- 
ford,  April  9,  1811 ;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Captain  Perkins  was  a  very  prominent  man  in  the  town, 
during  its  early  municipal  period,  and  was  one  of  the 
Avealthiest  of  the  old  citizens.  The  frequent  allusions 
made  to  him  in  the  foregoing  pages,  sliow  the  estimation 
in  which  he  was  held,  in  ail  things  pertaining  to  public  or 
l)usiness  matters ;  and  the  testimony  of  his  numerous 
descendants  is  an  evidence  that  he  was  held  in  equal 
esteem  in  his  domestic  life. 

Perkins,  Joseph. 

i\[r.  Joseph  Perkins  was  born  October  19,  1746,  in  York, 
Maine.  He  married  Phebe  Ware.  She  was  born  in  York, 
December  16,  1748,  and  died  in  this  town,  August  20, 
1815.     They  had  ten  children.* 

Mr.  Perkins  was  one  of  the  wealthy  men  of  the  town  at 
that  period,  and  was  more  engaged  in  commerce  and  navi- 
gation than  any  other  individual.  He  owned  at  one  time 
eight  thousand  feet  of  wharf  property.  He  was  a  very 
prominent  man,  and  his  name  appears  in  the  early  town 
records  more  frequently,  perhaps,  than  that  of  any  other 
citizen.  He  was  chairman  of  the  first  board  of  Select- 
men, chosen  by  the  town  of  Penobscot.  He  died  in  this 
town,  August  28, 1818,  aged  seventy-one  j'ears  ten  months 
and  o'ne  day. 

Wescott,  William. 

The  genealogy  of  the  Wescott  family  is  quite  complete, 
although  but  little  is  known  of  the  life  of  the  subject  of 
this  sketch.     His  father,  also  named  William,  was  a  resi- 
dent of  York,  Maine,  where  the  son  w-as  born,  March  10, 
1784.     He  came  here  several  years  before  the  Revolution- 
ary War,  and  was  one  of  those  who  returned  here  just 
prior   to   the  incorporation  of  Penobscot.     He   was   mar- 
ried, December  29th,  1756,  to  Elizabeth  Perkins.    His  wife 
was  born  Januar}^  6,  1737,  but  where^  the  record  does  not 
state.     They  had  twelve  children,  viz: — 
John, — born  June  4.  1757  ;  was  lost  at  sea  in  1781. 
Deborah, — born  April  28,  1758;  died  in  April,  1783. 
Elizabeth, — born  February  6,  1760;  died  in  1761. 
William, — born  October  8,  1764;  died  on  April  7,  1785. 

*The  list  of  their  names  is  given  in  Part  III. 


208  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

Experience, — ^bom  April  28,  1766 ;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Theodosia, — born  June  12,  1767  ;  died  June  21,  1805. 
Amos, — born  January  12,  1769;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Nancy, — ^born  May  15,  1771 ;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Thomas, — born  March  18,  1773 ;  died  August  18,  1795. 
David, — born  June  15,  1775  ;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Anne, — born  October  17,  1777  ;  date  of  death  iinknown. 
Joseph,— born  May  20,  1779 ;  died  July  30,  1830. 

The  last  named  mai^ried,  December  10,  1801,  Miss  Lucy 
Stover.     She  was  born  August  23,  1779;  and  died  April 
5,  1862.     They  had  eleven  children,  viz  — 
Joseph, — ^born  October  31,  1802. 

William  S.,— born  September  2,1804;  died  June  18,  1866. 
G.eorge,  )  born  June  13,  1809  ;  died  December  3,  1827. 
Lucy,      \      "       "       "       "       date  of  deatli  unknown. 
Isaiah, — -born  December  27,  1813 ;  date  of  death  unknown. 
Eliza, — date  of  birth  and  death  both  unknown. 
Josiah, — born  March  11,  1816. 
Theodosia, — born  August  27,  1817. 
Sarah  M.,  bom  March  27,  1819. 
Two  infants,  (unnamed)  date  of  birth  and  death  unknown. 

Joseph  Wescott^ — the  second — married  Sarah  Dyer, 
August  2,  1829.  She  was  born  February  17,  1808;  and 
died  June  28, 1870.  They  had  seven  children.  Elisha  D.' 
died  October  21,  1855 ;  and  Helen  M.  died  November  3, 
1865.  The  others  are  still  living,  as  is  also  their  father,  at 
an  advanced  age,  but  much  respected.  The  date  of  Mr. 
William  Wescott's  death  is  not  known.  The  name  of  this 
family  was  formerly  written  Wescutt. 

Wassok,  Samuel. 

Samuel  Wasson  was  born  in  Worcester,  Massachusetts, 
June  12,  1760.     He  died  in  Brooksville,  October  16,  1838. 

Mr.  Wasson  enlisted  in  the  American  army,  on  the 
breaking  out  of  the  Revolution.  He  was  at  the  siege  of 
Boston,  in  1776 ;  and  was  under  the  immediate  command 
of  Washington,  when  he  entered  the  city  ujDon  its  evacua- 
tion by  General  Howe.  He  was  in  the  service  during  the 
remainder  of  the  war,  when  he  received  an  honorable  dis- 
charge. About  the  year  1783,  he  came  to  Bagaduce,  and 
devoted  himself  to  agricultural  pursuits.  He  took,  as  was 
natural,  a  great  interest  in  military  affairs,  and  his  marked 
ability  as  a   drill  officer,  caused   his  election  as  Captain 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  209 

of  the  Militia.  Mr.  Wasson  married  Elizabeth  Parker, 
daughter  of  Judge  Oliver  Parker,  by  whom  he  had  three 
sons  and  three  daughters.  Two  of  the  former  are  still  liv- 
ing. David  Wasson,  Esq., — now  in  his  eighty-first  year — 
has  been  a  prominent  merchant  of  Brooksville,  and  has 
done  as  much,  at  least,  as  any  other  person,  to  promote 
the  material  advancement  of  that  town.  Honorable  Sam- 
uel Wasson,  of  Surry,  Maine,  is  well  known  in  political, 
but  more  especially  in  agricultural  circles — having  been 
for  some  years  a  member  of  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture. 


Cleegymen. 

Little,  George  Barker. 

Mr.  Little  was  born  in  Castine,  December  21,  1821. 
He  was  the  youngest  of  the  ten  children  of  Otis  and 
Dorothy  P.  Little.  September  18,  1850,  he  married  Sarah 
Edwards,  daughter  of  the  late  Reverend  Elias  Cornelius. 
His  death  occurred  at  West  Newton,  Mass.,  July  20,  1860. 

Mr.  Little's  early  instruction  was  received  in  the  schools 
of  his  native  town.  He  afterwards  attended  the  Academy 
at  Leicester,  Massachusetts.  He  was  graduated  at  Bow- 
doin  College,  in  1843.  He  entered  the  Theological  Insti- 
tution at  Andover,  Massachusetts,  in  1846,  and  left  it  in 
1849.  On  October  11,  1849,  he  was  ordained  pastor  of 
the  First  Congregational  Church  in  Bangor,  Maine.  He 
remained  over  this  church  nearly  eight  years,  but  was  at 
last  obliged  to  resign,  on  account  of  poor  health.  He  was 
settled  at  West  Newton,  November  12,  1857,  and  remained 
there  until  his  death. 

"  His  mind  was  characterized  by  keen  perception,  pene- 
tration, and  discrimination.  His  attainments  in  scholar- 
ship were  remarkalde.  As  a  preacher,  he  was  thoughtful, 
perspicuous,  dcfiiiite,  and  bold.  People  knew  what  he 
meant,  and  knew  that  he  was  in  earnest.  All  who  knew 
him,  recognized  warm  and  generous  impulses,  remarkably 
combined  with  clearness  of  thought,  definiteness,  prompt- 
ness, decision,  and  steadfastness  of  purpose.  His  domes- 
tic virtues  made  him  lovely  and  happy  at  home.  Wit, 
intelligence,  vivacity,  and  sympathy  made  him  genial  in 
social  intercourse.  His  Christian  faith  and  love  will  be 
manifest  to  all  who  read  his  memorial." 


210  histoey  of  castine, 

Mason,  William. 

Reverend  William  Mason  was  the  eldest  son  of  TViomas 
and  Mary  Mason,  and  was  born  at  Princeton,  Massachu- 
vsetts,, November  19,  1764.  His  early  life  was  very  similar 
to  that  of  other  young  men  of  that  day,  who  were  not 
born  to  affluence.  He  was  brought  up  to  hard  work  on  a 
farm,  and  had  to  struggle  hard  for  an  education.  He 
entered  Harvard  College  in  1788,  and  was  graduated  in  1792. 
Where,  and  with  whom,  he  studied  for  the  ministry,  is  not 
kijown;  but  he  was  licensed  to  preach  by  the  Cambridge 
Association.  He  removed  to  Castine  in  1798,  to  assume 
the  duties  of  pastor  of  the  First  Parish.  On  October  3, 
1799,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Abigail  Watson,  of  Leicester, 
Massachusetts.  While  a  resident  of  this  town,  he  was 
annually  elected  Treasurer  of  the  town,  for  a  period  of 
twenty-six  years,  and  was,  for  nearl}'  the  same  length  of 
time,  a  prominent  member  of  the  School  Committee.  He 
was  much  interested  in  everything  relating  to  education, 
and  was  the  originator  of  the  Castine  Social  Library  Asso- 
ciation. 

He  resigned  his  charge  over  the  First  Parish,  and 
removed  with  his  family  to  Bangor,  sometime  in  the  year 
1834.  His  departure  from  town  was  regretted  by  all — some, 
even  of  his  most  zealous  theological  opponents  being  warm 
personal  friends  and  admirers.  His  death  occurred  at 
Bangor,  March  24,  1847.  His  excellent  wife  died  at  the 
same  place,  March  24,  1865.  They  had  six  sons  and  four 
daughters, — two  of  whom,  John  and  William,  became 
eminent  in  the  Medical  profession.  Doctor  John  Mason 
practised  in  Bangor,  where  he  died  in  1870.  Doctor  Wil- 
liam Mason  is  still  alive,  and  in  full  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion in  Charlestown,  Massachusetts.  We  quote  the  fol- 
lowing.from  a  friend  and  descendant  of  Mr.  Mason,  whose 
name  we  are  under  obligations  to  withhold: 

"  Eminently  genial  and  social  in  his  feelings,  he  was  ever 
generous  and  hospitable  to  strangers  and  friends — as  far  as 
his  limited  means  would  permit.  His  love  for  his  people 
was  evinced  by  his  frequent  parochial  calls  to  all  classes- 
the  poor  and  distressed,  as  well  as  those  who  had  an  abund- 
ance— and  by  his  readiness  at  all  times  to  aid  by  word 
and  deed,  in  everything  that  had  for  its  object  the  promo- 
tion of  their  welfare.  He  took  a  lively  interest  in  the 
mental  improvement  of  the  young,  and  devoted  much  of 


BEOOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  211 

liis  time  to  the  various  educational  interests  of  the  town. 
He  was  strongly  attached  to  the  friends  of  his  younger 
days,  and  particularly  to  those  who  were  associated  with 
him  during  his  college  life — for  whom  he  retained  an  ardent 
affection  during  his  life.  In  all  the  relations  of  life,  his 
aim  was  to  do  good  ;  and  it  was  his  endeavor  to  perform, 
to  the  extent  of  his  ability,  the  various  duties  devolving 
upon  him,  faithfully  and  conscientiously. 

In  his  theological  views,  he  harmonized  with  those  who 
were  denominated  Arians — afterwards  called  Unitarians. 
He  believed  in  one  supreme  God,  and  not  in  a  Triruty  ;  in 
the  pre-existence  and  divinity,  but  not  in  the  deity,  of 
Christ — believing  that  he  held  a  subordinate  rank  to  the 
supreme  God  ;  in  what  he  considered  the  Scriptural,  but 
not  in  the  Calvinistic,  doctrine  of  tlie  Atonement ;  and  in 
future  retribution — though  he  believed  that  destiny  was  in 
accordance  with  character ^ 

Powers,  Jonathan. 

The  first  settled  minister  in  Penobscot,  was  Reverend 
Jonathan  Powers.  He  was  born  in  March,  1762.  His 
father  was  a  minister  in  Deer  Isle  ;  but  whether  the  son 
was  born  there,  is  not  known.  He  was  a  graduate  of 
Dartmouth  College,  and  was  a  class-mate  of  "  Father 
Sawyer"  (who  lived  to  be  over  one  hundred  years  old). 
He  is  said  to  have  been  a  very  devoted  Christian,  even 
during  his  college  life.  He  settled  in  Penobscot,  in  the 
year  1795,  and  remained  there  until  his  death.  His  salary 
was  paid  by  the  town;  and  his  daughter  remembers  that 
Major  Leach  once  came  to  pay  him,  bringing  the  moiiey 
in  a  stucking.  Mr.  Powers,  took  the  occasion  to  reprove 
him  for  some  irregularities  in  his  life.  Mr.  Leach  replied  : 
"  I  do  not  think  you  ought  to  talk  so  to  me,  when  I  come 
to  bring  you  money/'' 

Mr.  Powers  married  a  Miss  Thurston, —  sister  of  a 
lawyer  of  that  name,  in  Boston.  Mrs.  Powers,  in  a  letter 
to  her  brother,  on  one  occasion,  mentioned  the  fact  that 
they  were  almost  out  of  corn  meal,  but  said,  in  a  spirit  of 
Christian  hopefulness,  that  she  had  no  doubt  more  would 
come,  when  that  was  gone.  Mr.  Powers  had  a  vacation 
of  two  months  every  year,  in  which  he  was  emplo^-ed  by 
the  Massachusetts  ilissionary  Society.  This  contributed 
considerably  to  his  support.     He  went  to  Boston  in  1807, 


212  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

to  attend  the  meetings  of  this  society.  He  spent  the  last 
night  away  from  home  at  the  house  of  Esquire  Thurston, 
in  Sedgwick,  where  he  stopped  upon  his  return.  He 
must  have  suffered  from  exposure  on  his  way  back  from 
Boston,  as  he  was  taken  ill  with  Pneumonia  immediately 
after  his  return,  and  died,  in  consequence,  November  8, 
1807.  Doctor  Moulton,  of  Bucksport,  was  his  attending 
physician.  He  asked  him,  just  before  he  died,  if  he  was 
comfortable  in  his  mind."  Mr.  Power's  reply  was  :  "  I 
have  great  peace.  I  will  praise  him  in  life  and  death,  and 
throuo^h  eternitv."  Reverend  Mr.  Fisher,  of  Bluehill, 
preached  his  funeral  sermon,  from  the  text :  "I  have 
fouo^ht  the  ffood  figfht."  His  remains  were  interred  in  the 
burying-place  at  North  Castine.  It  is  situated  m  the 
enclosure  back  of  Mr.  George  H.  Emerson's  house.  His 
grave-stone  is  still  legible. 

Lawyers. 

Abbott,  William. 

William  Abbott,  Esq.,  was  born  at  Wilton,  Hillsboro' 
County,  New  Hampshire,  November  15,  1773.  The  father, 
Mr.  William  Abbott,  was  a  native  of  Andover,  Massachu- 
setts. He  was  a  descendant  of  George  Abbott,  who  emi- 
grated from  Yorkshire,  England,  in  1644,  and  who  was  one 
of  the  first  settlers  of  Andover.  The  subject  of  this  sketch, 
passed  his  early  years  on  a  farm.  He  was  prepared  for 
College  in  1790,  in  a  town  school  kept  by  Jonathan  Fisher, 
afterwards  a  minister  at  Blaehill.  In  1793,  he  entered 
Harvard  College.  He  was  graduated  in  1797,  at  which 
time  he  delivered  a  poem  on  "  Music."  After  graduation, 
he  studied  law  with  William  Gordon,  of  Amherst,  New 
Hampshire,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1800.  He  came 
to  Castine  in  1801.  In  1802,  he  married  Rebecca  Atherton. 
In  1803,  he  was  appointed  Register  of  Probate,  which  office 
he  held  eighteen  years.  In  1816,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the 
Electors  for  President.  In  this  year  he  was  also  elected  a 
member  of  the  Brunswick  Convention  ;  and  in  1819,  of  the 
Convention  at  Portland.  At  the  latter  Convention,  he  was 
appointed  upon  a  committee  to  determine  the  name  of  the 
new  State.  He  was  the  first  Representative  from  this  tow^n 
to  the  Legislature  of  Maine,  and  also  represented  the  town  in 
the  years  1823,  1826,  and  1827.     In  1829,  he  removed  to 


HON.     WILLIAIkl     ABBOTT. 
(From  a  Photosiapli. ) 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  213 

Bangor,  where  he  was  for  a  long  time  a  member  of  the  Board 
of  Selectmen.  The  charter  of  the  city  of  Bangor,  was  drafted 
by  him.  He  was  chairman  of  the  Superintending  School 
Committee,  of  that  place,  for  twelve  years.  He  was  elected 
Mayor  of  the  city  in  IS-iS,  and  1850.  His  death  occurred 
in  August  of  the  latter  year.  He  had  five  sons  and  two 
daughters.  Of  the  sons,  Charles  Jeffrey  is  still  a  resident 
of  this  town,  in  which,  like  his  father,  he  has  practiced  law 
with  ability  and  success  for  many  years ;  has  taken  a  warm 
interest  in  educational  matters,  and  in  everything  pertain- 
ing to  the  interests  of  the  town  ;  and  has  filled,  acceptably, 
many  offices  of  honor  and  importance,  both  in  State  and 
town.  He  was  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College,  in  1825,  in 
the  class  with  S.  P.  Benson,  Jonathan  Cilley,  Nathaniel 
Hawthorne,  and  Henry  W.  Longfellow. 

In  regard  to  the  legal  abilities  of  the  father,  we  cannot 
do  better  than  to  quote  the  following,  from  the  pen  of 
Honorable  William  Willis: 

"  His  intellect  was  clear,  strong,  and  discriminating, 
rather  than  brilliant,  imaginative,  and  original.  It  was 
well  balanced  and  logical ;  its  pre-eminent  characteristic 
was  practical  common  sense.  He  possessed  a  great  influence 
with  juries,  whose  reason  and  sense  of  moral  right  he 
addressed,  rather  than  their  feelings  or  their  prejudices. 
He  was  regarded  by  his  legal  brethren  and  compeers  as  a 
sound  lawyer,  thoroughly  versed  in  his  profession,  learned, 
astute,  and  able,  and  was  greatly  respected  by  them."  In 
politics,  he  was,  early  in  life,  a  Federalist,  but  he  became 
afterwards  a  member  of  the  ^Vhig  party.  In  his  religious 
views,  he  was  a  firm  and  decided  Unitarian,  of  the  Chan- 
ning  school.  While  a  resident  in  this  town,  he  joined 
Reverend  Mr.  Mason's  church,  and  after  his  removal  to 
Bangor,  he  united  with  the  Unitarian  church  in  that  city. 
His  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Reverend  Doctor 
Hedge,  who  thus  sums  up  his  character : — "•  It  is  no  small 
praise  to  say  of  any  man,  what  in  strict  truth  can  be  said 
of  him,  that  he  was  blameless,  and  led  from  the  first  com- 
mencement of  his  active  existence  until  its  close,  a  blame- 
less life.  To  be  possessed  of  some  one  distinguished  virtue 
is  less  infrequent  than  to  be  without  reproach.  He  was 
one  to  whom  no  scandal  or  breath  of  suspicion  r-ould  ever 
attach,  whose  pure  fame  no  ol)loquy  ever  dared  to  assail, 
whom  to  know  was  to  respect,  whom  to  name  was  to 
praise."     The  estimation  in  which  he  was  held  in  Bangor, 

28 


214  HISTORY    or   CASTINE, 

is  shown  by  the  important  offices  he  filled  while  there,  and 
by  his  name  being  given  to  one  of  the  principal  public 
squares  of  that  city.  The  frequent  allusion  to  his  name 
in  this  book  is  evidence  of  the  esteem  in  which  he  was 
held  by  the  citizens  of  Castine.  [See  Courts  and  Lawyers 
of  Maine.] 

Nelson,  Job. 

Mr.  Nelson  was  born  in  the  town  of  Middlgborough, 
Massachusetts,  in  1766.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Brown 
University,  in  the  class  of  1790.  He  studied  law  in  the 
office  of  Honorable  Seth  Paddleford,  at  Taunton,  Massa- 
chusetts ;  and  came  to  this  town  in  the  3'ear  1793.  He 
married  Miss  Margaret  Farwell.  He  was  the  Represen- 
tative of  this  town  in  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts, 
for  the  year  1801.  He  was  appointed  upon  the  Committee 
of  Public  Safety,  and  also  upon  several  of  the  committees 
formed  to  draft  resolutions,  at  the  time  of  the  troubles  con- 
nected with  the  passage  of  the  Embargo  laws,  and  the 
declaration  of  war  with  Great  Britain,  in  1810-'12.  In 
1804,  he  was  appointed  Judge  of  Probate,  and  continued 
to  hold  this  office  for  thirty-two  years.  In  1836,  he 
removed  to  Boston,  but  remained  only  two  years  before  he 
became  dissatisfied,  and  returned  to  this  town.  Shortly 
after  his  return,  he  met  with  a  great  loss  in  the  destruc- 
tion of  his  house  by  fire.  This  was  the  occasion  of  his 
removal  to  Orland,  where  he  owned  a  farm.  He  died  in  that 
town,  July  2,  1850,  aged  eighty-four  years,  and  his  remains 
were  brought  here  for  interment.  Although  not  a  man 
of  more  than  average  ability,  he  possessed  an  excellent 
reputation  for  promptness  and  fidelity  in  his  business,  and 
was  held  in  great  esteem  here.  [From  Courts  and  Law- 
yers of  Maine.] 

Parker,  Isaac. 

Mr.  Parker  was  born  in  Boston,  June  17,  1768.  He 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1786,  Avith  high 
honor,  although  but  eighteen  years  of  age.  He  studied 
law  in  the  office  of ,  Judge  Tudor,  of  Boston.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1789,  and  came  here  very  shorth'" 
after.  He  was  the  first  regular  practitioner  of  law  in  this 
section  of  the  State.     From   1791  to    1795,  inclusive,  h@ 


BEOOKSVILLE    AJS'D   PENOBSCOT.  215 

represented  the  town  of  Penobscot  in  the  General  Court 
of  Massachusetts;  and  was  the  first  Representative  from 
Castine,  in  1796.  From  1796  to  1798,  he  was  a  Rejjresen- 
tative  to  Congress  from  this  district.  In  the  year  1799, 
he  wa^s  appointed  United  States  Marshal,  for  the  District 
of  Maine, — and  aljout  this  time  he  removed  to  Portland. 
He  was  appointed  an  Associate  Judge  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Masvsachusetts,  in  1806 ;  and  was  raised  to  the 
dignity  of  Chief  Justice  in  the  same  Court,  in  1814.  He 
was  the  author  of  all  the  first  twenty -seven  law  reports  of 
Massachusetts,  except  the  first  volume  of  all.  In  1800,  he 
delivered,  at  Portland,  a  eulogy  on  the  death  of  Washing- 
ton. He  was  for  eleven  years  one  of  the  Trustees  of  Bow- 
doin  College  ;  and  was,  for  twenty  years,  an  Overseer  of 
Harvard  College.  In  1810,  he  was  appointed  Royall  Pro- 
fessor of  Law  in  the  latter  College.  He  received  from 
Harvard  the  degree  of  LL.  D.,  in  1814.  Judge  Whit- 
man once  said  of  him  r — "  Parker  was  one  of  the  pleasantest 
men  I  ever  knew, — kind,  courteous,  and  amiable.  At  times 
he  was  veiy  elo(juent ;  and  always  from  his  candid,  honest 
manner,  had  great  weight  with  the  jury."  Honorable 
William  Willis  says,  in  the  work  from  which  this  sketch  is 
derived : — "  No  man  was  ever  more  free  from  affectation  or 
pretension,  than  Judge  Parker  ;  modest,  unassuming,  unaf- 
fectedly great,  he  despised  all  the  accessories  and  expe- 
dients to  which  weak  and  mean  men  resort  to  acquire 
notoriety."  Judge  Parker  married  Rebecca  Hall.  She 
was  a  daughter  of  Joseph  Hall,  of  Meclford,  ]\Iassachu- 
setts,  who  was  a  descendant  from  John  Hall,  who  settled 
in  Concord  in  1658.  They  had  three  sons,-Edward,  Charles 
A.,  and  John  ;  and  three  daughters, — Ann,  who  Avas  mar- 
ried to  Henry  Wainwright,  of  Boston ;  Margaret,  Avho 
died  unmarried ;  and  Emily,  who  was  married  to  a  Mr. 
Davis,  of  Boston.  Judge  Parker  was  not  only  learned 
in  the  law,  but  was  also  a  polished  writer,  and  a  graceful 
speaker.  His  popularity  as  a  man  was  un])ounded,  and  his 
reputation  as  a  lawyer  and  an  advocate,  attracted  many 
students  to  his  office.  [From  Courts  and  Lawyers  of 
Maine.] 

Pariosr,  Oliver. 

Oliver  Parker  was  of  English  descent,  and  was  born  in 
Worcester,  Massachusetts,  about  the  year  1738.     He  was 


216  HISTORY   OF  CASTILE, 

appointed  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  Worcester  County,  by 
King  George,  shortly  after  he  had  attained  his  majority. 
During  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  he  was  an  active  loyal- 
ist. He  became  very  offensive  to  his  neighbors,  in  conse- 
quence of  his  adherence  to  the  Crown  of  England,  and 
was,  on  this  account,  obliged  to  leave  his  native  country, 
when  peace  was  declared.  He  went  to  St.  John,  New 
Brunswick,  where  he  resided  some  ten  years.  While 
there,  he  was  engaged  in  mercantile  business,  and  accumu- 
lated considerable  property,  which  he  is  said  to  have  lost 
through  the  dishonesty  of  his  partner  in  business.  Mr. 
Parker  moved  to  Castine  in  1794,  and  bought  the  farm 
now  owned  by  Mr.  Alexander  G.  Perkins.  About  the 
year  1800,  he  was  appointed  by  Governor  Strong,  Judge  of 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas.  This  office  he  held  nearly 
fifteen  years.  Judge  Parker  was  much  interested  in 
religious  matters,  and  was  instrumental  in  having  the 
meeting-house  built  at  North  Castine — then  Penobscot. 
He  was  a  member  of  Reverend  Mr.  Mason's  church,  and, 
for  a  short  time,  was  one  of  the  deacons.  From  1787  to 
1790,  and  again  in  1792,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  Board 
of  Selectmen  of  Penobscot.  It  is  related  of  him,  that, 
being  inveigled  by  others  into  some  iniquitous  transaction, 
he  was  brought  as  a  prisoner  before  the  bar  of  the  very 
Court  over  which  he  had  once  presided.  The  finding  of 
the  Court  in  his  case  we  do  not  know ;  but  it  is  claimed 
that  Avhatever  this  may  have  been,  he  was  free  from  inten- 
tional wrong-doing.  Judge  Parker  was  twice  married, 
and  brought  up  a  family  of  three  sons  and  four  daughters. 
Tavo  of  the  latter  married  John  and  Samuel  Wasson,  of 
Brooksville.  Judge  Parker  died  in  Brooksville,  in  the 
year  1818,  aged  about  eighty  years. 

Story,  Isaac. 

Isaac  Story,  Esq.,  was  the  second  son  of  Reverend  Isaac 
Story,  of  Marblehead,  Massachusetts.  He  was  born  in  that 
town,  in  1774.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in 
1792,  and  came  here  in  1797,  and  commenced  the  practice  of 
law.  He  was,  however,  much  fonder  of  literature  than  of 
law,  and  gave  the  greater  portion  of  his  time  while  here  to 
editing  the  Castine  Journal.  His  career  was  short,  though 
brilliant.  After  a  residence  here  of  some  two  or  three 
years  only,  he  removed  to  Massachusetts,  and  died  at  his 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  217 

father's  house,  in  Marblehead,  in  July,  1803.  PJe  wrote 
"  Essays  from  the  Desk  of  Beri  Hesclin ; "  a  volume  of  let- 
ters entitled  "  The  Traveller  ;  "  and  a  poem  entitled  "  The 
Parnassian  Shop,  by  Peter  Quince."  A  writer  in  the 
Salem  Register  thus  speaks  of  him  : — "  A  gentleman  well 
known  by  numerous  productions  in  polite  literature.  In 
his  manners,  bland,  social,  and  affectionate  ;  in  his  disposi- 
tion, sportive  and  convivial ;  in  his  morals,  pure,  generous, 
and  unaffected.  Wit  and  humor  were  provinces  in  which 
he  sought  peculiar  favor,  though  he  not  unfrequently 
mingled  in  his  poetic  effusions  the  gravity  of  sententious- 
ness  with  the  lighter  graces."  His  kinsman.  Judge  Story, 
of  Massachusetts,  wrote  an  elegy  upon  his  death.  [Courts 
and  Lawyers  of  Maine.] 

Wetmore,  William. 

William  Wetmore  was  born  in  Connecticut,  in  1749. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1770.  He  first 
practiced  law  in  Salem,  Massachusetts,  and  afterwards 
came  to  Castine — probably  about  1777  or  '78.  He  was  a 
Judge  of  Probate,  for  Hancock  County,  for  a  number  of 
years.  In  1804,  he  removed  to  Boston,  and  was  for  many 
years  a  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  in  that  city. 
Judge  Wetmore  was  married,  and  had  one  daughter,  who 
was  married  to  Judge  Story.  Whether  there  were  an}"- 
other  children,  is  unknown  to  the  writer.  Judge  Wet- 
more was  one  of  the  six  lawyers  in  Maine  who  were  ever 
raised  to  the  degree  of  a  Barrister.  He  died  at  Boston,  in 
the  year  1880,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one  years. 

Williams,  Hezekiah. 

See  Citizens  Prominent  in  Nation,  &c. 

Physicians.* 

Crawford,  William. 

Doctor  William  Crawford  was  born  in  Worcester,  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  August,  1730.  He  was  graduated  at  the 
College  of  New  Jersey — then  located  either  in  Newark  or 

*This  account  of  tlic  Physicians  of  Castine  is  from  the  pen  of  Doctor  Joseph 
L.  Stevens,  to  whom  the  "entire  credit  is  due  for  all  except  what  rehites  lo 
Doctor  Crawford,  some  of  the  facts  in  regard  to  Doctor  Calef,  and  a  portion 
of  what  refers  to  himself. 


218  HISTOEY  OF   CASTINE, 

Elizabethtown — on  the  tenth  of  October,  1755.  He  mar- 
ried Miss  Mary  Brewer,  of  Westtown,  in  October,  1763. 
She  was  a  sister  of  Colonel  Brewer,  the  former  proprietor 
of  the  town  of  Brewer,  from  whom  the  place  took  its  name. 
He  had  two  sons,  James  and  William,  who  settled  in  this 
town.  Doctor  Crawford,  although  never  a  resident  of  this 
town,  is  mentioned  in  this  chapter  from  the  fact  that  he 
was  the  nearest  physician  to  the  earliest  settlers  of  Plan- 
tation Number  3,  and  often  came  here  on  professional  visits. 
Doctor  Crawford  was  a  Surgeon  and  Chaplain  in  the  army 
of  General  Wolfe,  and  was  attached  to  his  staff  at  the  time 
of  the  death  of  the  latter,  at  Quebec.  He  came  to  this 
region  several  years  before  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  and 
located  at  what  is  now  Fort  Point.  It  is  a  family  tradition 
that  he  was  the  one  to  marry  the  first  couple  that  were 
ever  wedded,  according  to  Protestant  forms,  in  the  Penob- 
scot region.  He  died  at  the  age  of  forty-six  years,  at  Fort 
Pownal,  in  the  town  of  Prospect  (^now  Fort  Point,  in  the 
town  of  Stockton).  His  diploma,  written  on  parchment 
nearly  one  hundred  and  twenty  years  ago,  highly  embel- 
lished and  with  illuminated  letters,  is  in  the  possession  of 
his  grandson,  Mr.  James  B.  Crawford,  of  this  town,  to 
whom  we  are  mainly  indebted  for  this  sketch. 

Doctor  Crawford  was  not  only  a  physician,  but  for  three 
or  four  years  he  officiated  as  Chaplain,  and  preached  in  the 
ohapel  at  Fort  Pownal,  which  was  erected  by  Colonel 
Goldthwaite,  who  was,  afterwards,  for  a  short  time,  a  resi- 
dent of  this  place.  In  regard  to  his  preaching,  the  follow- 
ing anecdote  is  related : — One  of  his  parishoners,  named 
James  Martin,  was  observed  to  be  usually  absent  from 
divine  service  on  Sunday.  Doctor  Crawford  called  on  him 
to  learn  the  reason  of  his  absence.  Martin  informed  him 
that  there  was  no  necessity  for  his  attending.  "  Why  ?" 
said  the  Doctor.  "  Because,"  replied  Martin,  "  I  have 
heard  your  sermon  so  often  that  I  know  it  all  by  heart." 
"  Let  me  hear  you  prove  it,"  said  the  Doctor.  He  accord- 
ingly repeated  the  discourse  nearly  in  the  very  language  of 
the  Doctor.  "  I  declare,"  said  the  Doctor,  "I  must  alter 
my  method  of  preaching,  in  the  future." 

Doctor  Crawford  is  represented  as  a  very  kind  and  worthy 
man,  though  of  an  ardent  and  impetuous  temperament.  He 
was  of  Scotch  descent. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND    PEKOBSCOT.  219 

From  its  peculiar,  isolated  situation — relatively  to  other 
towns  in  the  vicinity — its  small  population,  and  its  remark- 
able exemption  from  acute  diseases,  for  the  treatment  of 
which  medical  men  achieve  their  best  reputation,  and 
receive  their  highest  rewards,  Castine  cannot  be  entitled  a 
"Paradise  for  Doctors."  It  is  known  that  not  one  has 
accumulated  a  fortune,  and  it  is  believed  that  not  one  has 
acquired  even  a  competence  here  by  professional  means. 


Calef,  John.* 

The  first  physician  known  to  have  resided,  as  well  as 
practiced,  in  town,  was  Doctor  John  Calef — often  written 
Calf.  He  was  a  man  of  good  education,  who  came  here  as 
a  refugee  from  Massachusetts,  on  account  of  his  obnoxious 
political  opinions.  As  there  were,  at  that  time,  many 
sympathizers  with  him,  likewise  refugees,  it  is  supposed  he 
practiced  with  them,  as  well  as  with  the  citizens  of  the  town. 
It  is  known  that  he  did  with  one  family,  at  least,  the 
descendants  of  which  are  still  residents  here.  He  lived,  so 
says  tradition,  in  the  house  so  long  owned  by  Doctor  Mann, 
and  probably  built  it.  It  is  now  the  oldest  house  in  town,  and, 
when  erected,  faced  the  street,  which  run  differently  then 
from  Perkins  street  as  now  laid  out.  [Query?  See  chapter 
IX.]  The  Doctor  was  a  son  of  Robert  and  Margaret  Calef, 
and  was  born  in  Ipswich,  in  1725.  He  married  a  daughter 
of  Reverend  Jedediah  Jewett,  of  Rowley,  Massachusetts. 
Whether  he  had  any  offspring,  is  unknown.  Prior  to  his  com- 
ing to  this  part  of  the  country,  he  was  for  several  years  in  the 
General  Court  of  Massachusetts.  During  the  British  occu- 
pation of  this  place,  in  1779,  he  was  a  volunteer  Surgeon, 
and  an  acting  Chaplain  to  their  forces.  After  peace  was 
declared,  he  settled  in  St.  Andrews,  New  Brunswick,  where 
he  died  in  1812,  aged  eighty-seven  years.  He  made  one 
visit  here  after  his  removal,  and  called  upon  the  family  to 
which  allusion  has  been  made,  and  left  a  slight  memorial 
of  his  interest  in  it. 


Mann,  Oliver. 

The  earliest  settled  physician  of  whom   we  have  any 

accurate  knowledge,  was  Doctor  Oliver  ^lann,  who   was 

*The  name  seems  to  be  an  old  Scandinavian  patronymic— See  Sinding's 
History  of  Scandinavia,  pp.  IG'2, 163, 


220  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

likewise  from  Massachusetts.  He  must  have  come  here 
very  soon  after  the  close  of  the  war.  He  had  seen  service 
as  Assistant  Surgeon  in  a  hospital  ;  and,  as  there  was  no 
other  practitioner  nearer  than  Doctor  Skinner,  of  Brewer, 
must  have  had  an  extensive  and  remunerative  practice  in 
this  and  the  adjacent  towns  and  islands.  He  was  a  man  of 
firm  constitution,  strong  powers  of  endurance,  and  temper- 
ate habits  ;  but  of  warm  temper  and  passions,  and,  when 
excited,  was  in  the  habit  of  using  intemperate  language. 
By  his  early  friends  his  opinions  were  considered  infallible, 
from  which  there  should  be  no  appeal.  Late  in  life,  he 
became  a  Methodist,  with  a  radical  change  in  language  and 
demeanor.  As  he  had  been  a  medical  officer  in  the  war,  he 
became  entitled  to  a  pension ;  to  procure  which  he  made  a 
journey  to  Bangor.  The  day  before,  he  contracted  a  severe 
catarrh  by  going  through  wet  grass  to  visit  a  patient  out  of 
town.  The  additional  exposure  of  his  journey,  brought  on  a 
violent  attack  of  Acute  Laryngitis.  The  writer  attended 
him  until  his  death.  He  died  July  4,  1832,  aged  seventy- 
six  years.  In  addition  to  his  professional  labors,  he  was 
engaged  somewhat  in  navigation,  and  was  also  a  prominent 
political  man  in  the  town.  He  was  a  Representative  to  the 
General  Court  for  several  years,  and  filled  many  other 
offices  of  honor  and  responsibility.  He  was  a  large  owner 
of  real  estate  here,  and  on  Cape  Rozier. 

KiTTEEDGE,  ThOMAS,  AND  OTHEBS. 

During  the  closing  years  of  the  last  century,  several 
physicians — whose  names,  even,  have  not  come  down  to  us- 
came  here,  but  staid  only  a  short  time.  In  the  early  years 
of  the  present  century,  Doctor  Kittredge,  afterwards  of 
Mount  Desert,  is  said  to  have  staid  a  short  time  in  what  is 
now  called  North  Castine. 

Adams,  Moses. 

About  this  same  time  Doctor  Moses  Adams  came  here.  He 
remained  a  short  time,  and  then  removed  to  Ellsworth. 
While  there  he  was  charged  with  the  murder  of  his  wife, 
was  brought  here  for  trial,  and  was  acquitted  for  lack  of 
evidence.  Public  opinion,  however,  was  so  adverse  that, 
although  he  married  again,  confidence  in  him  was  not 
restored,  it  is  believed,  sufficiently  for  him  to  regain  prac- 
tice. 


brooksville  and  penobscot-  221 

Thurston, 

About  the  year  1809,  Doctor  Thurston  came  here  from 
Massachusetts.  He  was  a  man  liberall}^  educated,  of  good 
abilities,  and  practiced  in  the  best  families  in  town.  He 
staid  only  two  or  three  years,  however,  before  he  removed 
to  Portsmouth,  New  Hampshire,  where  it  is  snpposed  he 
lived  until  his  death.  The  date  of  his  death,  and  his  age, 
are  both  unknown. 


Peck,  Calvin, 

Doctor  Calvin  Peck,  from  Western  Massachusetts,  suc- 
ceeded Doctor  Thurston.  AVhile  he  was  attending  the  lec- 
tures of  Harvard  Medical  School,  (he  was  a  fellow  boarder 
with  the  writer)  a  letter  was  received  by  the  Professors 
from  prominent  citizens  in  this  town — among  the  names  of 
whom  the  writer  remembers  seeing  that  of  William 
Abbott,  Esq., — requesting  them  to  recommend  some  young 
man  desirous  to  settle.  Doctor  Peck,  then  about  to  grad- 
uate, was  advised  to  go.  The  writer  assisted  him  in  put- 
ting his  effects  in  a  sleigh,  and  saw  him  start  for  Castine ; 
little  thinking  he  should  ever  follow  him  to  the  same  place 
to  reside.  Doctor  Peck  staid  here  a  year  or  two,  but  a  bet- 
ter opening  offering  in  Ellsworth,  he  went  there,  where  he 
died  in  1819,  aged  fifty-seven  years. 


D'Ayez,  Madame, 

Some  3^ears  prior  to  Doctor  Peck's  residence  here — prob- 
ably about  1810 — a  female  practitioner,  Madame  D'Ayez, 
by  name,  arrived  in  town.*  She  was  an  extraordinary 
woman  ;  fully  impressexi  with  a  sense  of  "  AVoman's  rights," 
which  she  exercised  to  the  fullest  extent  consistent  with 
law  and  usage  as  then  existing.  She  was  said  to  be 
a  daughter  of  a  medical  mau,  and  had  been  a  nurse  in  a 
hospitid,  from  which  source  she  had  gathered  quite  a  har- 
vest of  medical  lore.  She  practiced  not  only  in  this,  but 
in  neighV)oring  towns,  and  by  her  shrewdness  and  address, 
caused  much  trouble  and  vexation  to  her  inale  competitors. 
A  specimen  of  her  shrewdness  is  shown  by  a  wonderful 
plaster  she  often  made.  This  plaster — made  of  some  sim- 
ple material — was  spread  on  the  nicest  scarlet  ch>th,  and 

*Coinnioiily  prnnoiincpil,  in  this  vicinity,  "M'ani  Dnggey." 


222  HISTOEY    OF   CASTINE, 

when  applied  to  certain  portions  of  the  body  was  sure  to 
"  draw  out  "  and  eradicate  all  crossness  and  ill-nature  from 
babies  and  young  children.  The  price  was  one  dollar  a 
plaster ;  and,  considering  its  inestimable  value,  if  true, 
could  not  be  considered  unreasonable.  Unluckily  for  dis- 
tressed mothers,  for  whose  special  benefit  this  remarkable 
article  was  made,  the  secret  died  with  her.  The  following 
case  shows  her  mode  of  treatment : — An  ancestor  of  one  of 
our  present  citizens,  got  poisoned,  it  is  presumed  neither 
very  severely  or  dangerously  so.  She  was  applied  to  for 
aid.  To  treat  the  case,  she  took  some  common  salt,  dried, 
pounded  and  manipulated  it  for  a  long  time,  colored  it  with 
some  innocent  ingredient,  and  then,  with  much  ceremony, 
gave  it  to  the  patient,  who,  of  course,  soon  recovered.  A 
lady  well  acquainted  with  her  devices,  expostulating  with 
her  upon  the  deception,  asked  her  why  she  could  not  inform 
the  family,  and  let  them  procure  so  simple  a  remedy.  ^  Oh! " 
says  she,  in  her  broken  English,  "  M'am  L — ,  it  taint  do  to 
let  de  folks  know  everything .'' 

Gage,  Moses. 

Soon  after  Doctor  Peck's  departure  wa«  known,  Doctor 
Moses  Gage  settled  here.  He  was  a  native  of  Rowley, 
Massachusetts,  and  a  recent  graduate  from  Harvard.  He 
practiced  in  Du'xbury  a  few  months.  He  came  here  in 
1815.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  superior  talents ;  prompt, 
energetic,  and  decided  in  practice,  especially  in  surgery  ; 
and,  had  he  lived,  in  good  health  and  under  favorable  cir- 
cumstances, would  have  become  a  distinguished  surgeon. 
An  unusually  strong  predisposition  to  Consumption  com- 
pelled him  to  make  a  voyage  to  Havana,  with  the  hope  of 
regaining  good  health.  He  soon  became  much  better,  and 
had  a  large  and  lucrative  practice  with  the  Americans  resi- 
dent there.  In  1821,  he  visited  this  place  and  staid  a  few 
weeks  with  his  friends,  but  his  disease  increasing,  he  was 
obliged  to  return  to  Havana.  He  died  there  in  1822,  aged 
thirty-one  years. 

Stevens,  Joseph  L.     [Portrait  on  opposite  page.] 

Just  before  the  first  departure  of  Doctor  Gage  for 
Havana — as  mentioned  in  the  preceding  sketch — ^lie  wrote 
to   the   compiler   of  these   sketches    (  Doctor   Joseph  L. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  223 

Stevens,  a  native  of  Gloucester,  Massachusetts,)  advising 
him  to  take  his  place,  and  offering  to  recommend  him  to 
his  friends.  They  had  been  fellow  students  at  North 
Andover,  with  Dr.  Thomas  Kittridge,  and  were  intimate 
friends.  He  accordingly  came  on,  arriving  here  in  January, 
1819,  the  day  after  Doctor  Gage  sailed.  An  interview 
with  the  citizens,  mutually  satisfactor3%  induced  him  to 
settle  his  business  in  the  town  where  he  had  been  residing, 
and  to  return  here,  March  2,  1819,  where  he  has  since 
lived.  He  has  practiced  here  now  for  a  period  of  iifty-five 
years,  varied  occasionally,  and  intermitted  by  several 
severe  attacks  of  illness.  Notwithstanding  the  latter,  he 
is  still  in  tolerable  health,  and  his  physical  powers  are 
pretty  well  preserved,  considering  his  age,  and  his  mental, 
as  good  as  ever,  in  his  own  conceit  at  least.* 

[It  only  remains  to  be  added  to  the  above,  that  Doctor 
Stevens  is  a  graduate  of  both  the  Classical  and  Medical 
departments  of  Harvard  College  ;t  is  a  man  of  culture  and 
refinement,  and  has  had,  in  his  day,  a  wide-spread  reputa- 
tion as  a  physician,  and  more  especially  as  a  surgeon. 
Although  eighty-four  years  of  age,  he  still  keeps  up  his 
interest  in  professional  matters,  and  practices  occasionally. 
As  he  is  still  living,  it  would  be  improper,  in  this  place,  to 
speak  of  his  character  and  disposition ;  but  it  cannot  be  out 
of  place  for  us  to  bear  testimony  to  the  general  esteem  in 
which  he  is  now,  and  has  ever  been,  held  by  the  community 
in  which  he  has  so  long  lived.] 

Poor,  Eben. 

In  1822,  Doctor  Eben  Poor  came  here  as  Clerk  of  the 
Courts,  for  the  County  of  Hancock.  He  had  been  practic- 
ing in  Belfast,  then  a  part  of  the  above  County.  He  was 
born  in  Andover,  Massachusetts,  October  28,  1765.  Ho 
studied  his  profession  with  Doctor  Thomas  Kittredge,  of 
Andover.  After  practicing  for  some  years  in  Massachu- 
setts, he  removed  to  Andover,  Maine,  in  1804,  where  he 
continued  in  practice  until  December,  1814,  when  he 
removed  to  Belfast.  While  a  resident  of  Andover,  he 
was  appohited  principal  Assessor  of  the  Sixth  Collection 

♦This  iis  his  own  hmgUiiKe. 

tWhilc!  a  student  he  attcndod  tho  locturos  of  Dr.  -John  Warren,  the  first 
Professor  ol'  Auhtoniy  and  Sur<,'(!ry,  in  the  Harvard  Medical  Seliooj,  and  one 
of  its  Fonnders,  and  likewise  heard  the  first  lecture  delivered  by  his  son, 
Doctor  John  C  Warreu,  when  appointed  AtOimtt  Professor. 


224  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

District,  in  the  then  District  of  Maine.  He  likewise  repre'- 
sented  the  County  of  Oxford,  in  the  L'egislatvire  of  Massa- 
chusetts-. He  continued  to  reside  and  practice  in  Castine 
till  1817,  when  he  removed  to  Penobscot,  and  married 
there  a  widowed  lady,  who  died  in  1828.  His  first  wife, 
Elizabeth  Stevens  Poor,  died  in  Castine,  November  7, 
1824.  In  1829,  he  removed  back  to  Andover,  Maine, 
where,  honored  and  respected,  he  practiced  until  his  death, 
which  occurred  January  18,  1887. 

Doctor  Poor  was  a  judicious  and  safe  jTractitioner, 
though  his  treatment  was  what  is  technically  called 
"  heroic."  This  kind  of  treatment  was,  however,  as  the 
writer  well  knows,  strictly  confined  to  his  own  person. 
He  treated  bis  patients  with  more  discrimination  than  he 
did  himself.  Although  always  an  invalid,  and  his  treat- 
ment of  himself  bordering  upon  the  extreme,  yet  he  lived 
to  an  advanced  age,  far  beyond  the  period  usually  allotted 
to  mankind, 

Bridgham,  Roland  H. 

In  1834,  Doctor  Roland  H.  Bridgham — a  native  of 
Minot — came  here  as  Collector  of  the  Customs  for  this 
port,  appointed  by  President  Jackson.  Doctor  Bridgham 
first  settled  in  Sullivan,  Maine,  where  he  practiced  many 
years.  For  two  years  prior  to  his  appointment  as  Col- 
lector, he  had  represented  that  town  in  the  Legislature,  in 
which  he  was  active  and  influential  in  procuring  the  pas- 
sage of  the  beneficial  Act,  authorizing  towns  to  cause  a 
general  vaccination  to  be  made.  At  the  expiration  of 
Pierce's  administration,  he  retired  from  office  ;  but  a  jenv 
or  two  afterwards,  he  represented  this  Senatorial  district, 
in  the  Legislature.  During  his  term  of  office,  he  practiced 
occasionally;  and  after  its  expiration,  did  so  very  generally 
and  acceptably  to  his  many  friends.  Pie  had  always  had 
great  influence  in  the  political  party  to  which  he  belonged, 
which  continued  as  long  as  his  activity  lasted.  About 
two  years  before  death,  he  had  a  slight  attack  of  general 
Paralysis,  which,  with  other  signs,  indicated  the  general 
wreck  of  brain  sure,  sooner  or  later,  to  follow.  He  con- 
tinued in  business  some  time  after — gradually  failing — till 
two  months  before  death,  when  he  became  delirious,  then 
unconscious,  and  died  January  25,  1871,  aged  seventy 
years  and  eight  months.  He  was  buried  with  Masonic 
honors. 


brooksville  and  penobscot.  225 

Military  Officers. 

JoHANNOT,  Gabriel. 

Gabriel  Joliannot  was,  probably,  of  Huguenot  descent. 
He  was  born  in  Boston,  in  the  year  1748.  He  came  here 
soon  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war.  The  exact 
time  is  not  known ;  but  as  early  as  1784,  he  was  living 
upon  this  peninsula,  having  settled  upon  Lot  Number  Six, 
of  the  original  survey.  He  is  said  to  have  had  command 
of  one  of  the  militia  regiments,  but  of  which  one  we  have 
been  unable  to  ascertain.  He  was  a  prominent  man  in 
town  affairs,  and  was  the  second  Representative  of  the 
town  of  Penobscot  to  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts. 
He  was  a  prominent  Free-mason — having  been  one  of  the 
charter  members  of  Hancock  Lodge  at  its  formation,  and 
its  first  Senior  Warden.  He  removed  to  the  town  of 
Hampden,  Maine,  wdiere  he  died,  in  1820. 

Lee,  Joseph. 

Mr.  Joseph  Lee  was  born  in  Royalston,  Massachusetts, 
in  August,  1774.  He  came,  at  an  early  age,  to  live  with 
his  uncle,  Mr.  John  Lee,  the  first  Collector  of  Customs  at 
Castine.  In  1800,  he  was  married  to  Priscilla  Sparhawk, 
of  Templeton,  Massachusetts.  In  1807,  he  removed  to 
Bucksport,  where  he  remained  until  the  winter  of  1826, 
when  he  moved  to  Milo.  How  long  he  resided  in  the  lat- 
ter place  we  do  not  know  ;  but  he  returned  again  to 
Bucksport,  where  he  died,  in  April,  1861,  aged  eighty- 
seven  years  four  months.  There  were  several  daughters, 
but  only  one  son,  in  his  family.  The  eldest  daughter  was 
married  to  C.  A.  Swazey,  of  Bucksport;  the  second,  to 
Eben  Greenleaf,  of  Williamsburgh,  jNlaine ;  and  the  young- 
est to  William  Brown,  of  Brownville,  Maine.  His  son, 
Joseph  A.  Lee,  was  married,  aV)out  the  year  1836,  to  Miss 
Mary  L.  Sawyer,  of  Calais,  INIaine. 

During  his  residence  in  Castine,  Mr.  Lee  assisted  his 
uncle  in  the  duties  of  the  Custom-House.  He  had  consid- 
erable predilection  for  the  military  service,  and  we  find 
him  mentioned  in  1800,  as  a  Lieutenant  of  the  Castine 
Artillery  Company  ;  and  ten  years  later — after  he  had 
moved  to  Bucksport — he  is  mentioned  as  resigning  his 
office  as  Colonel  of  the  Regiment.  In  regard  to  his  subse- 
quent career,  we  have  received  no  information. 


226  history  of  castine, 

Little,  Otis. 

See  Citizens  Prominent  in  Nation,  State,  &c. 

Authors  and  Publishers. 

Waters,  Daniel  S. 

Neither  the  old  town  of  Penobscot,  nor  either  of  the 
present  towns  derived  from  it,  has  produced  any  author  of 
special  repute,  except  such  as  have  been  already  mentioned 
amongst  its  professional  men.  There  have  been  three 
editors  and  publishers,  but  of  this  number  we  have  been 
able  to  obtain  no  account  of  either  one,  except  the  subject 
of  this  sketch. 

Mr.  Daniel  Waters  was  the  son  of  Mr.  William  Waters, 
of  Boston,  and  learned  his  trade — as  a  printer — of  Messrs. 
Adams  and  Rhodes,  of  that  city.  He  came  here  about 
1797  or  '98 ;  and  in  1799,  commenced  the  publication  of  a 
paper,  under  the  name  of  the  Castine  Journal^  and  Eastern 
Advertiser.  He  remained  here  but  a  short  time,  having, 
about  the  year  1802,  removed  his  establishment  to  Hamp- 
den— where,  however,  he  remained  but  one  year.  He 
went  from  Hampden  to  Richmond,  Virginia,  where  he 
died,  a  few  months  after,  at  an  early  age.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Masonic  fraternity. 

Citizens   Prominent   in   Nation,   State,   or    Town. 

Little,  Otis. 

Mr.  Otis  Little  was  born  in  Marshfield,  Massachusetts, 
March  27,  1769.  He  came  to  Castine — then  a  part  of 
Penobscot — in  1794.  On  January  21,  1800,  he  married 
Miss  Doroth}'^  Perkins,  a  daughter  of  Captain  Joseph  Per- 
kins. A  few  years  after  Mr.  Little  selected  this  peninsula 
as  his  permanent  home,  he  turned  his  attention  to  mercan- 
tile pursuits,  in  which  he  continued  for  more  than  forty 
years.  During  this  period  he  was  also  interested,  to  a 
considerable  degree,  in  commerce  and  navigation.  He 
possessed  the  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens,  who  re- 
peatedly elected  him  to  offices  of  responsibility  and  trust. 
For  four  years  he  represented  this  town  in  the  General 
Court  of  Massachusetts.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  Rej)- 
resentative  to  the  Legislature  of  Maine,  for  three  succes- 
sive terms.    He  was  one  of  the  Governor's  Council  in  1830 ; 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  227 

and,  during  a  period  of  some  fourteen  years,  was  one  of 
the  Selectmen  of  Castine.  He  had  some  experience  in  the 
military  service,  being  chosen  first  a  Sergeant,  then  Lieuten- 
ant, and  afterwards  a  Captain  of  the  Castine  Artillery 
Company.  The  commissioned  officers  of  the  artillery 
companies  of.  Bangor,  Belfast  and  Castine,  then  composing 
a  brigade,  elected  Mm  Major,  by  which  title  he  was  there- 
after always  called. 

Major  Little  ever  took  a  lively  interest  in  town  improve- 
ments, and  was  always  ready  to  contribute  time  and 
money  for  such  purposes.  He  planted  nearly  all  the 
shade  trees  on  Green  Street,  and  a  large  proportion  of  the 
noble  elms  and  maples  on  Court  Street.  He  died  Febru- 
ary 15,  1846,  aged  seventy-seven  years  eighteen  days. 
His  wife  survived  him  over  ten  years,  her  death  occurring 
November  3,  1856,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven  years  four 
months  and  eighteen  days. 


Williams,  Hezekiah, 

Hezekiah  Williams  was  born  in  the  year  1798,  in  AVood- 
stock,  Vermont.  He  was  graduated  at  Dartmouth  College, 
in  1820.  He  chose  law  as  a  profession,  and  in  1825, 
settled  in  this  town.  In  May,  of  the  year  following,  he 
was  married  to  JNliss  Eliza  Patterson,  of  Belfast.  Although 
a  respected  member  of  Hancock  Bar,  he  was  more  exten- 
sively known  in  political  than  in  professional  circles.  He 
held  at  different  times,  various  offices  of  honor  and  trust 
in  town  and  State,  and  in  1845-1817  he  represented  this 
District  in  Congress.  He  belonged  to  the  Democratic 
party.  Mr  Williams  was  a  prominent  and  zealous  member 
of  the  Masonic  Order.  He  was  at  one  time  the  Master  of 
Hancock  Lodge,  and  in  LS41,  was  elected  Grand  Master  of 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine.  He  had  four  sons  and  four 
daughters.  All  four  of  his  sons  were  in  the  service  of  the 
United  States  during  the  war  of  the  Rebellion.  Three  of 
them  were  Army  Officers,  one  of  them,  Hezekiah,  being  at 
one  time  a  ^Medical  Director  of  the  Army  of  the  West.  The 
second  son,  Edward  Patterson  Williams,  was  Ijorn  in  this 
town,  in  February,  1833.  He  was  educated  at  the  High 
School  and  was  afterwards  appointed  a  Cadet  at  the  Naval 
School  in  Annapolis,  Maryland.  After  his  graduation  at 
the  Naval  School,  he  entered  the  Navy  as  a  Midshipman, 


228  HISTORY   OF  CASTINE, 

but  soon  rose  to  the  rank  of  a  Lieutenant.  He  was  one  of 
the  party  who  made  the  night  attack  on  Fort  Sumpter,  in 
1861,  and  was  taken  prisoner  at  that  time  and  received 
very  harsh  treatment.  After  peace  was  declared,  he  was 
promoted  to  the  command  of  the  Oneida^  which  ship  was 
run  down  by  the  English  steamer  Bombay^  while  coming 
out  of  the  harbor  of  Yokahoma,  Japan,  in  1870,  and  sank 
with  nearly  all  on  board.  His  conduct  at  that  time  was 
truly  heroic,  even  though  unwise.  He  would  not  leave 
his  post  on  the  bridge  of  the  vessel,  and  when  urged  to  do 
so,  replied  "  I  go  down  with  my  ship.  "  A  petty  officer 
again  urged  him  to  go.  He  grasped  the  iron  rail  and  said, 
''No,  this  is  my  place  and  here  I  remain."  His  age  at  the 
time  was  thirty-seven  years.  But  one  son  and  one  daughter 
of  this  family  now  remain.  Mr.  Williams  died  at  Castine, 
October  28,  1856,  aged  fifty-eight  years  and  thirteen 
months.  His  wife  died  in  Dixon,  Illinois,  August  19, 
1866,  aged  sixty -four  years.  Her  remains  are  interred  at 
Castine. 


WiLLsoN,  David. 

Micahel  Willson,  father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch, 
emigrated  from 'England,  and  settled  in  Ipswich,  Massachu- 
setts. He  was  a  weaver  by  trade.  For  several  years  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Colonial  Legislature  of  Massachusetts. 
He  subsequently  settled  in  Wells,  Maine. 

His  son  David,  was  born  in  Wells,  in  A]3ril,  1763.  He 
came  to  this  place  previous  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  war 
of  the  Revolution,  and,  while  here,  assisted  the  American 
forces  in  erecting  the  batteries  at  Hainey's  and  Wescott's. 
He  remained  here  until  the  Americans  were  defeated. 
He  then  enlisted  in  the  army,  and  was  present  at  York- 
town,  when  Cornwallis  surrendered.  After  ]3eace  was 
declared,  he  returned  with  his  family  to  Castine,  and  set- 
tled on  his  farm,  about  two  miles  from  the  village.  For 
seventeen  years  in  succession,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the 
Selectmen — the  greater  part  of  the  time  First  Selectman 
and  Assessor — and  then  felt  obliged  to  decline  any  longer 
service  in  that  capacity.  He  served  as  a  deacon  of  the 
First  Congregational  Society  for  the  term  of  thirty-three 
years.  He  died  in  Castine,  April  29,  18B8,  aged  eighty 
years  and  two  days.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Marian 
Littlefield,  who  was  born  in  York,  Maine,  March  22,  1756, 


BROOKSYILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  229 

and  who  died  March  23,  1830,  aged  seventy-four  years. 
They  had  three  sons  :  Nathaniel,  who  died  in  Castine,  in 
April,  1864,  aged  eighty-three  years  ;  Benjamin,  who  was 
lost  at  sea,  from  the  brig  Castine,  August  30,  1815,  at  the 
age  of  twenty-eight  years  ;  and  Josiah,  who  died  in  Penob- 
scot, in  1870,  aged  about  eighty-four  years.  Nathaniel 
was  married  to  Christiana  Gardner,  .who  was  born  in 
llinghara,  Massachusetts,  and  who  was  a  descendant,  in  a 
direct  line,  of  one  of  the  Pilgrims  who  came  over  in  the 
Maiifloiver.  She  died  in  this  town,  in  December,  1861, 
aged  eighty-four  3'ears. 


Marinees. 


Perkins,  Ebenezer. 

Captain  Ebenezer  Perkins,  the  fourth  son  of  Joseph  and 
PhfBbe  Ware  Perkins,  was  born  in  York,  Maine,  June  8, 
17^1 ;  and  died  in  .Castine,  July  26,  1827,  aged  fifty-six 
years.  He  married  Mehitable  Littleiield,  who  was  born  in 
Wells,  Maine,  March  14,  1784.  She  died  at  Camden, 
Maine,  November  12,  1857,  aged  seventy-three  years. 

"  Early  in  life  he  chose  the  vocation  of  a  sailor,  and  his 
life  was  somewhat  of  an  eventful  one.  In  the  employment 
of  his  father,  he  was,  when  quite  young,  appointed  to  the 
command  of  a  vessel.  During  the  existence  of  the  Berlin 
and  Milan  Decrees,  his  vessel  was  captured,  and  he  was 
confined  for  some  time  in  a  French  prison. 

Soon  after  the  declaration  of  War  between  Great 
Britain  and  the  United  States,  he,  being  then  in  command 
of  the  ship  Liverpool  Trader,  belonging  to  his  father,  lying 
at  Poughkeepsie,  New  York,  received  orders  to  ])ring  his 
vessel  to  Hampden,  that  Iteing  supposed  to  l)e  a  place  of 
safety.  Soon  after  liis  arrival,  however,  some  of  the  British 
fleet  sailed  up  the  Penobscot,  and  burned  the  Liverjjool 
Trader,  together  with  one  of  the  United  States  vessels 
lying  there. 

The  next  interesting  event  of  his  life  occurred  during 
the  year  1820,  he  then  being  in  command  oi  a  vessel  named 
tlie  Camden.  At  that  time  the  coast  of  Cul)a  was  infested 
with  pirates,  and  on  the  passage  of  that  vessel  from  St. 
lago  cle  Cuba  to  Boston,  he  was  captured  by  them,  near 
the  Isle  of  Pines.  The  cargo  of  tlie  vessel,  consisting  of 
30 


230  HISTOKY   OF   CASTINE, 

coffee,  sugar,  pimento,  and  other  pi^oduce  of  the  island, 
together  with  himself  and  crew,  was  taken  on  board 
piratical  vessels,  and  the  Camden  burned. 

While  on  board  a  piratical  vessel,  the  captain,  mate  and 
crew,  seventeen  in  all,  were  somewhat  at  variance  as  to 
what  disposition  should  be  made  of  the  crew  of  the  Cam- 
den; whether  they  should  be  shot,  or  landed  on  a  small 
desolate  island  near  by,  called  Bahia  Honda.  It  was 
finally  determined  to  submit  the  matter  to  a  ballot.  The 
whole  crew  were  called  together,  the  ballots  distributed, 
and  it  w^as  found,  upon  counting,  that  there  were  nine  in 
favor  of  shooting  them,  and  eight  in  favor  of  landing  them 
on  Bahia  Honda.  The  captain  of  the  pirate  was  among 
the  nine,  and  the  mate  among  the  eight.  Captain  Per- 
kins belonged  to  the  order  of  Free-Masons,  and  so  did  also 
the  mate  of  the  pirate.  A  quarrel  arose  between  the  cap- 
tain of  the  latter  and  his  mate,  on  this  account,  which 
resulted  in  a  duel,  in  which  the  captain  fell ;  and  in  conse- 
quence of  this,  the  crew  of  the  Camden  were  landed  on  the 
island.  This  island  was  found  to  be  quite  barren,  pro- 
ducing only  a  few  mangrove  bushes;  and  not  a  spring  of 
fresh  v/ater  could  be  found  upon  it.  The  unfortunate 
men  subsisted  for  eight  days  on  the  few  shell-fish  found 
on  its  shores,  depending  on  the  dew  found  upon  the  man- 
grove leaves  in  the  morning  and  evening,  to  quench  their 
thirst.  At  the  end  of  the  eighth  day,  a  small  Spanish 
coasting  vessel  anchored  within  a  mile  of  the  shore  of  the 
island,  to  which  they  made  signals  ;  but  whether  these  were 
seen  or  not,  no  attention  Avas  paid  to  them.  Among  the 
crew  of  the  Camden,  was  an  apprentice  boy  of  Captain 
Perkins',  a  Dane,  named  William.  He  was  a  very  expert 
swimmer,  and  volunteered  to  swim  to  the  vessel  (in  spite 
of  sharks,  and  otlier  voracious  fish)  and  endeavor  to  pre- 
vail on  her  captain  to  bring  her  nearer  the  island,  and 
take  them  on  board.  A  favorite  spaniel  of  Captain  Per- 
kins', which  the  pirates  permitted  him  to  take  with  him, 
was  very  much  attached  to  William,  and  plunged  with 
him  into  the  sea,  and  swam  by  his  side  until  the}^  both 
reached  the  vessel  in  safety.  W^illiara  prevailed  on  the 
captain  to  take  them  all  on  board,  and  they  soon  set  sail 
for  Havana,  where  they  arrived  in  a  few  days.  A  short 
time  after  Captain  Perkins'  arrival  in  Havana,  he  saw  his 
vessel's  cargo  landed.     He  appealed  to  the  United  States 


BROOKSVILLE  AND  PENOBSCOT.  231 

Consul  for  advice — which  he  gave  in  a  few  words,  viz : — 
*  If  you  value  jcmr  life,  say  nothing  about  the  cargo.' 
Such  was  the  state  of  things  in  Cuba  in  those  days  ;  and 
recent  events  show  that  there  has  been  but  little  improve- 
ment since. 

The  next  vessel  Captain  Perkins  commanded  was  the 
brig  Draco.  While  loading  her  in  Boston,  and  when 
nearly  ready  for  sea,  the  United  States  sloop-of-war  Hor- 
net, having  captured  the  piratical  vessel  which  destroyed 
the  Camden,  brought  the  crew  to  Charleston,  South  Caro- 
lina, for  trial.  Among  them  was  the  mate  through  whose 
instrumentality  Captain  Perkins  and  the  crew  of  the  Cam- 
den were  saved  from  being  shot.  Captain  Perkins  was 
summoned  to  Charleston,  to  appear  as  a  witness  against 
them.  He  could  not  bear  the  thought  of  testifying  against 
one  who  was  instrumental  in  saving  the  life  of  himself  and 
crew,  and,  through  the  influence  of  Daniel  Webster  with 
the  authorities  at  Washington,  he  was  permitted  to  pro- 
ceed on  his  voyage.  The  mate  and  crew  were  hung. 
Captain  Perkins  left  the  sea  about  two  years  before  his 
death." 


Whitney,  Samuel  Austin. 

Samuel  Austin,  the  ninth  child  of  Samuel  and  Abigail 
Whitney,  was  born  in  Concord,  Massachusetts,  September 
27,  1770.  The  most  active  portion  of  his  life  was  spent 
upon  the  ocean.  He  was  noted  for  his  intrepidity,  contempt 
of  danger,  and  perseverance.  His  indifference  to  danger 
amounted  often  to  rashness.  One  Fourth  of  July,  happen- 
ing to  pass  where  a  man,  torch  in  hand,  was  standing  by  a 
loaded  cannon,  he  asked  him  why  he  delayed  flring  it. 
The  man  replied  that  it  was  loaded  to  the  muzzle,  and  no 
one  dared  to  lire  it.  He  took  the  match,  touched  the  fuze, 
and  the  gun  burst.  He  was  carried  home  senseless,  his 
flesh  filled  with  atoms  of  powder,  and  his  nose  broken. 
His  exploits  in  there-capture  of  the  ship  ///ram,  have  already 
been  narrated.  Captain  Whitney  was  married  July  28, 
1801,  to  Miss  Ruth  Perkins,  of  this  town.  In  1802,  he 
moved  to  Lincolnville,  Maine,  where  he  died  October  15, 
1846,  aged  seventy-six  years.  His  wife  died  at  Waldoboro', 
Maine,  September  15,  1849.  They  had  five  children,  the 
descendants  of  whom,  many  of  them,  reside  here. 


232  histoby  of  castine, 

Merchants. 

Adams,  Saimuel,       [Portrait  on  opposite  page.] 

Mr.  Adams  was  born  in  Pembroke,  New  Hampshire* 
March  5,  1790.  His  father,  Doctor  Thomas  Adams,  was 
from  Lincohi,  Massachusetts,  and  his  mother  was  from 
Watertown,  in  the  same  State.  His  father  studied  medi- 
cine with  Doctor  Spring,  of  Watertown,  and  after  his  mar- 
riage moved  to  Pembroke,  where  he  had  an  extensive  prac- 
tice until  a  year  previous  to  his  death,  which  occurred  in 
1809.  At  this  time  Mr.  Adams  came  to  Castine  as  a  clerk 
in  the  store  of  Judkins  &  Adams,  the  latter  named  partner 
being  his  brother.  After  the  evacuation  of  the  town  by 
the  English,  in  1815,  he  went  into  trade  with  Thomas  E. 
Hale,  Esq.  ;  afterwards,  with  his  brother  Thomas.  In  1821, 
he  married  a  daughter  of  Doctor  Moulton,  of  Bucksport, 
and  went  into  business  alone.  In  1835,  he .  took  Mr. 
William  Foster,  as  a  partner ;  and  in  1855,  he  sold  his  stock 
to  his  sons,  Samuel,  and  Alfred  P.  Upon  the  death  of  his 
son  Samuel  (in  1861),  Deacon  Adams  purchased  back  the 
stock  of  goods,  and  resumed  business  again.  He  continued 
in  business  until  1872,  when  he  sold  out  to  Messrs.  Hooper 
&  Shepherd,  and  retired  from  all  active  pursuits.  He  was 
principal  owner  of  the  ships  Robert  3Iorris^  Adams,  Sam- 
uel Adams,  Castine,  Saint  James,  J.  P.  Whitney,  and  of 
many  smaller  vessels.  He  was  engaged  largely  in  the 
Grand  Bank  and  other  fisheries,  and  in  the  importation  of 
Liverpool  and  Cadiz  salt.  He  has  held  many  important 
positions  in  town,  and  for  thirty-six  years  has  been  a  deacon 
in  the  Second  Congregational  Society  of  Castine.  He  still 
lives  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-four  years — a  hale  old 
gentleman,  with  all  his  faculties  miimpaired — cheered  by  tlie 
presence  of  his  worthy  wife,  and  the  companionship  of  his 
children  and  a  host  of  friends. 


Adams,  Thomas. 

Mr.  Thomas  Adams  was  born  at  Pembroke,  New  Hamp- 
shire, July  3,  1783.  He  died  at  Roxbury,  Massachusetts, 
December  31,  1847.  He  was  married  May  23,  1815,  to 
Miss  Jane  Russell,  of  St.  Andrews,  New  Brunswick.  His 
active  business  life  was  passed  at  Castine.     In  1837,  he 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  233 

removed  to  Boston,  and  thence,  on  account  of  failing  health, 
to  Roxbury.  lie  carried  on  a  prosperous  mercantile  busi- 
ness here  for  many  years,  was  a  Representative  to  the 
General  Court  of  Massachusetts ;  and  for  several  years  was 
one  of  the  Selectmen  of  the  town. 

"  He  was  extensivel}'"  known  and  beloved  as  a  man  and 
a  Christian,  and  those  who  partook  of  his  kindness  and 
shared  his  hospitality,  could  not  easily  forget  his  winning 
manners  and  cordial  welcome.  He  was  associated  with 
two  other  gentlemen  in  establishing  the  Trinitarian  church 
in  Castine,  and  its  welfare  was  near  his  heart.  Prospered 
as  he  was  in  his  mercantile  career,  and  blessed  with  worldly 
goods,  he  did  not  forget  to  oifer  upon  the  altar  of  God,  a 
large  portion  of  his  gifts.  The  poor  clergyman,  the  feeble 
church,  the  struggling  missionary,  can  bear  testimony  to 
his  generous  heart.  The  Sabbath  school  in  his  church  was 
the  result  of  his  personal  labors,  and  his  heart  was  warm 
and  his  prayers  were  fervent  for  his  pupils, — he  loved  them 
much.  In  the  prayer  meeting,  in  the  Bible  class,  by 
the  bed-side  of  the  sick  and  dying,  his  voice  was  ever  heard ; 
and  many  were  the  hearts  whose  anguish  has  been  soothed, 
and  over  whose  fleeting  spirits  came  a  gleam  of  consolation 
and  hope,  as  he  guided  them  to  the  Saviour. 

Two  years  of  extreme  illness,  and,  towards  the  last,  of 
great  suffering,  had  impaired  the  powers  of  his  mind,  but 
his  last  intelligible  words  were:  ' There  is  re&f  for  me  in 
heaven.'  " 

Bryant,  Joseph. 

Joseph  Bryant,  son  of  Joseph  and  Sarah  (Little)  Bryant, 
was  born  in  Marshfield,  Massachusetts,  December  3,  1789. 
His  parents  both  died  before  he  was  eight  years  of  age, 
and  he  was  brought  up  in  the  family  of  his  uncie,  Mr. 
Waterman,  of  Marshfield.  In  the  year  1800,  he  came  to 
Castine,  and  entered  the  store  of  his  uncle,  Otis  Little, 
with  whom  he  remained  until  he  became  of  age,  when  he 
went  into  business  for  himself.  During  a  few  years,  pre- 
vious to  1830,  Mr.  Charles  K.  Tilden  was  connected  with 
him . 

In  1835  he  removed  to  Bangor,  and  remained  in  business 
there  until  his  death,  March  31,  18(33. 

He  was  twice  married, — iiist,  on  September  23,  1816,  to 
Sarah  Little,  a  native  of  Bremen,  Maine,  who  died  Mav  6, 


234  HISTOEY   OF   CASTINE, 

1822 ;  and  second,  on  November  15, 1824,  to  Abigail  Curtis, 
a  native  of  Sharon,  Massachusetts,  who  still  survives  him. 
While  a  resident  of  Castine,  he  was  a  member  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  of  this  State,  and  served  several  years 
on  the  Board  of  Selectmen.  After  his  removal  to  Bangor, 
he  was  twice  elected  Mayor  as  a  Whig  and  Temperance 
candidate.  He  was  in  early  life  a  Federalist  in  politics, 
afterwards  a  Whig,  and  subsequently  a  Republican.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Unitarian  Society  of  Castine,  but 
after  he  became  a  resident  of  Bangor,  he  took  an  active 
part  in  establishing  the  Episcopal  Society  there — his  pref- 
erence having  long  been  for  that  mode  of  worship — and 
was  one  of  its  Wardens  from  its  organization  to  his  death, 
a  period  of  twenty-seven  years.  The  following  tribute  to 
his  character  is  from  the  Bangor  "Whig  and  Courier,"  of  a 
date  shortly  after  his  death : 

"Mr.  Bryant  was  an  honorable  merchant,  a  generous, 
liberal  citizen,  an  honest  man,  a  consistent  Christian.  The 
poor  and  needy  always  found  him  a  ready  helper,  the  young, 
a  judicious  and  careful  adviser,  the  city  a  thoughtful  coun- 
selor, the  church  a  generous  giver,  while  his  whole  life 
bore  ample  evidence  of  his  integrity,  his  wisdom,  and  his 
fidelity.  During  his  life,  and  annd  the  vicissitudes  of  mer- 
cantile life,  no  one  can  point  a  finger  to  an  act  that  would 
cast  a  shadow  on  his  good  name,  and  no  words  can  more 
appropriately  do  justice  to  his  memory,  than  these  simple 
ones — 'Semper  Fidelis.'  " 

TiLDEN,  Charles  Kirk. 

Charles  Kirk  Tilden  was  the  oldest  son  of  Charles  Til- 
den,  who  was  born  in  Boston,  Massachusetts,  in  1768. 
He  was  born  in  Digby,  Nova  Scotia,  February  19,  1793  ; 
and  died  in  Castine,  January  21,  1860,  aged  sixty-seven 
vears.  lie  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Judge  Nathan 
Reed,  of  Belfast,  Maine.  They  had  three  children : 
George  F.,  Mary  G.,  and  Charles  W.  This  family  can 
trace  an  uninterrupted  descent  from  Sir  Richard  Tylden, 
Seneschal  to  Hugh  de  Lacy,  the  Constable  of  Chester,  in 
the  reign  of  Henry  H,  who  accompanied  Richard  I, 
(Coeur  de  Leon,)  in  his  crusades  to  the  Holy  Land. 
Nathaniel  Tilden,  a  member  of  the  Tenterden  branch  of 
the  family,  emigrated  to  America  in  1623,  in  the  ship  Ann, 
and  landed  at  Plymouth.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  was 
his  descendant  by  six  removes. 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  235 

Charles  Kirk  Tilden  came  to  Castine  at  the  age  of  nine 
years.  He  commenced  his  mercantile  life  in  the  employ- 
ment of  Mr.  Doty  Little.  He  continued  with  him  a  num- 
ber of  years,  and  became  associated  with  him  in  business. 
He  subsequently  became  largely  interested  with  the  late 
Joseph  Bryant,  in  the  West  India  trade.  He  continued 
in  mercantile  pursuits  until  his  death.  His  worthy  and 
beloved  wife  survived  him  for  a  little  more  than  fourteen 
years,  her  death  occurring  June  23,  1874.  The  children 
are  all  living,  and  residents  of  Castine. 


Walker,  John. 

Mr.  John  Walker  was  born  in  Staffordshire,  England, 
April  22,  1754.  He  married,  about  the  year  1810,  Emma 
Roundy,  a  daughter  of  John  Roundy,  one  of  the  early 
settlers  of  Bluehill.  They  had  six  sons  and  three  daugh- 
ters. He  died  June  20,  1831,  aged  seventy-four  years  two 
months  and  eight  days. 

Mr.  Walker  enlisted  in  the  British  army  at  the  early 
age  of  thirteen  years.  He  served  under  General  Burgoyne, 
in  his  expedition  from  Canada  into  New  York,  in  1777  ; 
and  M'as  amongst  the  number  of  prisoners  of  war  surren- 
dered by  that  officer  to  General  Gates  at  Saratoga,  Octo- 
ber 17,  1777.  He  was  released  on  parole,  and  immedi- 
ately renounced  his  allegiance  to  Great  Britain,  took  the 
oath  of  fidelity  to  the  United  States,  and  enlisted  in  the 
American  army.  It  is  said  that  he  deserted  from  the 
American  army,  was  apprehended,  and  condemned  to  be 
shot.  That  his  friends  laid  the  case  before  Lady  Wash- 
ington, who  went  to  see  him  in  his  confinement,  and  that 
on  her  intercession,  he  was  pardoned  and  restored  to  his 
former  good  standing.  This  statement  is  from  somewhat 
doubtful  authority,  and  is  probably  apocryphal.  The  fact 
of  his  honorable  disclmrge  is  known  with  certainty;  and 
he  was  always  regarded  by  his  contemporaries  as  one  who 
had  done  the  cause  of  liberty  much  service. 

After  the  close  of  the  war,  Mr.  Walker  bought  a  farm 
on  Cunningham's  Ridge,  in  the  town  of  Sedgwick.  He 
remained  there  a  few  years,  and  then  moved  to  Snow's 
Cove,  and  engaged  in  lumbering.  Not  liking  this  place, 
however,  he  sold  it,  about  the  year  1810,  and  purchased. 


236  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

of  Mr.  John  Lee,  the  mills  situated  at  the  head  of  the 
southern  branch  of  the  Bagaduce  river,  in  the  town  of 
Brooksville.  Mr.  Walker's  descendants  are  quite  numer- 
ous. Among  them  may  be  mentioned  the  Honorable 
Joseph  G.  Walker,  a  Commissioner  for  Hancock  County, 
Captain  Amos  Walker,  and  Deacon  Joseph  Walker — the 
latter  being  now  in  his  seventy-seventh  year.  The  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch  served  for  many  years  as  a  Captain  in 
the  Militia,  and  was  always  a  leading  man  in  the  commu- 
nity where  he  lived.  Soon  after  coming  to  Brooksville,  he 
was  elected  a  deacon  of  the  First  Congregational  Church, 
and  continued  in  this  office  until  his  death.  Mrs.  Thank- 
ful Black,  of  Sedgwick,  composed  an  elegy  upon  the 
occasion  of  his  faneral,  which  was  afterwards  published. 

"  AVith  constant  care  he  lived  a  holy  life, 
And  kept  the  faith,  in  midst  of  war  and  strife. 
For  many  years  the  ways  of  God  he  tried, 
A  saint  he  lived,  and  lilie  a  saint  he  died." 


Whitney,  Samuel. 

Samuel  Whitney,  the  father  of  Samuel  Austin  Whitney, 
was  the  youngest  son  of  Benjamin  Whitney  by  his  second 
wife,  Abigail  Bridge.  He  was  born  in  Marll3orough,  Massa- 
chusetts, September  5,  1734.  When  about  two  years  old 
his  parents  moved  to  Boston.  When  three  years  old,  his 
father  died.  He  was  married  to  Abigail  Cutler,  October 
20,  1757.  He  went  into  business  in  Boston,  at  first ;  but 
moved  to  Castine  when  about  fifty-nine  years  of  age.  He 
bought  timber  lands  at  Orland,  and  shipped  lumber  to 
various  foreign  and  domestic  ports.  He  put  up  and  carried 
on  a  rope-walk  ,  built  an  excellent  wharf  near  where  Com- 
mercial wharf  now  is ;  and  built  and  purchased  several 
ships  and  other  vessels.  One  of  these,  the  Hiram^  is  famous 
for  its  many  captures  by,  and  re-captures  from  the  French. 
Soon  after  coming  to  reside  here,  Mr.  Whitney  erected  a 
stately  mansion — now  torn  down — in  which  he  continued 
to  reside  during  the  remainder  of  his  days.  He  died  on 
Sunday,  May  29, 1808,  aged  seventy -four  years. 

In  his  religious  views,  Mr.  Whitney  was  brought  up  a 
strict  Calvinist,  but  in  the  later  years  of  his  life  he  adopted 
the  views  of  the  Universalists.  Upon  his  death  bed  he 
turned  to  one  near  him  and  said:  "Should  they  ask  how  a 
Universalist  could  die,  tell  them  that    T  died  in  the  full 


BROOKSVILLE   AND   PENOBSCOT.  237 

belief  of  God's  universal  love  for  all  mankind."  His  wife 
died  in  this  town,  July  2,  1813,  aged  seventy-nine  years. 
They  had  twelve  sons,  and  five  daughters. 


WiTHERLE,  William. 

William  Witherle.  son  of  Joshua  and  Rebecca  (Howe) 
Witherle,  was^  born  in  Boston,  where  his  parents  resided, 
December  15,  1784.  His  grandfather,  Theophilus  With- 
erell,  lived  on  Cape  Cod,  probably  in  what  is  now  the  town 
of  Truro.  In  1798,  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  his  age,  he 
came  to  Castine  and  went  into  the  store  of  his  uncle,  David 
Howe,  where  he  continued  until  he  attained  his  majority, 
shortly  after  which — on  April  28,  1806 — he  commenced 
business  with  Mr.  Benjamin  Hook,  under'  the  name  of 
Hook  &  Witherle.  This  connection  lasted  two  years,  after 
which  he  was  without  a  partner  until  November  6,  1810, 
when  the  firm  of  Witherle  &  Jarvis — consisting  of  him- 
self and  Mr.  John  H.  Jarvis — was  formed.  This  partner- 
ship was  dissolved  February  12,  1844 ;  and  on  March  the 
first,  of  the  same  year,  he  associated  with  Mr.  Benjamin 
D.  Gay,  under  the  name  of  William  Witherle  &  Co.  This 
firm — of  which  his  son,  Mr.  William  H.  Witherle,  after- 
wards ])ecame  a  member — was  dissolved  February  28,  1855, 
closing  his  connection  with  trade. 

His  ownership  in  navigation  commenced  quite  early  in 
life,  and  continued  till  his  death,  which  occurred,  after  a 
brief  sickness,  April  13,  1860. 

He  married,  December  25,  1815,  Sally  Bryant,  a  native 
of  Marshfield,  Massachusetts,  and  daughter  of  Joseph  and 
Sarah  (Little)  Bryant  of  that  town,  who  survived  him  less 
than  three  months. 

Mr.  Witherle  was  a  person  of  regular  and  temperate 
habits,  and  until  the  last  few  years  of  his  life — during 
which  he  was  somewhat  of  an  invalid — in  the  enjoyment 
of  general  good  health. 

Never  in  the  slightest  degree  a  politician,  he  had  a  strong 
interest  in  the  Free-Soil  movement,  and  a  desire  for  the 
success  of  the  Republican  party. 

His  father  was  a  member  of  Reverend  John  Murray's 
religious  society  in  lioston  ;  and  he,  himself,  of  the  Unita- 
rian and  Uuiversalist  societies,  during  their  existence  here  ; 

31 


288  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

and  though  but  little  inclined  to  theological  controversy, 
he  always  entertained  to  the  close  of  his  life,  a  deep  regard 
for  the  religious  views  known  as  liberal,  and  a  firm  belief 
in  them. 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  and  for  some  years  previously, 
no  man  was  living  on  the  peninsula  of  Castine,  who  was 
there  when  he  came  to  it.  There  were  several  older  per- 
sons, but  no  one  who  had  been  so  long  a  resident. 

His  sons,  William  H.  and  George  H.  Witherle,  still  re- 
side and  do  business  in  this  town. 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  239 


CHAPTER  XI. 

Municipal  History  of  Bkooksvillb. 

The  town  of  Brooksville  was  incorporated  by  act  of  the 
General  Court  of  Massachusetts,  on  June  13,  1817.  It 
was  named  after  Honorable  John  Brooks,  the  Governor  of 
the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  at  that  time.  The 
general  history  of  Brooksville,  prior  to  its  incorporation,  is 
included  in  that  of  Penobscot  and  Castine — of  which  it 
formerly  composed  a  part — with  the  exception  of  the  small 
pbrtion  derived  from  Sedgwick.  In  the  half  century  that 
has  elapsed  since  its  incorporation,  so  little  of  public  interest 
has  transpired  in  this  section  of  the  State,  especially  in 
Hancock  County,  that  the  municipal  history  of  so  compar- 
atively young  a  town  cannot  reasonably  be  expected  to 
equal  that  of  older  or  more  thickly  settled  communities. 
This  town  has,  like  Penobscot,  been  obliged  to  bestow  its 
principal  attention  for  many  years  upon  the  matter  of  its 
roads.  Its  records  contain,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  fol- 
lowing summary,  but  few  matters  of  general  interest ;  and 
for  the  facts  relating  to  its  ecclesiastical  and  military  his- 
tory the  reader  is  referred  to  Chapters  V  and  VII. 


Abstract  of  Records. 


1817.  The  first  town  meeting  in  Brooksville,  was  held 
sometime  in  the  fall  of  1817,  at  the  house  of  Mr.  John  Bray. 
At  this  meeting  Mr.  John  Wasson  was  chosen  Moderator  ; 
and  Rogers  Lawrence,  Joseph  G.  Parker,  and  Elisha 
Smith,  were  elected  as  the  first  Board  of  Selectmen.  The 
town  also,  at  this  time,  chose  Solomon  Billings,  Israel  Red- 
man, Timothy  Condon,  John  Hawes,  William  Parker, 
Cunningham  Lymburner,  and  John  Blodgett,  as  a  commit- 
tee to  district  the  town  for  schools. 

1818.  The  annual  meeting  of  the  town,  in  1818,  was 
held  at   the   houae  of  Mr.  Benjamin  Reu.     The  town  this 


240  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 

year  made  its  first  appropriation  forscliools,  and  elected  its 
first  School  Committee.  The  amount  appropriated  was 
two  hundred  dollars.  The  School  Committee  consisted  of 
David  Walker,  John  Douglass,  William  Blodgett,  John 
Lord,  Ephraim  Blake,  Phineas  Norton,  and  John  M.  Foster. 
1819.  In  1819,  the  town  voted,  by  a  very  decided  ma- 
jority against  a  separation  of  the  District  of  Maine,  from 
the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

1821.  The  town  at  its  annual  meeting  in  1821,  voted 
its  usual  appropriation  of  two  hundred  dollars  for  schools; 
and  at  a  subsequent  meeting  voted  an  additional  amount  of 
one  hundred  and  ninety  dollars. 

1822.  The  appropriation  for  the  support  of  schools, 
was  four  hundred  dollars,  in  1822. 

1823.  In  the  year  1823,  the  town  instructed  the  Se- 
lectmen to  arrange  witli  the  municipal  officers  of  Castine, 
the  proportion  which  Brooksville  should  pay  annually, 
for  the  support  of  a  ferry,  at  what  was  formerly  called 
Lymburner's  Ferry — between  North  Castine,  and  West 
Brooksville.  The  town  this  year,  instructed  the  Selectmen 
to  negotiate  for  suitable  burying  grounds,  in  different  por- 
tions of  its  territory.  For  the  next  twenty  years  nothing 
of  special  interest  occurs  in  the  records  of  the  town. 

1833 — 1843.  In  1833,  the  amount  of  school  money 
apj)ropriated  by  the  town  was  increased  to  four  hundred 
and  forty  dollars  ;  and  in  1843,  it  was  raised  to  four  hun- 
dred and  eighty  dollars. 

1846.  At  its  annual  meeting  in  1846,  the  town  voted 
to  build  a  town-house,  and  to  have  it  located  in  Sylvester 
Condon's  pasture,  near  the  southwest  corner ;  John  Hawes, 
Andrew  Gray,  and  Simeon  Allen,  were  chosen  as  a  build- 
ing committee.  At  another,  and  later,  meeting  the  town 
decided  to  have  the  building  placed  in  the  same  pasture, 
but  "on  the  north  side  of  the  bars  leading  from  the  high- 
way." An  attempt  had  been  made  for  many  years  to  in- 
duce the  town  to  provide  a  settled  place  for  its  annual 
meetings,  but  the  article  in  the  warrant  in  relation  to  the 
matter,  had  heretofore  invariably  been  passed  over. 

1853 — 1856.  The  appropriation  for  schools  in  1853, 
was  six  hundred  dollars ;  and  in  1856,  the  amount  was  in- 
creased to  eight  hundred  and  fifty. 

1862 — 1865.  In  1862,  the  appropriation  for  the  sup- 
port of  schools  was  eight  hundred  and  sixty  dollars  ;  and 
this  is  about  the  amount  generally  raised  by  the  town,  for 


BEOOKSVILLE  AND   PENOBSCOT.  241 

this  purpose,  in  subsequent  years.  From  this  time  until 
the  close  of  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  nothing  occurs  in  the 
town  records  of  any  particular  interest,  except  what  re- 
lates to  the  appropriation  of  money  for  bounties,  for  the 
support  of  the  families  of  volunteers,  and  for  other  pur- 
poses connected,  directly'  or  indirectly,  with  the  war  then 
being  carried  on.  As  these  amounts  are  all  included  in 
another  place,  they  are  in  consequence  omitted  here.  [See 
pages  16cS,  169.] 

For  several  years  after  the  incorporation  of  the  town,  the 
inhabitants  of  Brooksville,  were  without  a  Post  Office,  and 
were  obliged  to  cross  the  water  to  Castine,  or  go  to  Penob- 
scot, or  Sedgwick,  for  their  mail.  The  letters  were  usu- 
ally obtained  from  these  towns,  and  distributed  to  the  in- 
habitants by  one  or  more  carriers.  As  the  popuhition  in- 
creased, however,  the  difficulty  of  transmitting  the  mail  to 
different  portions  of  the  town  increased  also,  and  accord- 
ingly a  Post  Office  was  established  there  about  the  year 
1830,  and  John  R.  Redman  was  appointed  postmaster  at 
that  time.  At  the  present  time  offices  are  established  in 
each  section  of  the  town.     [See  Brooksville  Directory.] 


242  HISTORY   OF   CASTINE, 


CHAPTER  XII. 

Present  and  Future  of  the  Three  Towks. 

Brooksville,  according  to  tlie  census  of  1870,  contains  a 
population  of  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy-six 
souls.  Its  valuation  is,  Polls,  three  hundred  and  twenty- 
two  ;  Estates,  two  hundred  and  thirty-eight  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  eighty-seven  dollars.  Its  principal  business 
consists  in  navigation ;  although  the  granite  quarries  in 
South  Brooksville  afford  employment  the  greater  portion 
of  the  time,  to  a  large  number  of  persons.  The  naviga- 
tion of  the  town  consists  mostly  of  small. coasting  vessels, 
some  of  them  rather  old.  These  vessels,  though  of  com- 
paratively small  intrinsic  value,  carry  freights  as  cheaply 
as  those  of  much  greater  cost,  and  consequently  afford  a 
very  much  greater  percentage  of  profit.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  Cape  are  mostly  engaged  in  fishing.  Numbers  of 
them  go  to  the  Banks  of  Newfoundland,  in  vessels  owned 
principally  in,  and  sailing  from,  towns  on  Cape  Ann. 
The  remainder  are  chiefly  engaged  in  shore  fishing,  and 
the  obtaining  of  shell-fish.  Brooksville  was  the  latest  of 
the  three  towns,  whose  history  has  been  narrated,  to  be 
incorporated  into  a  separate  municipality.  It  was,  indeed, 
a  sort  of  off-shoot  from  the  towns  of  Castine  and  Penob- 
scot, and  in  its  earlier  years,  offered  less  inducements  to 
settlers  than  either  of  these  towns.  The  aspect  of  things, 
however,  has  changed  very  much,  of  late  years.  There  is 
now  growing  up  in  West  Brooksville  a  thrifty  little  village, 
which  threatens,  ere  many  years,  to  completely  cast  into 
the  shade  its  more  favored  rivals.  The  causes  which  have 
led  to  the  rather  rapid  growth  of  this  town  within  recent 
years,  are  said  by  an  aged  merchant — of  this  vicinity,  but 
not  a  resident  of  the  town — a  gentleman  of  sound  judg- 
ment, and  of  large  information  in  regard  to  the  business 
affairs  of  these  communities,  to  be  as  follows  :  First — the 
early  and  steadfast  encouragement  to  the  cause  of  temper- 
ance reform.     This  cause  gave  the  first  impetus  not  only 


BROOKSATLLE   AXD   PENOBSCOT.  243 

to  the  social  happiness  of  the  citizens,  but  to  the  financial 
prosperity  of  the  community.  Secondly — the  advance 
made  by  the  town  in  educational  matters.  Thirdly — the 
inducements  held  out  to  the  young  men  of  the  town,  to 
marry  and  settle  at  home,  instead  of  seeking  their  fortune 
abroad,  as  is  too  often  the  case  in  New  England  towns. 
Possibly  the  reason  first  given  is  the  cause  of  the  other 
two.  If  so,  what  more  glowing  encomium  could  be  paid 
to  the  cause  of  temperance,  than  the  mere  recital  of  the 
fact !  The  growth  of  Brooksville  being  due  to  the  causes 
mentioned,  it  requires  no  prophetic  power  to  predict  a 
continued  prosperity,  so  long  as  these  same  causes  shall 
remain  in  operation.  This  town  having  no  great  agricul- 
tural capabilities,  must,  however,  continue  in  the  future  to 
extract  its  wealth,  as  it  has  in  the  past,  from  its  granite 
hills,  draw  it  from  the  bosom  of  the  deep,  or  increase  it  by 
maritime  enterprise. 

The  town  of  Penobscot,  though  like  most  of  the 
neighboring  towns,  it  has  lost  in  population  during  the 
last  decade,  has  increased  in  wealth.  Its  present  popula- 
tion is  about  one  thousand  four  hundred  and  eighteen 
souls..  Its  valuation  in  1870  was,  Polls,  three  hundred  and 
twenty-nine ;  Estates,  two  hundred  and  twenty-seven 
thousand  three  hundred  and  fifty -six  dollars.  This  town 
is  engaged  somewhat  in  navigation,  and  in  small  manufac- 
tures, but  is,  on  the  whole,  to  be  considered  as  an  agricul- 
tural town.  Its  increased  prosperity  of  late  years,  not- 
withstanding its  marked  falling  off  in  population,  is, 
doubtless,  due  to  the  temperance,  frugality  and  industry  of 
its  citizens.  It  is  simply  the  slow  and  natural  growth  in 
wealth  that  every  town  ouglit  to  show,  where  no  extrinsic 
causes  have  interfered  to  produce  a  decline.  Its  financial 
growth  is  due  partly,  of  course,  to  the  new  vessels  that 
have  been  built,  and  to  the  manufactures  that  have  sprung 
up ;  but  is  due  mainly  to  the  increased  value  of  its  farms. 
The  situation  and  soil  of  Penobscot  is  sueli,  however,  that 
it  can  never  compare,  agriculturally,  with  the  more  favor- 
able soils  of  many  other  places  in  the  State.  Its  future 
prosperity  will  depend  principally  upon  the  encouragement 
extended  to  Manufactures.  It  possesses  sufficient  water 
power  to  enable  it  to  carry  on  manufactories  of  a  small 
kind  to  an  almost  unlimited  extent ;  and  its  facilities  for 
navigation  would  even,  it  is  tliought,  render  the  employ- 
ment  of  steam   power   profitable.     The    manufactui-e   of 


244  HISTORY  OF   CASTINE, 

brick  has  been  carried  on  there  for  a  long  period,  but  the 
business  has  never  been  conducted  to  the  fullest  extent  of 
which  it  is  capable.  With  good  farms,  tolerable  facilities 
for  navigation,  excellent  chances  for  manufactures  of  all 
kinds,  and  an  industrious  and  hard-working  population, 
there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  the  continued  prosperity  of 
the  town. 

The  past  and  present  condition  of  Castine  has  been  so 
fully  treated  in  the  chapter  upon  the  commercial  history 
of  the  town,  that  but  little  remains  to  be  added.  Within 
the  last  decade,  this  town  has  declined,  both  in  population 
and  in  its  valuation.  Its  population  in  1870,  was  one 
thousand  three  hundred  and  four.  Its  valuation,  at  that 
time,  was.  Polls,  two  hundred  and  fifty-eight ;  Estates, 
four  hundred  and  sixty-one  thousand  three  hundred  and 
forty-three  dollars.  In  1860,  the  valuation  of  the  Estates 
was  seven  hundred  and  sixty-four  thousand  five  hundred 
and  seventy-one  dollars.  This  apparently  excessive  depre- 
ciation of  -property  is  due,  in  great  part,  to  the  fact  that 
the  valuations  for  some  years  had  been  altogether  too  high, 
and  had  consequently  been  reduced.  Notwithstanding 
this  fact,  however,  there  has  undoubtedly  been  a  decline 
in  the  wealth  of  the  town,  within  the  last  ten  or  fifteen 
years — as  well  as  for  a  much  longer  period.  While  it 
might  be  an  error  to  state  that  the  business  of  the  town 
was  still  on  the  decline,  it  cannot  be  said  to  be  on  the 
increase.  The  location  here  of  the  State  Normal  School, 
and  the  starting  of  a  factory  for  the  canning  of  lobsters 
and  shell-fish  have,  in  a  measure,  counteracted  the  failure  of 
certain  other  branches  of  business;  and  the  financial  condi- 
tion of  the  town  is  probably  what  it  was  at  the  last  census. 
What  outlook  does  the  future  offer  ?  The  town  cannot 
again,  within  the  present  century,  at  least,  reasonably 
expect  to  see  the  day  when  it  will  be  possible  for  any  one 
to  utter  the  boast  that  he  "  could  go  from  the  upper  to  the 
lower  wharf  upon  the  decks  of  vessels  ;"  but  nevertlieless, 
shipping  must  continue  to  be,  to  a  certain  extent,  one  of 
the  sources  of  its  prosperity.  To  what  extent  this  will  be 
the  case,  will  depend  upon  the  degree  in  wliich  navigation 
is  revived  throughout  New  England.  Its  limited  territory 
forbids  any  hopes  of  its  ever  becoming  an  important  agri- 
cultural town.  Its  farms  can  never  supply  even  the  home 
demand.  Its  want  of  water  power,  and  its  limited  supply 
of  fresh   water  needed   for  steam  power,  will  jjrevent  its 


BKOOKSVU/LE   AND  PENOBSCOT.  245 

ever  becoming,  to  any  great  extent,  a  manufacturing  town  ; 
unless,  indeed,  the  advances  made  in  scientific  knowledge 
should  some  day  enable  the  immense  power  of  the  ocean 
tides  to  be  made  available.  The  only  reasonable  prospect 
for  the  immediate  future  lies  in  encouraging,  as  much  as 
possible,  the  current  of  summer  travel,  which  has  already 
begun  to  flow  in  this  direction.  The  natural  advantages 
of  the  town  as  a  place  of  summer  resort,  are  already  too 
well  and  widely  known,  to  need  any  special  advertisement. 
All  that  is  needed,  on  the  part  of  our  people,  is  a  spirit  of 
fairness,  in  all  their  transactions,  to  offset  the  extortionate 
demands  of  our  more  celebrated  watering-places. 

Penobscot,  Castine,  and  BrooksviUe  possess  a  common 
origin,  and  the  same  history.  They  are  bound  together 
by  the  ties  of  neighborhood  and  of  consanguinity.  Their 
business  interests  do  not  conflict  with  one  another; 
and  whatever  tends  to  increase  the  general  well-being 
and  prosperity  of  one,  will  inevitably  benefit  the  others 
also.  As  they  were  one  in  origin,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that 
they  may  continue  to  accord,  in  all  their  aims  and  efforts. 


32 


PART     III. 
DOCUMENTARY. 

"  The  grounds  I  work  upon." 

Shak. — All 's  well  that  ends  well,    in — !• 


DOCUMENTS  RELATING  TO   THE   ANTE-REVO- 
LUTIONARY PERIOD. 

Consisting  of  Translations  of  the  "Documents  Col- 
lected IN  France,"  now  in  the  Archives  of  the 
coivoionwealth  of  massachusetts,  and  sundsy 
other  Sesiilar  Documents  from  both  English  and 
French  Sources,  Arranged  in  Chronological 
Order. 


Deposition  of  Edivard  Naylor. 

"  The  Testomony  of  Edward  Naylor  aged  =  32=  yeares 
or  ther  Aboutes  Sartifieth  that  haveing  the  charge  and 
command  of  Negew  Belonging  to  Penobscott  for  the 
acct  =  of  Coll®  Tempells  =  Now  =  S'  Thomas  Tempells 
That  In  Aprill  =  1662  =  Leiueftennant  Gardner  =  com- 
mand" of  Penobscott  for  ye  sayed  ColP  Tempells  Accompt 
Writt  =  to  me  that  ColP  Tempell  had  Left  y^  fortes  &  that 
Capt.  Thomas  Bredion  had  Taken  Poshion  [sic]  of  them 
&  had  Dismissed  him  &  the  Rest  of  the  men  from  y^  sayed 
Tempells  Imply :  &  sarves  &  Plased  a  M''  Gladman  Governor 
of  the  fortt®  &  other  offeseres  &  soldiers :  the  sayed  Gard- 
ner =  having  Received  a  Commission  from  y**  sayed  Bredon 
[sic\  :  & :  Commanded  mee  In  his  Magestys  mane  [^sic] 
to  Declare  to  the  men  that  they  wear  the  all  Discharged 
tfrom  ColP  Tempelles  sarves  &  to  be  opon  the  Accompt  of 
Capt.  Thomas  Bredion  from  that  Time :  &  allso  =:  they 
sayed  gardner  sayed  that  Capt.  Bredion  :  had  a  Commishon 
from  his  magesty  :  opon  the  obedences  of  which  hey  soren- 
dred  the  ffortt  &  Trad®  =  &=^y®  Goodes  =  deposed  in 
Generall  Court  25  of  octobre  1666.  p  Edw.  Rawson  Secret. 
[Mass.  Records,  Vol.  67.  p.  115.] 

2. 

Extract  from  a  letter  of  Sir  Thomas  TempWs  to  the  Lords  of 

the  Council^  November  24,  1668. 

"  May  it  please  your  Lordships,  'Tis  my  duty  to  acquaint 
you  that  I  received  his  Majesty's  Letter  dated  the  31st  of 


250  *  DOCUMENTARY. 

December,  1667,  for  the  delivering  up  of  the  Country  of 
Acadia^  the  20th  of  October^  1668,  by  Monsieur  MoriUon  du 
Bourg,  deputed  by  the  most  Christian  King,  under  the 
Great  Seal  of  France,  to  receive  the  same  ;***** 
I  thought  fit  also  to  let  your  Lordships  know,  that  those 
Ports  and  Places  named  in  my  first  Order,  were  a  part  of 
one  of  the  Colonies  of  JVetv  England,  viz :  Pentagoet, 
belonging  to  New  Plymouth,  which  has  given  the  Magis- 
trates here  [Query.  In  Boston?]  great  Cause  of  Fear, 
and  Apprehensions  of  so  potent  a  Neighbour,  which  may 
be  of  dangerous  Consequence  to  his  Majesty's  Service  and 
Subjects,  the  Caribbee  Islands  having  most  of  their  Pro- 
visions from  these  Parts,  and  that  Mons.  du  Bourg,  informs 
me  that  the  most  Christian  King  intended  to  plant  a  Colony 
at  Pentagoet,  and  make  a  Passage  by  Land  to  Quebec,  his 
greatest  Town  in  Canada,  being  but  three  Day's  Journey 
distant." 

[Memorials  of  the  Eng.  and  French  Commissaries  con- 
cerning the  Limits  of  Nova  Scotia  or  Acadia,  pp.  588,  589.] 

3. 

Instructions  for    Monsieur  le   Chevalier  de   Grandfontaine. 

La  Rochelle,  March  5,  1670. 
The  said  Sieur  de  Grandfontaine  will  understand  that 
the  said  province  of  Acadia,  which  is  included  within  the 
whole  extent  of  coast,  which  is  found  from,  and  includes 
Kennebec  and  Pentagoet,  extending  towards  the  north,  to 
Canso,  and  Cape  Breton,  and  all  that  land  which  is  in  this 
same  extent  of  this  coast,  stretching  to  the  west  as  far  as 
•the  Great  River  St.  Lawrence,  having  been  put  under  the 
authority  and  government  of  his  Majesty,  in  the  year  1630, 
by  means  of  the  possession  which  had  then  been  taken  by 
Monsieur  the  Commander  de  Razillai — charged  with  the 
orders  of  his  Majesty  to  that  end ;  that  this  possession  had 
some  interruptions  upon  the  part  of  the  English,  which  in- 
terruptions were  followed  by  several  treaties,  by  which  the. 
restitution  of  it  has  always  been  promised  and  conceded  to 
his  Majesty.  Among  others  by  the  first  article  of  the 
treaty  made  at  Paris,  in  the  month  of  March,  in  the  year 
1632,  between  Isaac  Houac,  Ambassador  of  his  said  Britannic 
Majesty,  and  Messrs.  de  Bouillon  and  Bouthillier,  Com- 
missioners upon  the  part  of  the  King,  by  which  article,  it 
is  precisely  stated  that  the  said   Sieur  de  Houac  promises, 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  251 

in  the  name  of  his  said  Britannic  Majesty,  to  cause  to  be 
surrendered  to  his  said  Majesty,  all  the  places  occupied  in 
New  France,  Acadia,  and  Canada,  and  to  give,  for  that 
purpose,  the  necessary  copies  of  the  treaty  to  those  who 
command,  on  the  part  of  his  said  Britannic  Majesty,  at  Port 
Royal.  And  again  by  article  tenth,  of  the  treaty  of  Breda, 
in  the  year  1667 — upon  the  last  invasion  of  said  country,  by 
the  English,  in  the  year  1654 — it  is  again  expressly  de- 
clared that  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  shall  likewise  make 
restitution  to  the  Most  Christian  King,  or  to  such  person 
as  shall  be  proposed  for  it,  by  his  order,  well  and  duly  at- 
tested by  the  Great  Seal  of  France,  of  the  country  in  North 
America,  called  Acadia,  which  the  Most  Christian  King 
possessed  heretofore,  and  to  that  end  the  said  King  of 
Great  Britain,  immediately  after  the  exchange  of  the  rati- 
fications of  peace,  will  deliver,  or  will  cause  to  be  deliv- 
ered, to  the  said  Most  Christian  King,  or  to  some  one  who 
shall  be  commissioned  by  him,  all  the  memoranda  and 
orders  necessary  for  the  said  restitution. 

The  Sieur  de  Grandfontaine  should  know  that  it  is  in 
execution  of  this  article,  that  the  King  of  Great  Britain, 
has  caused  to  be  delivered,  the  orders  of  which  Sieur  de 
Grandfontaine  is  bearer  to  him,  as  well  as  [bearer]  of  the 
commission  of  his  Majesty,  well  and  duly  attested  by  the 
Great   Seal   of  France. 

And  as  the  eleventh  article  of  the  same  treaty  of  Breda, 
decides  what  should  be  done  with  respect  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  said  country  of  Acadia,  who  shall  desire  to 
leave,  the  purport  of  it  will  be  inserted  here,  in  order  that 
the  said  Sieur  de  Grandfontaine,  may  observe  it,  and  that 
he  may  have  for  it  all  proper  regard. 

Article  eleventh  of  the  Treaty  of  Breda : 

"  But  if  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  country  called 
Acadia,  prefer  or  desire  to  be  under  the  rule  of  the  King 
of  Great  Britain,  it  shall  be  permitted  them  to  depart  from 
it  within  the  space  of  one  year,  reckoning  from  the  da}'  of 
the  restitution  of  the  country,  and  to  sell,  to  pass  in  ac- 
count, or  otherwise  dispose  of,  as  shall  appear  advantage- 
ous to  them,  their  lands,  slaves  and  all  other  movable  or 
immovable  property,  and  such  persons  as  shall  contract 
with  them  for  that  purpose  shall  be  obliged  to  draw  up 
their  contracts  under  the  autliority  of  the  Most  Christian 
King — but  if  they  prefer  to  depart  and  carry  with  them 


252  DOCUMENTARY. 

their  liousehold  goods,  slaves,  cattle,  silver,  and  all  other 
movable  things,  he  will  suffer  them  to  be  carried  off  with- 
out any  hindrance  or  molestation  whatever. 

(Signed)  ARLINGTON." 

As  regards  the  restitution  which  is  demanded  in  execu- 
tion of  the  said  articles,  and  of  the  orders  whereof  the  said 
Sieur  de  Grandfontaine  is  bearer,  he  should  know  that  it 
is  the  lands,  country,  ports,  rivers,  and  places,  or  forts, 
which  are  from  and  include  the  said  place  of  Kennebec, 
and  Pentagoet,  as  far  as  Canso,  and  Cape  Breton  included, 
and  all  the  extent  of  territory,  as  far  as  the  river  St.  Law- 
rence,— without  any  reservation  or  exception.  And  that 
he  ought  particularly  to  stick  to  Pentagoet,  the  restitution 
of  which  has  always  been  demanded  by  his  Most  Christian 
Majesty,  as  well  as  the  forts  upon  the  river  St.  John,  and 
Port  Royal,  even  as  it  appears  from  the  letters  of  his  Most 
Christian  Majesty,  of  January  30,  and  October  7,  1658, 
written  by  Monsieur  de  Bordeaux,  at  that  time  his  Am- 
bassador in  England,  concerning  the  last  invasion  made  by 
the  English  upon  said  forts,  in  the  year  1654. 

The  said  Sieur  de  Grandfontaine,  having  obtained  this 
restitution,  and  having  been  put  in  possession  of  the  said 
territory,  will  be  able  in  his  discretion  and  prudence  to  de- 
cide where  he  will  make  his  principal  establishment — 
which  it  appears  to  us  ought  to  be  at  Pentagoet,  as  being 
the  place  nearest  the  territory  under  the  English  rule,  and 
where  he  will  be  better  able  to  support  and  protect  the 
lands  under  the  rule  of  his  Majesty,  which  are,  as  has  been 
said  before,  extending  towards  the  north,  from  the  middle 
of  Pentagoet,  as  far  as  Cape  Breton. 

And  when  the  Sieur  de  Grandfontaine  shall  be  settled, 
he  ought  to  pay  great  attention  in  regard  to  putting  him- 
self promptly  in  a  state  of  defense,  and  protecting  himself 
against  all  the  accidents  which  might  happen  in  the  course 
of  time  and  of  affairs,  by  fortifying  himself  and  providing 
himself  with  everything  necessary  for  that  purpose — for 
which,  besides  that  already  furnished  him,  his  Majesty  will  • 
provide  for  what  more  will  be  necessary  for  him  in  the 
memoranda  of  them  which  he  will  take  care  to  send. 

In  resuming  possession  of  the  aforesaid  things,  the  said 
Sieur  de  Grandfontaine  will  take  care  to  have  instructive 
memoranda  made  of  the  condition  of  those  places  which 
shall  be  given  up  to  him,  including  the  fortifications,  build- 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  253 

ings,  the  number  and  quality  of  inhabitants,  and  the  means 
and  conveniences  for  their  subsistence  and  trade. 

He  will  use  all  the  authority  which  is  given  him  by  his 
Majesty,  and  all  the  forces  which  are,  and  shall  be  en- 
trusted to  him,  to  strengthen  the  traffic  that  his  Majesty 
may  in  future  be  able  to  make  on  the  said  coast  of  Acadia 
— either  for  permanent  or  transient  fishing,  dressing  of  furs, 
erecting  of  dwellings,  tillage  of  lands,  or  such  other  things 
as  they  desire  to  attempt  there — and  that  without  exclu- 
sion of  any  one,  allowing  full  and  entire  liberty  to  all  the 
subjects  of  his  said  Majesty,  to  go  and  come,  and  to  carry 
on  such  traf&c  as  they  shall  wish ;  but  interdicting  and 
taking  away  this  same  freedom  of  trade  and  residence  from 
all  strangers,  unless  they  are  provided  with  an  express 
order  of  the  King  ;  having  regard  all  the  time,  that  in  this 
exclusion  from  residence  he  ought  not  to  include  the  Eng- 
lish who  are  settled  in  the  country,  and  places  which  shall 
be  restored  and  delivered  to  the  King;  but  should  require  of 
them  an  oath  of  fidelity  and  submission  to  his  Majesty,  such 
as  good  and  faithful  subjects  ought  to  make  and  keep. 

And  as,  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said  country  of  Aca- 
dia, it  appears  that  there  is  nothing  more  important  to  do 
than  to  open  communication  with  the  inha1)itants  of  the 
French  Colonies,  which  are  upon  the  river  St.  Lawrence, 
the  Sieur  de  Grandfoutaine  should  give  particular  atten- 
tion to  find  the  means ;  and  he  should  go  to  work  without 
losing  a  moment  of  time — and  it  appears  that  this  commu- 
nication can  better  be  found  by  way  of  the  river  St.  John 
with  that  of  the  Savages,  or  that  of  Pentag(3et  with  that  of 
the  Saut,  otherwise  called  Chaudiere,  than  by  any  other 
places.  For  the  examination  and  discussion  of  the  best 
means  for  this  communication,  by  any  other  places,  as  well 
as  of  all  other  things,  he  will  have  as  much  acqiuxintance 
and  correspondence  as  he  can,  with  Monsieur  de  Cour- 
celles,  Governor,  and  Lieutenant  General  for  the  King  in 
Canada,  and  the  country  of  New  France,  and  Monsieur 
Talon,  Intendant  of  the  said  conntry, — to  follow  in  every- 
thing their  instructions  and  advice. 

And  supposing — what  is  not  to  be  believed — that  the 
said  Sieur  de  Grandfoutaine  finds  insurmountable  obsta- 
cles to  the  restitution  of  the  countr}^  before  mentioned,  and 
to  taking  possession  of  it,  he  must  know  that  it  would  not 
be  expedient  for  the  service  of  his  Majesty,  that  he  should 
return  to  France,  with  the  people  Avho  shall  be  placed  un- 
33 


254  DOCUMENTARY, 

der  his  command ;  but  that  he  oiig^ht  to  endeavor  to  take  a 
position  in  some  place,  upon  the  said  coast  of  Acadia, 
either  at  La  Heve,  or  such  other  phice  as  he  shall  judge 
fit,  in  order  to  give  account  of  his  anxieties,  and  of  the 
difficulties  that  he  will  have  met  in  the  execution  of  his 
orders,  whereupon  his  Majesty  will  let  him  know  what  he 
shall  do. 

(Signed)  COLBERT  DE  TERROU. 

["Documents  Collected  in  France"  Vol.  II,  page  211,  et 
seq.] 


Act  of  Surrende?'  of  Fort  Pentagoet,  in  Acadia,  hy  Captain 
Richard  Walker,  to  the  Chevalier  de  Crand-Fontaine, 
August  5,  1670,  with  a  detailed  account  of  the  condition 
of  the  said  Fort,  and  of  all  the  things  that  ivere  and  did 
remain  in  the  said  Fort,  at  the  time  of  its  surrender  to  the 
said  Chevalier  de  Grand-Fontaine. 

The  fifth  Day  of  August,  1670,  being  in  the  Fort  of 
Pentagiiet,  in  the  Countries  of  Acadia,  whereof  we  took 
Possession  for  his  most  Christian  Majesty  the  Seventeenth 
Day  of  last  Month,  Captain  Richard  Walker,  heretofore 
Deputy  Governor  of  the  said  Fort,  and  of  the  said  Coun- 
tries of  Acadia,  representing  the  Person  of  Sir  Thomas  Tem- 
ple.  Knight  and  Baronet,  accompanied  with  Isaac  Garden, 
Gentleman,  did  jointly  require  of  us,  that  we  should  give 
a  particular  Account  of  the  Condition  of  the  said  Fort, 
and  of  all  Things  which  were  and  did  remain  in  the 
said  Fort,  when  the  Possession  thereof  was  given  unto 
us  by  the  abovesaid  Captain  Richard  Walker,  that  they 
might  have  an  Instrument  in  Writing  indented,  to  deliver 
to  the  said  Sir  Thomas  Temple  for  their  Discharges,  where- 
unto  we  do  accord ;  and  for  that  End  and  Purpose,  we,  in 
the  Presence  of  the  above  named,  and  of  the  Sieur  Jean 
Maillard,  the  King's  Scrivener  in  the  Ship  of  his  Majesty, 
called  the  St.  Sebastian,  commanded  by  Monsieur  la 
Clocheterie,  as  also  of  another  Secretary,  writing  under  Us, 
the  said  Proceedings  in  Manner  and  Form  following. 

First,  at  the  entring  in  of  the  said  Fort  upon  the  left 
Hand,  we  found  a  Court  of  Guard*  of  about  fifteen 
Paces  long,  and  ten  broad,  having  upon  the  right  Hand  a 
House  of  the  like  Length  and  Breadth,  built  Avith  hewen 

*An  old  form  of  expression  for  Guard-house.    See  Shakspeare— I  King 
Henry  YI.    Act  II.  So.  1,  4th  line. 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  2oO 

Stone,  and  covered  with  Shingles,  and  above  them  there  is  a 
Chapel  of  about  six  Paces  long,  and  four  Paces  broad,  cov- 
ered with  Shingles,  and  built  with  Terras,'*  upon  which 
there  is  a  small  Turret,  wherein  there  is  a  little  Bell, 
weighing  about  eighteen  Pounds. 

More,  upon  the  left  Hand  as  we  entered  into  the  Court, 
there  is  a  Magazine,  having  two  Stories,  built  with  Stone, 
and  covered  with  Shingles,  being  in  Length  about  thirty- 
six  Paces  Long,  and  ten  in  Breadth,  which  Magazine  is 
very  old,  and  Avanted  much  Reparation,  and  which  there 
is  [a]  little  Cellar,  wherein  there  is  a  Well. 

And  upon  the  other  Side  of  the  said  Court,  being  on 
the  right  Hand,  as  we  enter  into  the  said  Court,  there  is 
a  House  of  the  same  Length  and  Breadth  as  the  Magazine 
is,  being  half  covered  with  Shingles,  and  the  rest  uncov- 
ered, and  wanted  much  Reparation  ;  these  we  have  exactly 
viewed,  and  taken  notice  of. 

Upon  the  Rampart  of  the  said  Fort,  and  in  Presence  of 
our  Canonier,  whom  we  caused  to  be  there  present,  to  take 
a  View  of  the  several  Pieces  of  Cannon,  are  as  followeth. 

First,  six  Iron  Guns  carrying  a  Ball  of  six  Pounds, 
whereof  two  are  furnished  with  new  Carriages,  and  the 
other  four  with  old  Carriages  and  new  Wheels;  Two  of 
them  weighing  eighteen  hundred  and  fifty  Pounds,  each  of 
them ;  Three  weighing  each  of  them  fifteen  hundred 
Pounds ;  the  other  weighing  two  Thousand  two  hundred 
and  Thirty  Pounds. 

More,  two  Iron  Guns,  carrying  a  Ball  of  four  Pounds, 
having  old  Carriages  and  new  Wheels,  one  weighing  one 
Thousand  three  hundred  and  ten  Pounds,  the  other  weigh- 
ing one  Thousand  two  Hundred  and  thirty-two. 

More,  two  small  Iron  Culverines,  carrying  a  Ball  of  three 
Pounds,  having  their  Carriages  old  and  their  Wheels  new, 
weighing  each  of  them  nine  Hundred  twenty-five  Pounds. 

Afterwards  we  went  out  of  the  said  fort  and  came  to  a 
little  Plat-form  near  adjoining  to  the  Sea,  upon  which  we 
surveyed  two  Iron  Guns,  carrying  a  Ball  of  eight  Pounds, 
furnished  with  new  Carriages  and  new  Wheels,  the  one 
weighing  three  Thousand  two  Hundred  Pounds,  and  the 
other  tliree  Thousand  one  Hundred  Pounds. 

Which   are    twelve    Iron    Guns,   weighing  twenty  one 
Tliousand  one  Hundred  twenty  and  two. 
•The  French  is  "  biltie  sur  une  terrasse." 


256  DOCUMENTARY. 

More,  we  do  find  in  the  said  Fort,  six  Murtherers  witB- 
out  Chambers,  weighing  twelve  hundred  Pounds. 

More,  two  hundred  Iron  Bullets,  from  three  to  eight 
Pounds. 

Lastly,  about  thirty  or  forty  Paces  from  the  said  Fort, 
there  is  a  small  Out-house,  being  about  twenty  Paces  in 
Length  and  eight  in  Breadth,  built  with  Planks,  and  half 
coveretl  with  Shingles,  which  do  not  serve  for  any  Use  but 
to  house  Cattle. 

More,  about  fifty  Paces  from  the  said  Out-house,  there 
is  a  square  Garden,  inclosed  with  Rails,  in  wliich  Garden 
there  are  fifty  or  sixty  Trees  bearing  Fruit. 

All  which  Things  above  Writ,  we  have  exactly  viewed 
and  taken  notice  of  in  the  Presence  of  the  Persons  under- 
written ;  and  I  do  acknowledge  that  they  are  in  the  Quality 
and  Condition  as  is  above  declared ;  whereof  we  have  given 
this  particular  Account,  that  the  Value  thereof  may  be 
made  good  to  the  said  Sir  Thomas  Temple^  or  to  his  Heirs 
or  his  Assignees,  or  to  whom  it  shall  belong;  whereunto 
we,  with  the  above  named,  have  put  our  Hands,  and  caused 
our  Secretary  to  witness  the  same,  the  Day  and  Year  above 
writ.  Signed  le  Chevalier  de  Grratid-Fontaine,  Jean  Mail- 
lard,  Hichard  Walker.  Isaac  Cramer,  Marshal  Secretary. 

/  do  herehy  certify  that  this  Paper  is  a  true  Copy  compared 
with  the  Origiyial  in  the  Books  of  this  Office.  Plantation 
Office,  Whitehall,  July  the  12th,  1750. 

Signed  Thoivias  Hill. 

[From  "  The  Memorials  of  the  English  and  French  Com- 
missaries concerning  the  Limits  of  Nova  Scotia  oT  Acadia. 
London  :  M  DCC  LV."  i3p.  606-610. — In  the  Library  of  the 
Boston  Athenseum.] 

5. 

Condition  of  the  Fort  and  p)ost  of  Pentagoet  as  it  was  in  the 
year  1670,  the  sixth  of  August,  when  the  English  surren- 
dered it. 
First,  a  fort  with  four   bastions,  well   flanked,  which 

bastions,  taking  them  as  far  as  the  verge  of  the  terrace 

inside,  are  sixteen  feet. 

The  terraces  on  the  inside  are  eight  feet  within  [en]  the 

curtains. 

On  entering  in  at  the  said  fort  there  is  upon  the  left 

hand  a  guard-house  that  is  from  twelve  to  thirteen  paces 

in  length  and  six  in  breadth. 


ANTE-E EVOLUTIONARY    PERIOD.  257 

Upon  the  same  side  is  a  low  Magazine  with  another  of 
equal  size  and  length,  being  thirty-six  paces  in  length  and 
about  twelve  in  breadth,  covered  with  shingles,  under  which 
Magazines  there  is  a  small  cellar  nearly  half  as  large  as  the 
Magazines,  in  which  there  is  a  well. 

Upon  the  right  hand  on  entering  into  said  fort  there  is  a 
house  of  the  same  size  as  the  aforesaid  guard-house,  in 
which  there  are  three  rooms. 

Above  the  passage  which  is  between  the  guard-house 
and  the  house  which  is  upon  the  right,  there  is  a  chapel, 
eight  paces  in  length,  and  six  in  breadth,  built  of  timber, 
and  with  mud  walls,  [Bouzillage,]  upon  which  is  a  small 
steeple,  in  which  is  a  metallic  bell  weighing  eighteen 
pounds,  the  whole  covered  with  shingles. 

Upon  the  right  hand  is  a  house,  of  the  like  length  and 
breadth  as  the  magazine,  of  the  same  character  except  that 
it  is  not  all  covered,  and  that  it  has  no  cellar.  All  of  which 
houses  are  built  of  stone  from  Mayenne,  [in  the  places] 
where  a  little  repair  is  necessary. 

Sixty  paces  from  the  place  there  is  a  shed — half  covered 
with  plank — twenty -five  paces  long  and  twelve  wide,  which 
serves  to  house  the  cattle. 

About  one  hundred  and  forty  paces  from  the  place,  there 
is  a  garden,  which  has  been  found  in  quite  good  condition, 
in  which  there  are  seventy  or  eighty  feet  of  fruit  trees. 

In  regard  to  the  Artillery  upon  the  rampart  of  the  said 
fort,  the  following  cannon  were  found,  first: 

Six  iron  guns  carr3dng  6-lb.  balls,  two  having  new  carri- 
ages, and  the  other  four  old,  and  the  wheels  new,  which 
six  pieces  weigh,  according  to  their  marks, 
One  1800     pounds, 

One  1230 

Three  others  1500         " 
One  1350 

Besides  two  pieces  carrying  2-lb  balls,  having  old  carri- 
ages and  new  Avheels,  weighing 

One  1310         pounds, 

The  other       1232 

Besides,  two  iron  Culverins,  3-lbers.,  with  their  carriages 
old  and  wheels  new,  weighing  each  925  pounds. 

Besides,  u})on  a  platform  overlooking  the  sea  and  outside 
of  the  fort,  two  iron  guns  carrying  an  eight  pound  ball, 
having  new  carriages, 

One  weighing  3200         pounds, 
The  other  3100 


258  DOCUMENTARY. 

In  the  fort  is  found  200  bullets  from  three  to  eight 
pounds  in  size.  Lastly,  upon  the  ramparts  there  are  six 
iron  guns  without  stock,  and  dismounted,  that  they  judge 
to  weigh  1200  pounds.  ["  French  Documents,"  page  227 
et  seq.j 

6. 

Memorial  of  Monsieur  Talon  to  the  King. 

Quebec,  November  10,  1670. 

******** 

I  have  entertained  two  Frenchmen  and  two  Savages  sent 
by  the  Chevalier  de  Grandfontaine,  Governor  of  Acadia, 
with  letters  which  show  that  the  English  have  given  back 
to  him,  in  good  faith,  the  portion  for  the  restitution  of 
which  the  King  of  Great  Britain  had  engaged  himself 
by  the  treaty  of  Breda.  That  he  has  been  very  well 
received  and  that  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  he  will 
easily  bring  about  commercial  relations  with  Boston  if  his 
Majesty  judges  it  useful  to  his  service. 

That  he  has  found  at  Pentagoet  the  Fort,  of  which  I 
send  the  plan  under  the  apprehension  that  that  which  he 
had  caused  to  go  by  the  St.  Sebastian  might  be  lost.-  That 
there  is  some  timber  suitable  for  the  Navy,  safe  harbors 
and  abundant  fisheries  throughout  all  the  extent  of  Acaclta. 

That  the  privilege  of  fishing  is  only  granted  by  the  Eng- 
lish upon  paying  a  duty  of  twenty-five  crowns  per  boat. 
That  this  duty  is  collected  by  Colonel  Temple  or  by  his 
creditors  for  the  discharge  of  his  debts.  It  is  of  conse- 
quence to  know  whether  the  King  desires  that  they  should 
continue  to  give,  in  his  name,  the  same  permission  to  the 
English,  and  upon  what  terms. 

That  the  ground  in  the  vicinity  of  Pentagoet  is  not  the 
most  suitable  for  cultivation,  but  is  much  like  that  of  Port 
Royal  and  the  river  St.  John. 

That  almost  all  the  soldiers  desire  to  settle. 

That  there  was  a  place  in  the  vicinity  much  better  adapt- 
ed to  receive  a  more  regular  fortification  and  of  better  secur- 
ity than  the  post  that  he  was  occup3dng,  which  is  com- 
manded [  by  the  high  land  ?]  and  that  his  opinion  was  that 
he  should  work  there  and  in  this  direction  his  inclination 
appears  to  me  to  incline  him. 

That  the  English  had  seized  a  vessel  which  had  been 
apparently  taken  away  from  Jamaica  by  a  Frenchman  from 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONAEY   PERIOD.  259 

St.  Malo,  named  La  Fontaine,  and  by  bim  conducted  to 
Boston,  loaded  witb  Mercbandise  estimated  at  more  tban 
100,000  crowns  and  carrying  some  forty  pieces  of  cannon, 
a  part  iron  and  a  part  brass. 

Tbat  tbis  La  Fontaine  bas  escaped  and  tbat  tbey  mis- 
trust tbat  tbis  vessel  belongs  to  tbe  King. 

To  tbis  letter  I  bave  replied  in  advance,  and,  under  tbe 
good  pleasure  of  bis  Majesty,  I  bave  made  it  known  to  tbe 
Cbevalier  de  Grandfontaine  tbat  my  opinion  was  tbat  be 
sbould  not  give  any  cause  for  jealousy  to  tbe  Englisb,  by 
new  fortifications  and  new  works,  nor  cause  for  belief  tbat 
tbe  King  wisbes  to  become  tbe  master  of  all  tbe  fisberies 
wdiicb  are  for  bis  convenience,  by  excluding  tbem  and 
refusing  permission  [to  fisb]  until  tbe  autbority  of  bis 
Majesty  was  acknowledged  and  bis  troops  well  confirmed 
in  tbe  post  of  Pentagoet — for  tbe  repair  and  fortification  of 
wbicb  it  imports  bim  to  give  bis  first  and  cbief  attention 
and  bis  aid  in  establisbing  tbe  soldiers  and  tbeir  families. 

And  [to  give]  bis  attention  to  bringing  about  a  con- 
nexion and  correspondence  witb  Boston  in  order  to  get 
from  tbere  wbat  be  wants,  and  for  otber  reasons  wbicb  I 
cannot  lay  down,  since  tbis  correspondence  may  be  useftd 
in  tbis  beginning  of  tbe  settlement  and  may  be  broken 
wben  it  pleases  bis  Majesty. 

And  as  to  tbe  matter  of  tbe  vessels — I  bave  sent  letters 
to  Colonel  Temple,  and  to  tbe  Governor  and  Council  of 
Boston,  by  wbicb  I  make  entreaty  witb  all  for  tbat  wbicb 
tbey  preserve,  and  tbe  crew  of  tbe  vessel,  its  rigging  and 
appurtenances,  and  tbe  mercbandise  wbicb  tbey  bave  taken 
cliarge  of,  beseecbing  tbem  to  send  me  by  tbe  lieutenant  of 
Monsieur  de  Grandfontaine,  wbo  must  be  carrier  of  tbe  let- 
ters, tbe  duplicates  of  tbe  proces  verbal^  inventories  and 
otber  legal  instruments  wbicb  bave  been  drawn  up  in 
regard  to  tbe  detention  of  tbis  vessel,  so  tbat  if  it  is  proved 
tbat  it  belongs  to  bis  Majesty,  I  miglit  make,  in  bis  name, 
tbe  claim  in  a  Court  of   Justice. 

(  "He  bas  well  answered." — Colhei't.') 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  2d,  Page  231  et  seq. 


Memoir  of  Monsieur  Talon  to  the  King. 

Quebec,  2d  November,  1G71. 

Tbe  Sieur  de   Marson,  lieutenant  of  tbe  Cbevalier  de 


260  DOCUMENTARY. 

Grandfontaine,  with  whom  he  has  fallen  out,  has  come 
here  from  Pentagoet,  with  the  consent  of  his  captain. 
Both  have  given  me  their  respective  causes  of  complaint, 
which  I  shall  examine,  nevertheless  I  do  not  believe  that 
it  was  for  the  King's  service  to  dismiss  the  said  lieutenant 
within  his  gate,  before  having  either  tried  or  settled  his 
quarrel ;  because  their  animosity  appears  too  great,  in 
order  that  the  two  parties  should  not  proceed  to  any 
extreme  in  sight  of  the  English,  and  as  1  know  that  the 
service  of  the  King  requires  that  I  should  make  a  voyage 
to  Acadia  before  I  return  to  France,  I  have  kept  near  me 
the  said  lieutenant,  who  will  accompany  me  on  my  journ- 
uey,  that  I  shall  make,  if  my  health  returns,  either  this 
winter,  upon  snow-shoes,  or  next  spring,  in  canoes. 

I  shall  observe  the  condition  of  the  two  principal  posts 
of  Pentagoet  and  Port  Royal,  and  if  they  need  any  repair, 
I  will  cause  work  to  be  done  [on  them.] 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  1,  page  247.] 


JExtract  from  a  letter  of    Grovernor  Leverett,  to   3Ir.  John 

Collins^  dated  August  24,  1674. 

"  Our  neighbors,  the  Dutch,  have  been  very  neighborly 
since  they  had  certaine  intelligence  of  the  peace.  One  of 
their  captains  have  bin  upon  the  French  forts,  taken 
Penobscot,  with  loss  of  men  on  both  sides ;  what  they 
have  done  further  east,  we  understand  not." 

[From  the  Hutchinson  Papers,  p.  464.] 

9. 

Memorial  from  Count  Frontenac  to  the  Minister. 

Quebec,  November  14,  1674. 

Although  I  am  in  despair  at  having  to  write  to  you  news 
little  agreeable,  I  cannot  refrain  from  giving  yon  notice  of 
the  disaster  which  has  happened  to  Monsieur  Chambly,  of 
his  wound,  of  his  confinement  in  prison,  and  of  the  capture 
of  Pentagoet,  together  with  that  of  Genesee,  in  the  St. 
John's  river,  and  of  Monsieur  Marson,  who  commanded 
there. 

What  I  have  learned,  from  a  letter  that  Monsieur  Cham- 
bly has  written  me,  is,  that  he  was  attacked  by  a  crew  of 


AifTE-BEVOLUTIONAllY   PEEIOD.  261 

buccaneers,  who  had  just  come  from  St.  Domingo,  and 
who  had  crossed  over  from  Boston,  with  one  hundred  and 
ten  men,  who,  after  landing,  kept  up  their  attack  for  an 
hour. 

He  received  a  musket-shot  through  the  body,  that  com- 
pelled him  to  leave  the  field,  and  which  also  injured  liis 
ensign;  and  the  rest  of  his  garrison  which,  with  the  inhab- 
itants, was  composed  of  only  thirty  disaffected  and  badly 
armed  men,  surrendered  at  discretion.  The  pirates  have 
pillaged  the  fort,  carrying  away  all  the  guns  ;  and  while 
they  ought  to  have  brought  Monsieur  Chambly  to  Boston 
with  Monsieur  Marson,  he  has  been  taken  to  the  St.  John's 
river,  by  a  detachment  who  hold  him  as  a  ransom,  and 
wish  to  make  him  pay  a  thousand  beavers. 

As  I  received  this  news  only  the  last  of  September, 
through  the  savages  whom  Monsieur  Chambly  sent  me 
with  his  ensign,  praying  me  to  give  an  order  for  his  ran- 
som, and  as  there  remains  not  more  than  a  month  of  navi- 
gation, I  shall,  in  the  inability  of  sending  to  Acadia  for 
help — even  although  I  may  have  the  necessary  things  for 
that — content  myself  with  sending  some  soldiers  in  canoes, 
in  order  to  get  news  of  the  state  in  which  they  have  left 
the  fort;  and  if  no  invasion  is  made  against  Port  Royal, 
to  give  orders  to  bring  back  tlie  girl  of  Marson's,  and 
those  who  are  retained  in  the  St.  John's  river,  and  to  send 
to  a  correspondent  that  Monsieur  Formont  has  provided 
for  me  at  Boston,  bills  of  exchange  for  the  ransom  of 
Monsieur  Chambly,  which  I  am  obliged  to  discharge  by 
my  merchant  at  Rochelle,  not  thinking  it  for  the  glory  of 
the  King — for  which  I  shall  always  sacrifice  what  little 
property  I  may  have — to  leave  for  the  consideration  of 
our  neighbors  a  Governor  in  the  hands  of  pirates,  who 
would  have  brought  him  with  them  where  one  may  be 
killed ;  besides,  that  this  poor  gentleman  is  assuredly,  on 
account  of  his  merit  and  his  long  service,  worthy  of  a  bet- 
ter destiny. 

I  have  also  written  a  letter  to  the  Governor  of  Boston, 
of  which  1  send  you  a  copy.  In'  which  I  express  my  aston- 
ishment \o  him,  that  while  tliere  has  been  no  rupture 
between  His  Majesty  and  the  King  of  England,  he  gives 
shelter  to  these  pirates  and  these  vagi-ants  and  men  with- 
out employment,  after  they  have  insulted  us  so;  and,  as 
for  me,  I  shall  believe  in  failing  [to  carry  out]  the  orders 
34 


262  "     DOCUMENTARY. 

I  have  had,  to  keep  up  a  good  correspondence  with  them 
if  I  had  opportunity  for  anything  of  the  kind. 

I  am  persuaded  that  these  people  from  Boston  have 
employed  these  men  there  to  do  us  this  injury,  they  having 
given  them  even  an  English  pilot  to  conduct  them,  they 
impatiently  enduring  our  neighborhood,  and  the  fear 
which  this  gives  them  for  their  fisheries  and  their  trade. 

I  do  not  know  if  those  that  I  have  sent  you  will  be 
able  to  return  before  the  departure  of  the  vessels ;  or 
whether  I  may  be  able  to  send  other,  more  particular, 
news.  But  my  Lord,  by  what  I  have  written  you  now, 
and  by  what  Monsieur  Chambly  will  write  you  the  first 
opportunity  he  finds,  you  will  be  able  to  discover  the 
oiders  that  you  should  give  for  the  safety  of  Acadia,  and 
what  you  wish  I  should  do,  since  you  know  I  am  unable 
to  do  any  good  as  82.  25.  12.  17.  69.  14.  17.  92.  5.  to  be 
able  there,"failing  105.  33.  17.  29.  14.  57.  67.  104.  24.  18. 
32.  12.  of  all  things  18.  86.  14.  106.  14.  20.  68.  37.  24.  39. 
17.  7.  79.  28.  17.*  and  that  you  expressly  forbid  me  making 
any  extraordinary  expense,  which  I  shall  observe  with  the 
utmost  care. 

It  is  very  much  to  the  purpose,  I  think,  that  I  finish 
this  letter,  which  ought  to  weary  you,  it  has  already  been 
so  long ;  and  that  I  add  only  those  protestations  that  I 
will  make  to  you,  even  to  the  last  breath  of  my  life. 
My  Lord, 

Your  very  humble,  very 
obedient,  and  very 
obliged  servant, 

FRONTENAC. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  2,  p.  287,  et  seq.] 

10. 
Letter  of  Monsieur   de    Colbert  to   3Ionsieur  de   Frontenac, 

St.   Germain-en   Laye,  15th  March,  1675. 

******* 

His  Majesty  has  been  surprised  to  learn  that  the  forts  of 
Pentagoet,  and  of  Genesee,  have  been  seized  and  pillaged 
by  the  crew  of  a  privateer ;  he  cannot  persuade  himself 
that  there  has  not  been  a  little  negligence  upon  the  part 
of  Sieur  de  Chambly.  He  wishes  nevertheless,  that  you 
may  do  all  that  you  possibly  can  to  bring  it  [the  captured 
•Perhaps  the  reader  ■will  decipher  this ;  we  confess  our  inability  to  do  so. 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  263 

vessel]  back  from  Boston,  together  witli  the  soldiers  and 
other  persons  taken  with  it,  and  to  repair  this  mishap,  in 
regard  to  the  vessel  which  has  been  built  in  CariaJa.  You 
have  done  well  to  compel  the  Sieur  Baguire,  agent  of  the 
company,  to  advance  some  money  for  the  finishing  of  this 
construction.  His  re-imbursement  will  be  provided  for, 
and  I  will  give  the  necessary  orders  to  Monsieur  de 
Demain,  Intendant  of  the  Navy,  at  Rochefort,  to  carry  by 
the  first  vessels  which  shall  go  to  Canada,  all  the  rigging, 
appurtenances,  arms,  and  ammunition  necessary  for  the 
armament  of  this  vessel,  and  to  conduct  it  into  one  of  the 
ports  of  the  kingdom,  his  Majesty  not  wishing  to  confer 
such  a  favor  upon  this  country  as  you  propose. 
["French  Documents — "vol.  2,  page  291.] 

11. 

Order  of  Mr.  Palmer,  Judge  of  New  York,  to  Thomas  Sharpe^ 

Captain  of  a  vessel. 

New  York,  July  23,  1686. 

He  will  go  to  Pentagoet,  and  will  send  his  letter  to 
Sieur  de  St.  Castin. 

He  will  go  to  the  places  where  are  the  wines  which  he 
had  seized,  in  the  name  of  his  Britannic  Majesty,  and  will 
put  aboard  his  vessel,  all  which  he  can  take. 

If  he  finds  upon  his  return  some  ships  or  vessels  negotia- 
ting to,  or  having  put  some  merchandise  ashore  in  the 
country,  belonging  to  the  Enghsh,  he  will  seize  them  and 
will  bring  them  to  Pemaquid. 

["French  Documents,"  voh  3,  page  187.] 

12. 

Synopsis  of  a  letter  from  Mr.  Palmer,  to   the   Sieur  de,  St. 

Castin. 

New  York,  July  31, 1686. 

As  he  learns  that  vessels  are  transporting  contraband 
goods,  he  has  sent  one  on  a  cruise  upon  the  coasts  subject 
to  the  jurisdiction  of  New  York. 

He  commands  him  in  the  name  of  His  Britannic  Majesty 
not  to  hinder  the  carrying  off  of  the  wine  which  has  been 
found  at  Pentagoet.  He  warns  him  not  to  threaten  the 
subjects  of  the  English  King,  among  others  those  who 
dwell  on  the  island  of  Martini(;[uc;  and  that  he  will  not  be 
allowed  on  English  'territory  if  he  intends  to  aid  the  Sav- 
ages. 


264  DOCUMENTARY. 

Having  orders  from  His  Britannic  Majesty  to  give  lands 
to  thosa  who  shall  wish  any,  and  to  confirm  to  others  that 
which  iiikyh.^XB  marked  for  said  Sienr  de  St.  Castin,  [hav- 
ing orders]  that,  as  he  pretends  to  own  a  portion,  he  should 
sunnnon  him  on  the  part  of  the  said  King,  in  order  to  learn 
what  lands  he  wished  to  possess,  which  would  he  granted 
him  in  the  name  of  His  said  Britannic  Majesty,  on  his 
becoming  his  subject. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  188.] 

13. 

RepoH  of  Monsieur  de  Denonville  to  the  3Iimster. 

Quebec,  10  November,  168(5. 

There  is  at  Pentagdet  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin,  who  is  a 
gentlemanly  officer  in  the  Carignans.  He  is  very  daring 
and  enterprising  and  cherishes  the  interests  of  the  King, 
having  his  life  all  the  time  at  stake  from  the  English  with 
the  Savages  of  the  country  of  which  he  has  become  the 
ruler. 

They  assure  me  that  he  has  recently  come  into  the  inher- 
itance in  France  of  XoOOO  a  year,  that  he  is  a  man  of 
sound  understanding,  hating  the  English  who  fear  him. 

If  Monsieur  Perrot  dislikes  him  on  account  of  his  gov- 
ernment, St.  Castin,  by  the  report  they  have  given  me  of 
him,  should  be  a  true  man  to  give  chase  to  the  j^irates  and 
to  encourage  the  fisheries  of  Monsieur  de  Chenvy,  I  have 
requested  him  to  come  to  see  me  in  order  to  become  better 
acquainted  with  him  and  to  engage  him  to  go  to  France,  if 
he  should  appear  to  me  fit  for  anything. 

He  is  quite  solicitous  of  honor,  [and]  having  some  prop- 
erty, this  will  be  a  great  help  in  sustaining  a  post  like  that 
of  Port  Royal,  especially  if  he  is  not  selfish. 

It  is  true  that  he  has  been  addicted  in  the  past  to  liber- 
tinism ;  but  they  assure  me  that  he  has  very  much  reformed 
and  has  very  good  sentiments. 

My  Lord  our  Bishop  has  returned  from  Acadia  where  he 
has  made  his  visit  to  all  the  dwellings  with  great  fatigue. 
He  will  send  you  an  account  of  the  great  amount  of  disor- 
der which  there  is  in  the  forest  from  the  wretched  libertines 
who  have  been  for  a  long  time  like  the  Savages,  doing 
nothing  towards  cultivating  the  land. 

I  have  written  strongly  about  it  to  Monsieur  Perrot. 
When  we  shall  be  at  leisure  it  will  be  well  for  Monsieur  de 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  265 

Champigny  and  myself  to  make  a  tour  there.  I  learn  this 
on  all  sides,  both  that  there  is  scarcely  any  left  of  the  Sav- 
ages and  that  they  are  for  the  most  part  destroyed  by  exces- 
sive drinking  of  brandy. 

Monsieur  I'Evesque  sends  three  priests  there  with  the 
Sieur  Petit  whom  I  understand  talks  to  much  advantage. 

They  assure  me  that  the  English  have  destroyed  all  the 
fish  upon  their  coast  and  that  they  continue  to  fish  upon 
ours;  they  will  soon  drive  them  away;  for  they  do  not 
come  ashore  like  us  to  work  the  fish — throwing  into  the  sea 
all  the  heads  and  garbage  Avhich  become  putrid  and  infect 
the  bottom. 

What  has  hindered  the  progress  of  the  Colony  in  Acadia 
is  the  trade  in  the  beaver,  which  has  turned  the  brains  of 
the  inhabitants  of  Acadia  as  well  as  others,  and  which  hin- 
ders the  success  of  the  permanent  fisheries  for  which  there 
ought  to  be  small  houses  and  ordinances  in  the  places  where 
the  soil  is  good. 

It  is  a  shame  that  the  people  who  have  dwelt  in  this 
place  for  fifty  years — father  and  son — have  not  received  a 
bushel  of  corn,  and  have  not  even  gardens.  It  is  a  shame 
that  I  have  been  upbraided  by  some  people  in  this  country, 
Avhom  I  have  threatened  to  dispossess  if  they  did  not  clear 
the  ground. 

It  is  proper  that  you  should  know  that  piracies  are  daily 
committed  in  our  bay  and  upon  our  coasts,  which  proceed 
from  New  England  alone. 

Monsieur  de  Champigny  will  inform  you  how  Dombour, 
a  captain  of  a  vessel  which  has  brought  him  here,  has 
given  chase  to  a  corsair  which  had  taken  a  fishing  vessel 
from  Bayonne,  which  was  released  by  the  firmness  of  Dom- 
bour who  was  not  in  too  good  condition  to  give  combat.  I 
perceive  that  all  our  captains  are  very  much  disgusted  at 
the  news  which  they  have  had  that  there  was  at  Boston  a 
frigate  of  25  guns  destined  to  cruise  in  the  bay  and  straits 
of  the  Hudson.  Monsieur  Perrot  writes  me  thus,  and  that 
the  people  of  Boston  boast  strongly. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  233  et  seq.] 

14. 

Siivwiary   of  a    letter  from   Monsieur   Perrot   to    Colonel 
JJonjjan. 

Port  Royal,  29th  August,  1C86. 
I  complain  that  people  have  come  to  Pentagoet  b}'  order 


266  DOCUMENTARY. 

of  the  Sieur  Palmer  to  confiscate  the  goods  which  have 
been  discharged  from  an  English  vessel. 

Although  the  pretenses  of  the  said  Sieur  Dongan  are 
that  his  government  has  posession  of  the  French  coast  even 
to  the  river  St.  Croix,  he  does  not  believe  that  he  desires 
to  decide  the  dispute  by  violence  before  ihe  decision  of 
the  Kings  of  France  and  England. 

The  said  Palmer  ought  not  to  commit  the  act  which  he 
has  on  the  lands  of  the  King,  the  fort  of  Pentagoet  belong- 
ing to  His  Majesty  by  the  treaty  of  Breda.  He  expects 
justice  of  Sieur  Dongan  that  he  may  not  be  obliged  to  do 
it  himself.     ["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  191.] 

15. 

Note  hy  the  J/mtseer— 1686. 

The  early  part  of  the  last  year  Monsieur  Perrot  was 
compelled  to  borrow  money  of  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  in 
order  to  buy  two  ketches,  but  when  they  had  arrived  he 
found  none  of  the  inhabitants  who  would  undertake  to  go 
on  board  and  on  that  account  was  obliged  to  make  use  of 
English  fishermen  under  the  flag  of  France.  The  enter- 
prise has  not  prospered  [  on  account  of  ]  the  knavish  talk 
of  these  fishermen,  who  steal  the  greater  part  of  the  fish 
which  they  send  to  Boston;  so  that  the  Sieur  Perrot,  in 
order  not  to  fail,  was  compelled  to  return  the  two  ketches 
to  the  seller  and  to  relinquish  what  fish  remained. 
["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  231.] 

16. 

Memorial  concerning  some  wines  seized  at  Pentagoet^  pre- 
sented  to  the  King  of  England  hy  the  Ministers  of  France 
about  1687. 

The  undersigned  Ambassador  and  Envoy  Extraordinary 
of  France,  Commissaries  appointed  for  the  execution  of  the 
Treaty  of  neutralit}^  in  regard  to  America,  represent  to 
your  Majesty  that  the  person  called  Philip  Syuret,  master 
of  a  vessel  called  the  Jane,  having  depai'ted  from  Malgue 
for  New  France,  entrusted  with  Merchandise  for  the  account 
of  the  Messrs.  Nelson,  Watkins  and  partners,  and  having 
delivered  them,  agreeably  to  his  bill  of  lading,  to  the  Sieur 
Vincent  de  Castene,  merchant  established  at  Pentagoet, 
situated  in  the  province  of  Acadia ;  the  Judge  of  Pemaquid, 
who   is  under  the  authority  of   your  Majesty,  caused  to 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  267 

be  fitted  out  a  vessel  which  he  sent  to  Pentagoet,  from 
whence  he  carried  off  the  said  merchandise  as  being  con- 
traband, and  pretending  that  Pentagoet  belonged  to  your 
Majesty,  seized  the  vessel  of  the  said  Syuret,  and  refuses, 
even  now,  to  restore  it.  But  as  by  the  articles  X  and  XI 
of  the  Treaty  of  Breda,  it  is  expressly  declared  that 
Acadia  belongs  to  the  King,  our  master ;  and  as  in  execu- 
tion of  this  Treaty,  the  late  King  of  England,  by  his  dis- 
patch of  the  6-16*  of  August,  1669,  has  sent  his  orders  to 
Chevalier  Temple,  then  Governor  at  Boston,  to  surrender 
Acadia  into  the  hands  of  the  Chevalier  de  Grand-Fontaine, 
and  especially  the  forts  and  dwellings  of  Pentagoet,  which 
are  a  part  of  it ;  and  besides  the  said  Chevalier  Temple, 
after  the  reception  of  this  order,  being  ill,  conferred 
authority  upon  Captain  Richard  Walker,  by  a  writing  of 
the  7-17  July,  1670,  to  give  back  in  his  absence  the 
said  jDrovince  of  Acadia,  and  especially  the  forts  and  dwell- 
ings of  Pentagoet,  into  the  hands  of  the  said  Chevalier  de 
Grand-Fontaine,  authorized  by  the  King  our  master  to 
receive  it ;  besides  that  the  said  Captain  Walker  obliged 
the  Chevalier  de  Grand-Fontaine  to  give  him  a  writing- 
dated  the  5th  of  August  1670,  by  which  he  acknowledges 
that  Captain  Walker  is  acquitted  of  the  trust  that  he  had 
received  from  the  Chevalier  Thomas  Temple,  and  that  he 
has  surrendered  to  him,  the  Chevalier  de  Grand-Fontaine, 
the  province  of  Acadia,  and  especially  the  forts  and  habi- 
tations of  Pentagoet. 

The  said  undersigned  Ambassador  and  Envoy  have  confi- 
dence in  the  justice  of  3'our  Majesty,  that  after  having 
taken  cognizance  of  all  these  things,  she  will  disavow  the 
proceeding  of  the  Judge  of  Pemaquid,  will  prohibit  his 
committing  similar  infractions  of  the  law  in  future,  and 
will  order  that  all  the  merchandise  of  the  said  Syuret  shall 
be  restored  to  him,  or  the  just  value  thereof,  that  his  vessel 
shall  be  restored  to  liim  immediately,  and  that  he  shall  be 
imdemnified  for  all  the  expenses  that  this  interruption  in 
his  commerce  has  caused  him. 

(Signed)  BARILLON  &  BONREPAUS. 

[From  "  The  Memorials    of  tlie    English    and    French 
Commissaries  concerning  the  Limits  of  Nova  Scotia  or  Aca- 
dia." pp.  615,  616.] 
•The  first  mimbor  denotes  old  style,  and  tlie  last  new  style. 


268  DOCUMENTARY. 

17 

Letter  of   the  Baron  de  St.  Castin,  to  Monsieur  the  Marquis 
of  Denonville. 

Pentagoet,  2d  July,  1687. 
I  make  use  of  the  means  of  these  two  Savages,  whom  I 
have  charged  to  make  all  possible  diligence,  to  inform  you 
that  two  days  after  having  returned  from  Port  Royal,  the 
English  came  with  fifty  men,  to  take  possession  of  this 
place,  and  went  everywhere  along  the  coast  as  far  as  the 
river  St.  Groix,  which  is  about  40  leagues  from  here 
towards  the  east,  where  they  say  their  boundary  is.  They 
have  given  me  to  understand  that  it  was  adjusted  thus 
between  the  two  kingdoms ;  as  I  had  no  orders  from  M. 
Perrot,  I  have  told  them  that  I  have  no  answer  for  them  ; 
that  I  am  only  a  private  individual,  and  an  inhabitant  only 
of  this  place.  They  have  forbid  me  any  longer  to  receive 
the  orders  of  the  French,  as  well  as  the  two  inhabitants, 
who  are  about  two  leagues  from  here.  They  have  been  in 
all  the  places  where  there  are  Savages,  in  order  to  say  as 
much  to  them,  and  have  made  them  many  presents.  It  is 
necessary  that  I  should  acknowledge  to  you  that  I  have 
been  surprised,  and  that  if  there  had  been  no  ruler  in  this 
country,  I  should  have  tried  to  prolong  this  business  until 
I  had  received  some  orders  from  you ;  but  I  have  been 
very  badly  received  by  Monsieur  our  Governor,  who  has 
made  a  slight  pretext  the  past  year  of  opposing  the  English, 
who  came  to  seize  some  wine,  about  a  quarter  of  a  league 
from  my  house  ;  and  I  believe,  from  the  disposition  I  know 
he  has,  that  he  would  ask  nothing  better,  to  make  me  pass 
wholly  for  a  seditious  person,  and  a  man  who  would 
encroach  upon  his  authority  by  undertaking  something 
without  order.  If  I  was  not  on  bad  terms  with  him,  from 
a  feeling  that  every  upright  man  ought  to  have,  when  he 
is  ill-treated  by  his  ruler  as  I  have  been,  I  should  have 
informed  you  of  his  conduct ;  but  I  prefer  to  suffer  a  little 
longer,  and  that  the  matter  should  come  to  you  through 
the  letters  of  M.  Petit,  priest  at  Port  Royal,  who  will  not 
fail  to  acquaint  you  Avith  all,  without  passion,  which  I 
might  not  be  able  to  do  ;  I  will  only  tell  you  that  he  has 
detained  me  from  the  21st  of  April  to  June  9th,  under 
pretense  of  some  weakness  that  I  have  for  some  women  ; 
and  he  has  even  told  me  that  he  had  orders  from  you  to 
do  it.     But  that  is  not  what  vexes  him  ;  and  as  I  do  not 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  269 

think  there  is  another  man  under  heaven  whom  self-inter- 
est would  lead  to  more  base  actions  than  to  vend,  himself, 
in  his  own  house,  before  strangers,  brandy  by  the  pint  and 
half-pint,  not  trusting  a  single  one  of  his  domestics  to  do 
it  for  him,  I  understand  well  his  trouble  ;  he  wishes  to  be 
the  only  dealer  in  Acadia,  as  please  God,  he  may,  for  all 
me  ;  for  as  long  as  he  shall  be  in  this  country,  I  shall  aim 
not  to  displease  him  in  this  respect.  He  has  never  been 
willing  to  give  me  permission  to  go  to  Isle  Percee* 
[I'lsle  perc^e]  because  he  fears  that  I  will  go  perhaps  even 
to  Quebec, — nor  will  he  permit  me  to  send  to  Boston,  after 
some  millstones,  for  a  mill,  which  the  commonalty  of  Port 
Royal  has  desired  me  to  construct  for  them,  although  he  ' 
had  promised  it  before  the  mill  was  commenced,  and  now 
it  is  finished,  and  the  mill-stones  are  paid  for.  He  has 
changed  his  mind,  and  makes  no  difficulty  about  sending 
M.  Villebon,  who  only  returned  from  there  fifteen  days 
ago,  and  who  must  go  there  again  towards  the  first  of 
September,  to  go  after  a  bark  that  he  has  had  built  there. 
If  I  were  not  afraid  of  wearying  you,  I  would  inform  you 
of  many  other  particulars  concerning  the  affairs  of  this 
countr}'',  which  are  in  a  strange  disorder,  especially  at 
Port  Ro3"al,  where  M.  Petit  certainly  suffers  much. 

I  will  close.  Monsieur,  l>y  assuring  you  that  I  am,  with 
all  possible  respect, 

Your  very  liuml:)le  and  very  obedient  servant, 

ST.  CASTIN. 

I  forgot  to  tell  you  that  going  away  from  Port  Royal, 
M.  Perrot  drew  me  one  side,  and  whispered  in  my  ear  that 
if  the  English  should  come  here,  I  should  say  nothing,  and 
that  it  was  not  necessary  to  say  anything.  This  I  imme- 
diately after  told  to  M.  Petit,  not  understanding  what  it 
meant.  I  departed  from  the  above  place,  and  two  days 
after  that  I  had  arrived  here  the  English  came,  wlio  said, 
in  presence  of  the  French,  who  are  here,  that  M.  Perrot 
had  twice  sent  M.  Viilebon  as  deputy  to  the  Governor  at 
Boston;  besides  whom  there  was  no  one  else  to  whom  he 
had  communicated  anything  else  in  the  world.  This  that 
I  say  is  very  true ;  not  that  I  am  certain  of  anything  ;  for 

*Whcro  this  "  Isle  Porcci"  is,  we  do  not  know.  Willianison  [Flist.  of  Me., 
Vol.  1.  p.  iVifi,]  nvntions  u  French  settlement  by  that  name,  apjiarently 
l)etween  Clit'tlahnetoo  and  St.  Joliii.  In  a  sketch  ironi  the  "  Noviis  Atlas" 
— IGl'J— [in  Docnnicntary  History  ol"  Maine.  Ix'twccn  ]i|).  lilt  and  ol.").]  there 
is  an  island  at  the  nioiiih  of  the  St.  .Inhii  river,  calh-d  "  l>le  lisperee." 


270  DOCUMENTARY. 

I  ouglit  not  to  advance  anything  that  I  cannot  sustain, 
even  to  the  last  word,  and  which  also  cannot  be  con- 
firmed in  the  course  of  time.  I  know  too  well  that  this 
matter  may  go  a  great  way  for  me  to  desire  to  advance 
anything  which  is  not  very  true. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  259,  et  seq.] 


18. 

Lettei'  of  the  Marquis  de  Denonville  to  the  Minister. 

At  Ville  Marie,  25th  August,  1687. 
^  *****  * 

I  receive  letters  from  Acadia  which  inform  me  that  the 
English  are  not  sparing  of  making  an  attempt  upon  the 
lands  of  the  King  upon  that  coast.  I  send  you  the  letter 
which  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  has  written  me  about  it,  who 
appears  to  wish  me  to  understand  that  M.  Perrot  is  in  con- 
cert with  the  Governor  at  Boston.  If  this  lasts,  my  Lord, 
he  has  no  more  means  of  resistance.  I  would  much  prefer 
to  make  war  against  them  than  against  the  Iroquois,  and 
if  they  are  taken  the  Iroquois  would  be  put  in  order  and 
forced  to  follow  our  will.         ***** 

["French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  266.] 


19. 

Summary  of  a  Letter  of  the  Sieur  de  Badie,  Baron  de   St. 
Castin,  to  M.  de  Menneval. 

PENTAGtJET,  15th  September,  1687. 

The  fort  at  Pentagciet,  Avhere  he  is,  is  very  advantageous 
for  the  coast  of  Acadia.  He  requires  30  soldiers  in  order 
to  be  able  to  maintain  himself  there  against  the  continual 
insults  of  the  English,  who,  up  to  the  present  time,  have 
all  that  they  could  do  to  gain  possession  of  it,  and  to  con- 
ciliate the  savages.  He  says  that  for  a  little  assistance 
which  is  given  him  he  will  make  a  settlement  of  400  sav- 
ages, so  much  the  more  easily  as  they  are  the  natural 
enemies  of  the  English,  and  as  they  have  entire  confidence 
in  him. 

["French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  266.] 


AjStte-revolutionary  period.  271 

20. 
Summary  of  a  3Iemoir  upon  Acadia  hy  M.  de  Menneval. 
Port  Royal,  1st  December,  1687. 

The  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  has  communicated  the  intelligence 
to  the  said  Sieur  de  Menneval  that  the  English  have 
enticed  the  Iroquois  upon  the  coast  of  Pentagoet  in  order 
to  corrupt  the  savages  called  Canibas  who  are  in  this 
quarter  and  by  that  to  cause  a  kind  of  indirect  war  with 
the  Colony. 

The   lands    under   the  rule   of  His    Majesty  upon  the 

English  side  are  bounded  by  the  river  St.  George,  which 

is  eleven  leagues  or  thereabouts  from  that  of  Pentagoet. 
******* 

The  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  is  absolute  master  of  the  savages, 
the  Canibas,  and  of  all  their  business,  being  in  the  forest 
with  them  since  1665,  and  having  with  him  two  daughters 
of  the  chief  of  these  savages  by  whom  he  Ijas  many  children. 

This  man  has  promised  to  quit  the  life  that  he  has  led 
up  to  the  present  time,  and  to  proceed  to  establish  himself 
at  Port  Royal ;  but  having  learned  that  the  Sieur  Perrot 
had  intention  of  causing  his  arrest  with  the  view  of  seizing 
his  trade,  he  has  not  come.  The  Sieur  de  Menneval  is 
ordered  by  his  instruction  to  declare  to  the  said  Sieur  de 
St.  Castin  that  His  Majesty  will  pardon  him  the  past,  if  he 
will  conduct  himself  differently,  and  make  his  settlement 
real. 

This  gentleman  who  has  acquired  a  great  deal  would 
contribute  to  the  construction  of  the  fort  that  the  Sieur 
de  Menneval  ])roposesto  make  at  Pentagoet.  It  is  impor- 
tant, nevertheless,  to  consider,  in  regard  to  this  fort, 
whether  it  would  not  be  more  proper  to  construct  it  upon 
the  river  St.  George. 

The  said  Sieur  de  Menneval  has  had  news  that  the 
English  were  coming  to  Port  Royal,  to  demand  payment 
of  what  is  owed  to  them  b}''  the  inhabitants,  and  he  asks 
wliat  his  conduct  should  be,  on  this  occasion. 

The  said  inhabitants  are  reduced  to  great  want,  all 
that  which  they  have  made  up  to  the  present  time  having 
been  sutKicient  only  to  pay  what  they  owed  to  the  said 
English  who  had  sold  to  them  at  a  very  high  price  all  that 
they  needed,  in  order  to  recover  themselves  after  the 
invasion  of  the  said  English. 

[''  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  281  et  seq.] 


272  DOCUMENTARY. 

21. 

Instructions  fi'om  the  King  to  Sieur  de  Menneval. 

******* 

Although  what  His  Majesty  has  just  explained  to  him  of 
his  intentions,  for  finding  an  outlet  for  the  wood  trade  that 
has  been  the  sole  employment  of  five  or  six  of  the  old  and 
chief  settlements,  and  to  oblige  those  who  are  there  to 
undertake  enterprises  for  cultivating  the  soil  and  for  car- 
rying on  the  fisheries,  ought  to  be  applied  to  the  matter  of 
the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin's  doing  the  principal  business  upon 
the  river  Pentagoet,  without  fixed  dwellings,  nevertheless 
His  Majesty  is  well  pleased  with  causing  him  to  look  to 
that  which  particularly  regards  him,  viz:  that  he  carry  on 
with  the  savages  the  trade  that  he  carries  on  solely  with  the 
English  ;  and  that,  as  His  Majesty  is  informed  that  he  has 
derived  great  advantage  from  what  he  has  done  up  to  the 
present  time,  it  is  necessary  that  he  commence  without 
delay  a  settlement  conformed  to  the  intentions  of  His  Maj- 
esty, cultivating  the  soil,  nndertaking  the  fisheries,  and 
causing  to  pass  through  French  hands  the  furs  which  he 
shall  trade  for  with  the  savages  who  shall  come  to  traffic 
with  him  at  his  house,  and  he  shall  know  that  for  conform- 
ing himself  to  the  will  of  His  Majesty  and  to  what  one 
ought  to  expect  from  a  conduct  more  becoming  a  Gentle- 
man, he  will  take  notice  of  it  and  will  give  him  some  tokens 
of  his  satisfaction. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  286.] 


22. 
Report  of  M.  de  Menneval,   Governor  of  Acadia. 

Port  Royal,  10th  September,  1688. 

France  has  formerly  had  a  fort  at  the  river  of  Pentagoet 
where  the  Chevalier  de  Grandfontaine  has  commanded,  and 
from  which  it  is  now  nearly  20  years  [since]  the  English 
drove  him  away.  The  Sieur  de  St.  Castin,  who  was  his 
Lieutenant  escaped  from  their  hands  and  since  that  time 
has  his  customary  residence  there,  refusing  always  to  recog- 
nize the  English  although  he  has  been  many  times  sum- 
moned with  threats  to  do  it,  preserving  thus  the  possession 
to  France.  ***** 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  273 

The  only  man  who  could  give  any  explanation  in  regard 
to  this  business  is  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin.  [In  regard  to 
the  limits  of  the  English  occupation.] 

Tjt  4(c  yp  Tjt  ^  tP  ^ 

I  have  induced  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  to  live  a  more 
regular  life.  He  has  quitted  his  traffic  with  the  English, 
his  debauchery  with  the  savages,  he  is  married,  and  has 
promised  me  to  labor  to  make  a  settlement  in  this  country  ; 
and  to  that  end  he  ought  to  demand  a  concession  from  M. 
de  Denonville  to  whom  he  has  gone,  by  his  order,  on 
account  of  the  AVar  with  the  Iroquois.  He  has  rendered 
me  an  account  of  the  affairs  of  the  Savages  in  his  country. 
There  are  two  different  races  between  the  river  of  Pen- 
tagoet  and  the  Kennebec ;  the  Canibas,  in  small  number, 
are  in  the  region  of  Pentagoet,  and  the  Abenakis,  much 
more  numerous,  towards  Kennebec.  They  are  quite 
devoted  to  the  French  and  hate  the  English.  But  whereas 
nothing  is  done  for  them,  and  as,  on  the  contrary,  the  Eng- 
lish make  them  presents  and  provide  them  lavishly  with 
those  things  which  they  need,  this  will  cause  in  the  end 
that  they  will  gain  them  over  and  will,  in  the  course  of 
time,  be  benefitted  by  them  against  the  French.  They 
appear  quite  inclined  to  prayer  and  to  receive  instruction 
in  religion ;  but  some  expense  is  necessary  for  that. 

I  have  driven  off  the  English  from  the  traffic  that  they 
were  carrying  on  there  and  have  sent  back  three  or  four 
small  vessels,  which  were  carrying  goods  there.  This  has 
a  little  displeased  the  inhabitants  who  were  obtaining 
relief ;  but  they  will  easily  be  comforted  if  the  company 
continues  to  carry  the  same  relief  to  them  as  it  has  done 
before. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  .317.] 

23. 

Memoir  of  the  Colony  at  Acadia. 

(Date  not  given.) 
The  parties  concerned  in  the  said  company,  pra}^  very 
humbly  for  the  favor  of  giving  orders  to  the  officers  of  the 
Admiralty  of  Rochelle,  to  cause  to  be  returned  to  them  a 
fly-boat  of  about  twenty-two  tons,  which  the  English 
pirates  who  plundered  the  colony  of  Chedabouctou,  gave  to 
the  crew  of  their  ship,  that  they  may  return  to  France. 


274  DOCUMENTARY. 

The  said  fly-boat  belonging  to  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin, 
having  been  taken  by  the  pirates,  in  returning  from 
Quebec,  on  the  way  to  Port  Royal.  The  said  pirates  gave 
a  long-boat  belonging  to  the  said  company,  to  the  ship's 
crew  of  the  fly-boat  to  bring  them  to  Port  Royal.  Mean- 
while a  man  named  Gitton,  of  Rochelle,  pretending  to  act 
for  the  said  Sieur  de  St.  Castin,  has  arrested  the  said  fly- 
boat.  It  was  proved  by  the  jyroees  verbal  of  the  trial  of 
said  crew,  that  the  said  long-boat  of  the  company,  had  been 
given  to  the  ship's  crew  of  the  fly -boat;  moreover,  the 
Sieur  de  St.  Castin  had  made  amends,  and  that  the  said 
company  suffer  a  loss  of  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  livres, 
by  the  dej^redations  of  said  pirates,  who  have  carried  away 
about  sixty  of  their  engaged  men. 

["  French  Documents,"  vol.  3,  p  325.] 


24. 

Letter  from  the  Marquis  de  DenonviUe  to  the  Minister. 

Quebec,  October  30,  1688. 

*  *  *  The  first  of  this  month  two  messen- 
gers from  Monsieur  Andros,  Governor  of  New  England, 
arrived,  who  were  the  bearers  of  letters  to  me,  of  which  I 
send  you  a  copy,  together  with  my  reply. 

It  is  very  much  to  the  purpose.  My  Lord,  that  you  see 
them,  for  by  them,  you  perceive  that  the  spirit  and  the 
sentiments  of  Dongan,  have  passed  into  the  heart  of 
Monsieur  Andros,  who  may  have  less  passion  and  be  less 
moved,  but  who  will  be  at  least  opposed  to  us  as  much  and 
may  be  more  dangerous,  with  his  flexibility  and  mildness, 
than  the  other  with  his  passion  and  violence. 

What  he  has  caused  to  be  done  at  Pentagoet,  pillaging 
the  house  of  St.  Castin,  because  he  was  not  willing  to 
acknowledge  that  he  was  a  dependent  of  his ;  what  he  has 
just  done  to  the  Iroquois,  pretending  that  they  are  under 
his  government;  the  hinderances  in  the  way  of  coming  to 
find  me,  [all  these  things]  are  proofs  that  neither  he  nor 
the  other  English  Governors,  any  more  than  all  the  people, 
will  ever  forbear  from  doing  to  this  colony,  whatever  evil 
they  can  do.  " 

There  is  certainly  room  for  believing  that  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Boston,  have  a  great  part  in  the  pillage,  which  has 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  2iO 

been  done  in  Campseanx,  and  at  Chedabouctou,  whatever 
disavowal  of  it  the  Governor  and  the  inhabitants  may 
make. 

["  French  Documents,"  vol.  3,  p.  335.] 


25. 

Remai'hs  concerning  Acadia^  hy  Monsieur  Pasquine. 

Versailles,  December  14,  1688. 

If,  my  Lord,  you  are  willing  to  give  some  time  after 
my  return  from  Acadia,  in  addition  to  that  which  I  have 
employed,  without  cessation  and  without  intermission,  in 
order  to  have  the  honor  of  sending  to  you  the  map,  plans 
and  estimates  which  concern  this  colony,  before  my  de- 
parture for  Cayenne,  I  will  use  it,  to  give  a  full  account 
of  the  observations  which  I  have  made  there,  not  only  of 
the  boundaries,  but  also  of  that  which  concerns  the  firm 
establishment  of  that  new  colony  ;  and  I  hope  to  have  the 
honor  of  an  audience  about  certain  things,  which  I  cannot 
now  write.  But  for  the  present,  I  will  take  the  liberty  of 
representing  the  importance  pf  preventing  the  peace  of  the 
Iroquois  with  our  Kennebec  savages,  which  is  only  being 
brought  about  by  the  solicitation  of  the  English.  Last 
spring  the  Iroquois  sent  a  Commission  to  the  Kennebecs 
of  the  Hamourahiganiaques,  allies  and  friends  of  the 
Kennebecs,  accompanied  by  some  Sonconaquin  people, 
savages,  from  New  York.  They  took  for  a  present  a  neck- 
lace of  porcelain,  and  from  the  doubt  they  had  of  not 
being  favoral)ly  heard,  these  deputies  did  not  go  as  far  as 
PentagiJet.  They  descended  to  the  river  Amirganganeque 
— 6  or  7  leagues  further  west  than  that  of  Kennebec. 

A  short  time  after,  those  near  the  river  Amirganganec[ue 
wished  to  carr}^  this  present  to  the  eastern  coast,  namely, 
towards  St.  George  and  Pentagoet.  But  the  chiefs  of  the 
Kennebecs  disapproving  strongly  the  advances  they  had 
made,  [and]  not  approving  what  they  had  done,  caused 
them  to  be  told  that  they  were  not  willing.  Among 
others,  the  Sagamore  Madockawando,  their  General  in 
war,  who  accompanied  me,  appeared  very  unAvilling.  He 
is  a  good  Frenchman, — a  brave,  upriglit  man,  and  of  acute 
and  sul)tle  understanding,  whom  Monsieur  Andros,  Gover- 
nor-general of  New  England,  treats  with  great  caution, 
searching  for  him  when  they  went  to  Pentagoet,  to  pillage 


276  DOCUMENTARY. 

the  abode  of  the  Sieiir  cle  St.  Castin,  and  takes  the  trouble 
himself  of  going  to  see  him,  carrying  him  a  present,  as  he 
says,  of 

14  blue  blankets, 
12  shirts, 
8  rolls  [of  cloth,] 

2  barrels  of  wine — which  he  received 
— although  he  does  not  esteem  or  love  him,  the  Kennebecs 
being  naturally  the  sworn  enemies  of  the  English. 

The  Iroquois  will  come  in  September,  to  conclude  this 
peace  ;  it  is  very  important  for  the  quiet  of  our  settlement 
in  Canada,  but  still  more  particularly  for  that  of  Acadia, 
that  this  peace  should  not  be  made,  or  should  be  broken, 
if  it  should  be  made — this  is  not  difficult  to  manage. 

My  time  being  exceedingly  limited,  I  will  have  the 
honor  to  tell  my  lord  in  a  few  words,  and  in  general,  that 
the  principal  establishment  upon  the  coast  of  Acadia  should 
not  be  made  at  Port  Royal,  [it  being]  too  much  out  of  the 
way,  and  of  too  difficult  access,  on  account  of  the  variable- 
ness of  the  winds  which  it  is  necessary  to  have  to  get 
there,  and  [it  being]  out  of  the  way  of  all  commerce. 
The  finest  and  best  place  on  the  coast  is  the  Port  Rasoir. 

Upon  my  return  from  Cayenne,  if  my  lord  directs  me,  I 
will  present  to  him  an  account  of  everything  concerning 
this  colony,  and  with  so  much  the  more  ease  as  I  hope  he 
will  do  me  the  kindness  to  give  me  a  private  room  in  the 
building  which  he  will  pass  over  to  me  in  Cayenne,  where 
I  shall  be  able  to  work. 

["  French  Documents."] 

26. 

Census  of  Pentagoet — 1689. 
Priest,  1. 
Married  Men,  1. 
Boys  under  15  years  of  age,  1. 
Married  Women,  1. 
[''  French  Documents,"  Vol.  3,  p.  379.] 

27. 

Report  of  31.  de  Monseignat  to  the  Minister. 

Quebec,  lOth  Septem1)er,  1691. 
My  Lord.  *  *  *  *  * 

M.  le  Comte  has  recentl}"  received  some  letters  from  the 


ANTE-EEVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  27T 

Sieiir  de  St.  Castin.  He  dispatches  a  canoe  to  him  in  order 
to  send  him  two  letters  that  the  Governor  at  Boston,  and 
the  Sieur  de  Nelson  had  written  him.  They  were  quite 
sincere  and  aimed  to  engage  him  to  return  the  prisoners 
which  were  in  the  hands  of  the  Abenakis  and  other  Sav- 
ages. They  would  make  him  remember  the  obligations 
that  their  colony  had  for  some  time  been  under  to  him  and 
they  implored  him  to  continue  the  same  good  will  in  spite 
of  the  inevitable  war  in  which  the  French  and  English 
would  engage.  He  answered  them  somewhat  in  the  same 
style,  and  that  if  they  wished  to  recover  theirs  [i.  e.  the 
prisoners  of  the  Abenakis,]  it  would  in  the  first  place  be 
necessary  that  they  should  surrender  the  Chevalier  d'Eau 
who,  against  the  law  of  nations,  being  sent  by  him,  had 
been  taken  by  the  Iroquois,  those  who  had  accompanied 
him  burned,  and  was  still  retained  at  Manath  ;  that  it  was 
no  more  according  to  law  to  break  the  terras  of  surrender 
agreed  upon  [with]  the  Sieur  de  Menneval,  Governor  of 
Port  Royal,  and  his  garrison,  who  were  still  for  the  most 
part  prisoners ;  that  when  they  had  given  satisfaction 
for  these  infractions  of  the  laws  of  honorable  warfare,  they 
would  think  of  a  general  exchange  of  the  prisoners,  who 
might  be  in  the  hands  of  each  nation  or  of  the  Savage 
allies. 

For  news,  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  tells  him  that  New 
England  was  in  an  extremely  low  condition ;  that  they 
had  lost  many  islands ;  that  there  was  a  great  disunion 
at  Manath  between  the  English  and  Dutch,  since  the 
death  of  their  Governor,  and  that  they  were  having  a 
kind  of  civil  war  ;  that  all  these  conferences  in  regard  to 
an  exchange  of  prisoners  was  only  to  induce  our  savages 
to  peace,  and  that  he  would  oppose  it  with  all  his  strength. 

[''French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  page  113,  et  scq.] 


28. 

Summary  of  a  mevioir  upon  the  affairs  of  Canada,  Acadia, 
and  Neivfoundla7id. 

Paris,  17th  February,  1692. 
From  the  war  with  the  Iroquois,  Flemish  and  Bostonians, 
Phipps  has  gone  to  seek  assistance  in  old  England.     There 


278  DOCOMENTAItY. 

is  some  news  from  the  Sieiir  cle  St.  Castin  about  the  French 
soldiers  who  are  in  prison  at  Boston.  The  Abenakis 
struck  several  blows  last  Autvimn.  ["  French  Documents," 
Vol.  4,  p.  130.] 

29. 

3Iemoir  upon   the  Abduction  of  the  Sieur  de  St.    Castin —  ' 
1692. 

The  men  called  James  Peter  Pan  and  St.  Aubin,  inhabi- 
tants of  the  Country  of  Acadia,  having  been  forcibly 
earried  off  by  the  English,  with  their  families,  and  carried 
to  Boston,  the  Governor  of  New  England  selected  them, 
with  two  French  deserters  from  the  army,  to  go  to  carry 
off  by  force  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin,  detaining  their  wives 
and  children. 

These  two  inhabitants  have  disclosed  the  purpose  for 
which  they  were  sent  and  have  given  up  the  two  deserters. 
Upon  this  condition  of  things  the  Sieur  de  Villebon,  com- 
manding at  Acadia,  and  the  Sieurs  Desgoutins  and  Bonna- 
venture,  thought  it  necessary  on  account  of  this  service  to 
give  554  livres  to  these  two  inhabitants,  destitute  of  every- 
thing, and  to  give  them  the  means  of  recovering  their  wives 
and  children  from  the  hands  of  the  English,  in  con- 
sideration of  their  fidelity. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  p.  168.] 

eo. 

Report  of  M.  de  Champigny. 

Quebec,  November  4,  1693. 
*  *  *  *  *  * 

*  *  This  intelligence  confirming  that  which 
had  come  through  the  French,  who  had  attempted  the  ab- 
duction or  the  murder  of  the  Sieur  St.  Castin,  at  Aca- 
dia, obliged  Messrs.  de  Frontenac,  and  de  Champigny,  to 
hasten  the  fortifications  of  Quebec,  and  of  Montreal,  in 
order  not  to  be  surprised,  and  to  warn  the  savages  of  Aca- 
dia to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  come  to  the  relief  of 
Quebec — upon  the  first  news  they  should  have  of  the  de- 
parture of  the  fleet.  *  *  *  * 
["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  p.  245.] 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  279 

31. 

Accou7it  of  ivhat  has  transpired  in  Canada — 1696. 

******* 

There  was  a  project  for  making  an  exchange  of  prisoners, 
of  which  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  would  take  the  sole  charge 
in  the  name  of  Monsieur,  the  Count  Frontenac.  Tliey 
could  not  choose  a  more  zealous  agent,  or  a  more  intelli- 
gent one. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  p.  409.] 


32. 

Synopsis  of  a  letter  from  31.  de  Villebon^  to  the  3Iinister. 

He  informs  us  hj  his  letter  of  the  fourth  of  Octoljer, 
1698,  that  tlie  English  having,  during  the  early  part  of  that 
same  year,  carried  on  the  traffic  in  all  the  French  abodes, 
they  had  taken  the  beaver  at  from  3.  to  3.10  livres  per 
pound — English  weight — that  is  to  say,  fourteen  ounces 
to  the  pound,  which  had  compelled  him,  in  order  not  to 
offend  the  inhabitants,  to  pay  them  fifty-five  sous  per 
pound,  for  winter  beaver. 

That  the  English  will  always  run  the  risk  of  making 
trade  and  commerce  in  Acadia,  and  especially  at  Pentagoet, 
where  the  French  who  are  there  make  a  rendezvous  ;  the 
man  named  Caldin  [or  Alden  ?]*  having  been  at  Pentagoet 
about  the  I'Sth  of  August  last,  where  he  had  traded  much 
in  furs,  and  had  given  goods  to  a  son-in-law  of  the  Sieur 
de  St.  Castin,  and  to  three  Frenchmen  who  were  at 
Pentagoet. 

In  order  to  destroy  this  traffic,  M.  de  Villebon  proposes 
to  compel  them  to  establish  themselves  at  Pessemoncadi, 
where  the  land  and  the  fishing  is  good,  and  where  the 
English  will  not  trust  the  Savages. 

That  he  has  implored  M.  de  Chambault,  missionary 
priest  at  Pentagoet,  to  drive  off  the  English  from  the 
neighborhood  of  Pentagoet,  when  they  shall  come  there, 
but  that  he  believes  he  has  followed  his  own  self-interest, 
and  that  it  has  just  been  told  him  that  he  will  die,  unless 
he  shall  l)e  able  to  assure  it. 

That  John  Mathew  said  Le  Page,  being  at  Boston  Avhen 

peace    was   announced   last  winter,  had   joined   witli    an 

*It  is  difficult  to  tell  from  the  manuscript  whetlier  the  word  is  Caldin  or 
Aldeu. 


280  DOCUMENTARY. 

Englishman,  in  order  to  carry  on  trade  in  Acadia,  where 
they  arrived  at  Port  Royal  without  letting  him  know. 
The  Sieur  le  Borgne  and  the  Sieur  de  Pleine,  his  brother- 
in-law  had  begun  to  assume  the  powers  of  Lord  and  of 
Governor,  having  made  the  master  of  the  English  vessel 
pay  50  livres  for  permission  to  sell  and  to  land  his  goods  ; 
this  they  have  continued  to  do  to  two  others  who  have 
come  here.  That  the  Sieur  John  Mathew  being  joined 
with  Joseph  Guyon,  they  have  left  with  the  English,  to 
go  to  Pessemoncadi,  where  they  have  traded  with  the 
Savages  along  the  coast,  as  far  as  Majaja. 

That  they  have  given  the  Savages  English  brandy, 
which  has  caused  a  terrible  riot. 

That  having  written  to  Sieur  de  Thury  to  engage  the 
Savages  to  make  a  party  early  against  the  English,  Ville- 
bon  having  no  news  of  peace,  he  has  sent  his  letter  to  him 
by  a  Savage,  who,  having  been  met  by  Matthew  and 
Guyon,  they  took  the  letter  from  him,  and  showing  the 
seal  to  the  Savages,  persuaded  them  that  the  English  were 
trading  by  his  order. 

He  complains  that  the  priests  continue  their  trade,  and 
that  the  one  at  Pentagoet  had  done  so  more  openly  than 
those  who  had  preceded  him. 

That  for  the  settlement  they  desired  to  make  upon  the 
eastern  coast,  it  is  necessary  to  fortify  Pentagoet  as  an  im- 
portant post,  and  if  they  made  two  forts  upon  this  coast, 
it  was  important  that  one  should  be  at  Pentagoet. 

That  the  English  in  Boston  very  much  desired  to  have 
the  coal  trade,  and  that  they  had  written  to  him  urgently, 
but  that  this  will  go  for  little,  because  Boston  would  con- 
sume no  more  of  it  than  four  vessels  would  carry,  with 
what  vessels  from  England  bring  them  as  ballast. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  p.  563.] 


33. 

Synopsis  of  a  letter  from  31.  de  Bonnaventure  to  the  Minis- 
ter. 
(His  vessel,  I'Envieux,  arrived  at  Rochelle,  October  9th, 

1698.) 

He  said  that  the  inhabitants  of  Pentagoet  did  not  wish 

to  deliver  their   furs,  on   account  of  the  facility   they  had 

for  trading  with  the  English,  as  they  have  since  done,  there 


ANTE-EEVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  281 

having  arrived  there  a  vessel  which  neither  the  Sieur  de 
St.  Castin,  nor  the  inhabitants  have  been  willing  to  con- 
duct to  the  river  St.  George,  nor  to  show  them  the  fine  for- 
ests, saying  that  they  did  not  know  them,  noteven  in  Pen- 
tagoet,  where  there  are  some  very  fine  oak  groves,  looking 
upon  themselves  as  the  proprietors  of  Pentagoet,  trading 
only,  and  not  cultivating  a  single  garden. 

That  an  English  ketch  had  been  with  the  man  called 
Petit,  to  Mouscoudabouct,  to  take  there  an  Englishman 
who  belonged  there ;  the  savages  having  told  him  that  the 
English  had  traded  at  the  Cape  St.  Zambre. 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  4,  p.  565.] 


34. 

Summary  of  a  letter  of  the  Sieur  de  Villieu.,  to  the  Minister. 

20th  October,  1700. 

He  has  sent  to  the  Governor  of  New  England,  to  in- 
quire after  the  new  converted  French,  who  had  fled  from 
Chibouctou,  where  they  had  been  settled  by  the  company 
of  the  Pesche  Sedentaire,  [permanent  fisheries]  and  who 
had  taken  away  the  goods  of  this  Company. 

Monsieur  the  Count  Bellamont,  happening  to  be  away 
upon  the  arrival  of  his  messenger,  the  Governor  at  Boston, 
had  said  to  him  for  his  complete  answer,  that  he  ought  to 
know  that  thieves  would  find  protection  in  a  foreign  king- 
dom. 

He  has  permitted  one  called  Basset,  a  Frenchman,  mar- 
ried at  Boston,  to  go  there  in  search  of  his  wife,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  instruction  that  His  Majesty  has  given  him. 
He  has  charged  him  to  inform  the  people  of  that  place  who 
are  the  fishermen  of  Molue,  [near  by]  the  coast  of  Acadia, 
that  His  Majesty  is  willing  to  permit  it  to  them  if  they  take 
a  passport  of  the  Governor  of  Acadia,  viseccl  by  the  Sieur 
de  Goutins,  secretary  of  the  King,  on  the  payment  of  a 
certain  fee,  in  j^roportion  to  the  size  of  the  vessels,  upon 
condition  of  receiving  some  French  upon  their  ship, — but 
he  doubts  whether  they  will  accept  this  last  condition,  and 
he  believes  that  it  will  be  more  suitable  to  take,  in  the 
beginning,  some  English  seamen  upon  the  French  vessels, 


282  DOCUMENTARY. 

in  order  to  render  our  people  capable  of  carrying  on  this 
fishing. 

He  complains  of  the  trade  that  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin, 
a  gentleman  settled  at  Pentagoet,  which  is  the  land  near- 
est to  the  Enghsh,  has  had  with  the  English  from  Boston, 
and  the  small  hamlets  upon  the  coast,  to  whom  he  had  car- 
ried furs,  and  had  carried  back  in  payment  English  goods, 
which  hindered  the  sale  of  the  French.  The  said  Sieur  de 
St.  Castin,  and  the  Missionary  at  Pentagoet,  have  absolute 
control  over  the  savages  of  this  country,  who  have  refused 
this  year  the  presents  of  His  Majesty,  that  the  late  Sieur  de 
Villebon  had  charged  him  to  carry  to  them,  not  having 
found  them  sufficiently  great. 

The  said  Sieur  de  Villebon  had  charged  him  to  draw  a 
map  of  the  river  St,  George,  before  going  to  Pentagoet. 
He  has  drawn  it  as  accurately  as  he  could,  and  has  sent  a 
copy.  He  besought  him  to  concede  to  him  the  ofiice  of  the 
said  Sieur  de  Villebon.  He  represents  that  he  serves  His 
Majesty  since  1674,  and  that  he  has  served  in  Flanders,  in 
Germany,  and  in  Catalonia,  and  that  having  been  taken  by 
the  English,  during  the  last  war,  he  had  acquired  much 
familiarity  with  them. 


Note  hy  the  Minister, 

The  missionary  of  Pentagoet  has  written  that  it  is  not 
out  of  contempt  that  the  savages  have  refused  the  presents, 
but  it  was  because  the  said  Sieur  de  Villieu,  wished  at  the 
same  time  to  sell  them  brandy,  which  they  did  not  wish 
to  purchase,  foreseeing  the  excess  into  which  they  fall  when 
they  are  intoxicated. 

During  the  war,  the  King  relied  upon  the  annual  sum  of 
four  thousand  livres,  to  be  spent  in  purchasing  ammuni- 
tion— reduced  after  the  peace  to  four  hundred  and  fifty 
livres,  to  make  presents  to  the  chiefs  alone. 

If  the  war  was  renewed  it  would  be  necessary  to  sustain 
this  colony  against  the  English — upon  whom  they  have 
waged  a  sanguinary  war,  which  has  obliged  them  to  be  con- 
tinually upon  the  defensive. 

(Written  to  St.  Castin.) 

["  French  Documents,"  Vol.  5,  p.  23.] 


AKTE-REVOLUTIONARY    PERIOD.  283 

35. 

Ahridyment  of  a  Letter  of  Monsieur  cle   Bro^dllau  to  the 
Minuter. 

Poet  Royal,  30  October,  1701. 

Having  arrived  at  Port  Royal  he  caused  the  inhabitants 
to  assemble  in  order  to  propose  to  them  that  they  should 
make  efforts  to  protect  themselves  from  the  insults  of  the 
English.  He  found  them  at  first  opposed  to  this  opinion — 
believing  that  it  was  a  bondage  which  he  wished  to  impose 
upon  them,  having  told  him  very  freely  that  they  would 
not  assist  if  it  were  for  an  alliance — saying  arrogantly  that 
they  would  prefer  being  with  the  English  ;  but  he  found 
means  of  bringing  them  back,  and  as  soon  as  they  con- 
sented to  what  he  desired,  he  went,  without  waste  of  time, 
to  the  river  St.  John,  the  fort  of  which  appeared  very 
odious  to  him  ;  and  with  the  aid  of  the  equipage  of  the 
fleet  of  the  Gironde,  which  Sieur  de  Maurville  gave  him 
he  razed  the  fortifications  to  the  dust.  He  put  on  board 
this  fleet  all  that  could  serve  for  the  construction  of  a  new 
fort  at  Port  Royal,  where  he  carried  it  all. 

All  the  Religious  Superiors  who  are  missionaries  to 
Acadia  obtained  a  salary  which  the  King  gives  them,  so 
that  these  poor  missionaries  finding  themselves  without  it, 
they  were  not  obliged  to  abandon  them.  He  begs  that  he 
may  order  those  things  which  Sieur  Monte  delivered  to 
them,  to  be  sent  to  them  by  the  King's  vessels. 

The  missionary  of  the  Malassites  prays  them  to  make 
it  convenient  for  him  to  make  his  abode  at  Passamaquoddy, 
which  is  much  more  accessible  to  Port  Royal  than  the 
place  where  he  actually  resides.  This  missionary  hopes  to 
persuade  these  savages  to  cultivate  the  soil  at  this  place, 
and  to  devote  themselves  to  fishing,  whereby  they  would 
be  less  miserable. 

The  Sieur  Gaulin,  who  has  charge  of  the  mission  of 
Pentagoet,  appears  very  pious,  and  strongly  desirous  of 
keeping  the  savages  in  the  interests  of  France.  The  Sieur 
Quay,  late  missionary  at  Pentagflet,  returned  to  Rochefort, 
pursuant  to  the  orders  wliich  he  had  received.  He  appears 
to  be  a  good  priest,  and  an  ujiriglit  man. 

It  is  certain  that  Father  Bigot,  who  has  charge  of  the 


284  DOCUMENTARY. 

mission  at  Kennebec,  has  not  the  same  opinions,  not  hav- 
ing forbidden  the  savages  to  converse  with  the  English, 
who  have  gone  so  far  as  to  receive  presents  and  promises 
of  making  peace  with  them,  which  would  have  been  done, 
but  that  the  English  had  wished  to  exact  from  them 
that  they  should  have  no  more  communication  with  the 
French,  which  had  prevented  the  savages  from  deciding  ; 
but  no  one  knows  whether  they  had  done  it  since. 

The  Sieur  de  St.  Castin,  whom  they  accuse  of  carrying  on 
trade  with  the  English,  returns  to  France,  to  render  an 
account  of  his  conduct.  It  is  certain  that  he  has  kept  in 
the  interests  of  France  the  savages  of  the  frontier  where 
he  dwells ;  and  as  these  savages  have  confidence  in  him, 
he  is  very  capable  of  keeping  them  there.  The  Sieur  de  St. 
Castin  would  request  a  grant  upon  the  river  de  la  Point 
au  Hestre  ;  he  believes  that  it  is  proper  to  concede  it  to 
him,  having  a  design  to  establish  a  fishery  in  Molue,  and 
to  remove  the  savages  there. 

It  appears  to  him  of  consequence  to  continue  to  give 
presents  to  the  savages  of  the  frontier,  to  hinder  them 
from  taking  vengeance  upon  the  party  of  English  who 
have  established  within  their  reach  store-houses,  where 
they  would  be  able  to  carry  the  goods  that  were  necessary 
to  them,  and  this  expense  is  afterwards  levelled  upon  all 
the  English  colony. 

He  has  not  believed  it  necessary,  this  year  to  make  any 
attempt  upon  the  English,  who  have  made  a  fishery  upon 
the  coast  of  Acadia,  not  being  in  a  condition  to  sustain 
what  ought  to  be  done,  but  as  it  appears  to  him  that  the 
English  would  not  abstain  from  this  fishery,  according  to 
the  answer  which  the  delegate  from  Boston  had  made  to  a 
letter  which  he  had  written  to  my  Lord  Bellamont,  he  is 
disposed  to  take  some  of  their  boats  next  summer. 

The  officer,  whom  he  had  dispatched  to  Boston  to  carry 
this  letter,  told  him  that  they  had  made  new  fortifications 
at  the  entrance  of  that  Port,  that  he  saw  there  three  ves- 
sels of  war,  and  that  he  believed  from  the  report  that  they 
expected  two  others,  with  the  Governor-General  for  New 
England,  and  for  New  York. 

Monsieur  I'Evesque  says  the  Jesuits  have  left. 

[''French  Documents,"  Voh  5,  p.  103,  et  seq.] 


ANTE-BEVOLUTIONARY    PEEIOD.  285 

86. 

Substance  of  a  letter  from  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin. 

La  Rochelle,  21  November,  1701. 

He  has  gone  to  France,  to  justify  his  conduct  as  regards 
the  complaints  that  have  been  made  that  he  traded  with 
the  English. 

He  grants  that  residing  upon  the  frontier  of  the  colony, 
where  no  Frenchman  has  carried  thus  far  any  goods,  and 
not  having  been  permitted  to  buy  at  Quebec  or  in  New- 
foundland, he  has  been  obliged  to  take  them  from  the 
English  for  his  most  urgent  wants,  and  that  he  has  no 
other  traffic  with  them  than  this. 

["French  Documents,"  Vol.  5,  p.  109.] 


37. 

Memoranda  of  things  necessary  to  have  at  PescadouS^for  the 
month  of  October — by  the  Sieur  de  St.  Castin. 

[Not  dated.] 
6,000  lbs.  of  powder. 
8,000  musket-balls. 
80,000  selected  gunflints. 
8,000  firewads  (firebours.) 
1,000  aleves  a  point  carree. 
1,000  clasp-knives. 

1,000  "  aulues  melis"  for  sails,  tents,  and  sacks. 
1,000  axes. 

30  lbs.  of  thread. 
15    "     "     measured  thread. 
10  lines. 
125  barrels  of  bacon  of  200  Iba. 
5,000  "quentos"  of  sea-biscuit. 
4,000  lbs.  of  lead,  for  fowlers. 
1,000  lbs.  of  Brazillian  tobacco. 
3,000  "quentos"  of  meal. 
700  bushels  of  peas. 
10  barrels  of  brandy. 
100  bushels  of  salt. 
["French  Documents,"  Vol.  5,  p.  147.] 

37 


286  DOCUMENTARY. 

38. 
Substance  of  a  Letter  from  31.  de  Suhercase. 

Port  Royal,  October  25,  1706. 

****** 

It  is  very  important  always  to  have  a  man  of  character 
amongst  the  savages,  to  watch  over  their  conduct  in  order 
to  give  him  information  of  it.  The  son  of  the  Sieur  de  St. 
Castin,  is  very  suitable  for  that,  because  his  mother  is  of 
their  nation,  and  besides  he  is  a  very  Avise  and  very  capa- 
ble young  gentleman.  He  proposes  to  grant  him  a  com- 
mission of  Second  Lieutenant,  in  tlie  Navy,  with  the  salary, 
and  he  is  certain  that  no  one  in  the  colony  will  better  earn 
his  money  than  he.  *  *  *  * 

["French  Documents,"  Vol.  5,  p.  307.] 

39. 
Summary  of  a  Letter  frorn  3L  de  Suhercase  to  the  Minister. 

At  Port  Royal,  in  Acadia,  July  26,  1707. 

******* 

The  Sieur  de  St.  Castin  when  he  had  put  [himself,  or 
some  one]  at  the  head  of  the  inhabitants  there  had  per- 
fectly well  performed  his  duty. 

'Jhe  savage  Canibas,  and  those  of  Pentagoet,  tired  of 
waiting  for  the  assistance  of  the  French,  from  Acadia,  have 
takev  the  road  to  New  York,  where  they  liave  made  a 
treaty.  This  has  sent  them  back  with  the  Ii'oquois,  so  that 
it  is  to  be  feared  that  it  engages  them  all  to  wage  war 
against  the  French.  He  sees  no  other  way  of  warding  off 
this  blow,  than  to  furnish  these  first  savages  with  goods, 
at  the  same  rate,  almost,  at  which  the  English  give  them 
to  them,  and  he  designs  to  cari-y  to  Pentagoet,  and  to  Ken- 
nebec, some  provisions  and  4  or  500  of  goods,  in  order  to 
give  them  to  them  at  a  fixed  price. 

["French  Documents,"  Vol.  5,  p.  343.] 

40. 

Transcript  from  the  Register  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Jean  Baip- 

tiste,  at  Port  Royal. 

"31,  Oct.  1707.  Ganlin,  Missionary  priest  of  the  Sem- 
inary of  (Quebec,  being  at  Port  Royal,   married  Anselm  de 


ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  287 

St.  Castin,  baron  de  St.  Castin,  son  of  Sieur  Jean  Vincent, 
baron  de  St.  Castin,  and  of  Dame  Matliilde,  of  the  parish 
of  the  '  Sainte  famille,'  at  Pentagoet,  and  damoiselle  Char- 
lotte TAmours,  daughter  of  St.  Louis  d' Amours,  ensign  of 
a  company  at  Port  Royal,  etc. 

"  4,  Dec.  1707.  Married  le  Sieur  Alexander  le  Borgne, 
de  Belleisle,  (etc.)  to  the  damoiselle  Anastasie  de  St.  Cas- 
tin, fille  du  Sieur  Vincent,  ecuyer,  baron  de  St.  Castin  et 
de  dame  Mathilde. 

"4,  Dec.  1707.  Philip  de  Ponbomcou  is  married  to 
Therese  de  St.  Castin,  daughter  of  the  Baron  and  of  Dame 
Marie  Pidianiskge." 

[From  "Centennial  Celebration  at  Bangor"  p.  24,  Note.] 

41. 

Letter  of  L'Aiiverjat  to  Father  de  La  Chasse. 

Panouamske*,  July  8,  1728. 
Very  dear  Brother : 

The  insolence  of  the  Messrs.  de  St.  Castin  has  come 
to  be  so  excessive  that  they  no  longer  set  bounds  to  it,  in 
their  conduct  to  me,  or  before  God. 

The  elder,  who  does  not  care  to  marry,  and  not  satisfied 
with  spreading  corruption  through  the  whole  village,  in 
addition  to  that,  now  makes  a  business  of  selling  brandy, 
openly,  in  company  with  his  nephew,  the  son  of  Monsieur 
de  Belle  Isle.  They  have  been  the  means  of  one  man 
being  drowned,  alread}^,  on  account  of  it,  and  are  like  to  be 
the  destruction  of  many  others.  The  younger  of  the  Messrs. 
de  St.  Castin  never  comes  into  the  village,  Avithout  getting 
drunk  in  public,  and  putting  the  whole  village  in  an  up- 
roar. 

Both  of  them,  j)rompted  by  the  supplies  they  receive, 
pretend  to  be  on  my  side,  and  in  the  interests  of  the  King ; 
but  behind  my  back,  they  do  not  cease  to  work  against 
me,  and  to  oppose  every  enterprise  I  undertake  in  the 
service  of  God  and  the  King. 

Excessively  puffed  up  with  the  commission  and  with 
the  salary  they  have  obtained  from  the  King,  through  M. 
de  Vaudreuil,  the  earth  is  not  good  enough  for  them  to 
stand  upon.  They  believe  that  they  have  a  right,  through 
this  commission,  to  rule,  absolutely,  and  to  seize  and  dis- 

•Supposed  to  b«  UiUtgwn. 


288  DOCUMENTAEY. 

pose  of  everything  at  their  will ;  and  if  any  one  thinks  of 
opposing  them,  they  threaten  him  with  nothing  less  than 
death  or  massacre. 

They  are  going  to  Canada ;  and  they  will  not  fail  to 
boast  of  their  services,  and  to  seem  very  much  attached  to 
the  interests  of  the  colon3^  But  here  is  what  I  believe 
before  God. 

That,  before  the  savages  had  begun  the  war  against  the 
English,  they  did  ever3^thing  in  the  world  they  could,  to 
prevent  their  undertaking  it — and  this  in  spite  of  all  the 
exhortations  I  made  to  the  savages,  on  the  part  of  M.  de 
Vaudreuil,  and  notwithstanding  all  that  M.  de  Vaudreuil 
himself  had  said  to  them. 

That,  after  I  had,  in  spite  of  them,  engaged  the  savages 
to  determine  upon  a  war  against  the  English,  they  broke 
up  the  first  expedition  I  had  formed,  and  prevented  it 
from  starting. 

That,  after  I  had  organized  another  war-party,  and  had 
sent  it  off,  they  stopped  it  on  the  way,  and  would  have 
absolutely  prevented  the  war  from  breaking  out,  if  I  had 
not  gone  down  to  the  sea-shore  and  persuaded  my  people 
to  proceed  with  it. 

That,  not  having  been  able  to  prevent  the  attacks  upon 
the  English,  they  pretended  to  be  neutral  (except  that 
they  made  money  out  of  the  booty  taken  from  the  English, 
and  that  for  two  whole  years)  on  the  pretext  that  they 
were  Frenchmen  and  not  natives. 

That,  when  they  could  no  longer  abstain  from  deciding 
for  one  side  or  the  other — M.  de  Vaudreuil  having  given 
them  to  understand,  particularly,  that  their  qualities  as 
Frenchmen  did  not  take  from  them  their  rights  and,  con- 
sequently, their  duties,  as  savages — the  younger,  actually 
and  in  earnest,  did  go  on  an  expedition,  and  signalized 
himself;  but  the  elder  contented  himself  with  showing 
himself  once  only,  and,  although  he  received  a  hundred 
affronts  from  the  English,  by  whom  he  was  taken  twice, 
by  treachery,  and  robbed,  yet  far  from  dreaming  of  taking 
revenge  on  them,  he  has  sought  their  protection  and 
asked  favors  of  them. 

That,  towards  the  end  of  the  war,  when  I  went  to  Canada, 
by  your  orders — the  English  having  sent  a  hostage  here, 
during  my  absence,  to  propose  peace — the  Messrs.  de  St. 
Castin  were  the  first  to  suggest  that  a  favorable  answer 
should  be  made  to  the   English,  and  disbanded  an  expedi- 


ANTE-EEVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  289 

tion  that  had  just  set  out,  by  my  orders,  to  make  reprisals 
on  the  English,  wlio  had  treacherously  sent  an  expedition 
against  us,  the  previous  winter,  while  at  another  point 
they  assured  us  against  peace.* 

That,  since  that  time,  these  same  gentlemen  have  not 
ceased  to  urge  the  savages  to  make  peace  with  the  English, 
and  to  accept  their  propositions,  without  caring  what  the 
French  miglit  think  about  it. 

All  this  I  am  yjositively  certain  about,  and  am  ready  to 
make  oath  to,  and  this,  added  to  all  the  other  irregrdarities 
that  these  gentleineii  are  guilty  of,  such  as  selling  at  false 
weight  and  at  false  measure,  cheating  people  so  out  of 
one-quarter  to  one-third  of  all  they  buy,  is  sufficient  reason 
that  their  pay  should  be  stopped,  and  that  Avhatthey  have 
not  drawn  of  their  salary  should  be  confiscated.  [  From 
Historical  Magazine,  Vol.  2d,  3d  Ser.  No.  3,  p.  126  et  seq.] 
*Mr.  Prentiss  thinks  this  to  have  been  the  Heath  Expedition. 


290  DOCUMENTARY. 


II. 

DOCUMENTS     RELATING     TO     THE     REVOLU- 
TIONARY   PERIOD. 
1. 

Calefs  Journal  of  the  Siege* 

The  Siege  of  Penobscot  by  the  Rebels ; 
containing  a 
Journal  of  the   proceedings  of  his    Majesty's  Forces  de- 
tached from  the  74th  and  82d  Regiments,  consisting  of 
about  700  Rank  and  File,  under  the  Command  of  Brigadier- 
General  Francis  McLean, 

and  of 
Three  of  his  Majesty's  Sloops  of  War,  of  16  guns  each, 
under   the   Command  of  Captain   Henry  Mowatt,  Senior 
Officer— 

Avhen  besieged  by 
Three  Thousand  Three  hundred    (Rebel)    Land   Forces, 
under  the  Command  of  Brigadier  General  Solomon  Lovell, 

and 
Seventeen  Rebel  Ships  and  Vessels  of  War  under  the  Com- 
mand of  G.  Saltonstall,  Commodore. 

To  which  is  annexed 
A  Proclamation  issued  June  15,  1779,  by  General  McLean 
and  Captain  Barclay,  to  the  Inhabitants  ; 

Also 
Brigadier  General  Lovell's  Proclamation  to  the  Inhabit- 
ants ;  and  his  Letter  to  Commodore  Saltonstall  found  on 
board  the  Rebel  Ship  Hunter ; 

Together  with 
the  Names,  Force,  and  Commanders  of  the  Rebel  Ships 
destroyed  in  Penobscot  Bay  and  River,  August  14  and 
15th,  1779, 

With 
A  Chart  of  the  Peninsula  of  Majabigwaduce,  and  of  Penob- 
scot River, 

*From  a  volume  belonging  to  Harvard  College  Library.     The  spelling  and 
puuctuatlou  are  the  iuiue  a»  iu  the  original  «ditiua. 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  293 

well  bastion  of  which  was  not  yet  begun,  nor  the  seamen's* 
quite  finished ;  but,  on  the  appearance  of  the  Enemy,  the 
works  were  put  in  a  more  defensible  state :  some  cannon 
were  mounted,  and  the  little  army  was  in  garrison  early 
the  next  morning.  Guard-boats,  during  the  night,  watched 
the  motions  of  the  Enemy,  who  were  discovered  to  have 
come  to  an  anchor  about  three  or  four  leagues  off,  in  the 
narrows  of  Penobscot. 

July  25.  At  10  A.  M.,  a  brig  appeared  at  some  distance 
from  the  harbour's  mouth,  and  after  reconnoitring  the  situ- 
ation of  the  men  of  war,  stood  back  into  the  fleet.  At 
noon,  the  Enemy's  fleet,  consisting  of  thirty-seven  sail  of 
ships,  brigs,  and  transports,  arrived  in  the  bay  of  the 
harbour.  The  transports  proceeded  about  half  a  mile  up 
Penobscot  river  and  came  to  anchor,  while  the  armed  ships 
and  brigs,  stood  off  and  on,  and  a  boat  from  each  ship 
repaired  on  board  their  flag-ship,  which  had  thrown  out  a 
signal  for  that  purpose.  At  3  p.  m.,  nine  ships,  forming 
into  three  divisions,  stood  towards  the  King's  ships,  and,  as 
they  advanced  in  the  line,  hove  to  and  engaged.  A  very 
brisk  cannonade  continued  four  glasses,  when  the  Enemy 
bore  up,  and  came  to  an  anchor  in  the  bay  without.  The 
Kiug's  ships  suffered  only  in  their  rigging.  The  fire  of  the 
Enemy  was  random  and  irregular;  and  their  manoeuvres, as 
to  backing  and  filling,  bespoke  confusion,  particularly  in  the 
first  division,  which  scarcely  got  from  the  line  of  fire  when 
the  second  began  to  engage.  The  second  and  third 
divisions  appeared  to  have  but  one  object  in  view,  that  of 
cutting  the  springs  of  the  men  of  war,  to  swing  them  from 
the  bearings  of  their  broadsides,  and  thereby  to  afford  an 
entrance  into  the  harbour.  During  the  cannonade  with 
the  shipping,  the  Enemy  made  an  attempt  to  land  their 
troops  on  Bagwaduce,  but  were  repulsed  with  some  loss. 
On  the  retreat  of  the  Enemy's  troops  and  ships,  the  garri- 
son manned  their  works,  and  gave  three  cheers  to  the  men 
of  war,  which  were  returned ;  and  soon  after,  the  general 
and  field  oflicers  went  down  to  the  beach,  and  also  gave 
three  cheers,  which  were  returned  from  the  ships.  Guard- 
boats,  and  ship's  companies,  during  the  night,  lay  at  their 
quarters. 

July  2().     At  10  A.  M.,  the  Enemy's  ships  got  under 

*So  culled  from  bciug  the  work  of  the  Seamen  only, 

38 


294  DOCUMENTARr. 

weigh,  and,  forming  their  divisions  as  yesterday,  stood  in 
and  engaged  the  King's  ships  four  glasses  and  a  half. 
The  damages  sustained  this  day,  also,  were  cliiefly  in  the 
rigging  at  the  extreme  ends  of  the  ships  ;  and  the  fire  of  the 
Enemy  appears  again  to  be  directed  to  the  moorings ; 
which  attempt  not  pioving  successful,  they  bore  up  and 
anchored  without.  The  Enemy  again  attempted  to  land 
their  troops,  but  were  driven  back  with  some  little  loss. 
At  6  P.  M.,  the  Enemy  having  stationed  two  brigs  of  four- 
teen guns  and  one  sloop  of  twelve,  on  the  east  side  of 
Nautilus  island,  landed  200  men  and  dislodging  a  party  of 
twenty  marines,  took  possession  of  four  4-pounders  (two 
not  mounted,)  and  a  small  quantity  of  ammunition.  At  9 
p.  M.,  it  being  found  that  the  Enemy  were  very  busy  at 
work,  and  that  they  had  landed  some  heavy  artillery,  Avhich 
they  were  getting  up  to  the  heights  of  the  island,  and 
against  which  the  men  of  war  could  not  act  in  their  present 
station,  it  was  judged  expedient  to  move  them  further  up 
the  river.  This  was  accordingly  done,  and  the  line  formed 
as  before;  the  transports  moved  up  at  the  s.ime  time,  and 
anchored  with  the  men  of  war.  Guard-boats,  and  the 
ship's  companies,  as  usual,  lying  at  their  quarters. 

July  27.  Pretty  quiet  all  this  day.  A  few  shots  from 
some  ships  of  the  Enemy  were  aimed  at  the  small  battery 
on  Majabigwaduce  point;  which  were  returned  with  a 
degree  of  success,  one  ship  having  been  driven  from  her 
station.  Observed  the  Enemy  very  busy  in  erecting  their 
battery  on  Nautilus  Island.  The  garrison  being  much  in 
want  of  cannon,  some  guns  from  the  transports,  and  from 
the  off-side  of  the  men  of  war,  were  landed,  and,  being 
dragged  by  the  seamen  up  to  the  fort,  were  disposed  of  for 
its  use.  At  3  P.  M.,  a  boat,  passing  from  the  Enemy's  ships 
to  Nautilus  island,  was  sunk  by  a  random  shot  from  the 
fort.  At  11  P.  M.,  tlie  guard  boats  from  the  King's  ships 
fell  in  and  exchanged  a  few  shot  with  the  Enemy's. 

Jidy  28.  At  3  A.  M,,  under  cover  of  their  ship's  fire, 
the  Enemy  made  good  their  landing  on  Majabigwaduce, 
and,  from  their  great  superioiity  of  numbers,  obliged  the 
King's  troops  to  retreat  to  the  garrison.  The  Enemy's 
right  pressed  hard,  and  in  force,  upon  the  left  of  the  King's 
troops,  and  attempted  to  cut  oft"  a  party  of  men  at  the 
small  battery;  but  the  judgement  and  experience  of  a 
brave  officer  (Lieut.  Caffrae,  of  the  82d,)  counteracted 
their  designs ;  and  a  retreat  was  effected  with  all  the  order 


KEVOLUTIONABY  PERIOD.  295 

and  regularity  necessary  on  such  occasions.  An  attempt 
was  made  to  demolish  the  guns;  but  the  Enemy  pushed 
their  force  to  this  ground  so  rapidly  as  not  to  suffer  it. 
The  position  of  this  battery  afforded  their  ships  a  nearer 
station,  on  which  they  immediately  seized.  At  t)  A.  M.,  the 
Enemy  opened  their  battery  of  18  and  12-pounders  from 
Nautilus  island,  and  kept  up  the  whole  day  a  brisk  and 
well-directed  fire  against  the  men  of  war.  The  King's 
ships  cannonaded  the  battery  for  two  glasses,  and  killed 
some  men  at  it ;  but  their  light  metal  (  6-pounders)  was 
found  to  be  of  little  service,  in  comparison  to  the  damage 
they  sustained  from  such  heavy  metal  brought  against  them. 
At  10  A.  M.,  the  Warren^  of  32  guns,  the  Commodore's  ship, 
which  as  yet  had  not  been  in  action,  got  under  weigh,  and, 
with  three  more  ships,  showed  an  appearance  of  entering 
the  harbour,  but  hauled  by  the  wind  at  a  long  shot  distance. 
A  brisk  fire  was  kept  up  for  half  an  hour,  when  the  Enemy 
bore  up,  and  came  to  anchor  again  without.  The  Warren 
suffered  consideral^ly ;  her  mainmast  shot  thi-ough  in  two 
places,  the  gammoning  of  her  bowsprit  cut  to  i)ieces,  and 
her  fore-stay  shot  away.  Their  confusion  appeared  to  be 
great,  and  very  nearly  occasioned  her  getting  on  shore ;  so 
that  they  were  obliged  to  let  go  an  anchor,  and  drop  into 
the  inlet  between  Majabigwaduce  head  and  the  point, 
where  the  ship  lay  this  and  the  next  day,  repairing  her 
damages.  Tlie  battery  on  the  island  still  keeping  up  a 
heavy  fire,  and  the  ships'  crews  being  exposed  without  the 
least  benefit  to  the  service,  Captain  Mowat  thought  proper 
to  move  further  up  the  harbour,  which  was  done  in  the 
night,  and  the  line  formed  again  ;  he  being  firmly  resolved 
to  dispute  the  harbour  to  the  last  extremity,  as  on  that 
entirely  depended  the  safety  of  the  garrison,  whose  com- 
munication with  the  men  of  war  was  of  the  utmost  impor- 
tance. The  dispositions  on  shore  and  on  the  water  co-oper- 
ating, and  perfectly  supporting  each  other,  foiled  the  Enemy 
in  their  purposes ;  their  troops  were  yet  confined  to  a  spot 
they  could  not  move  from ;  and,  while  the  harbour  was 
secure,  their  intention  of  making  approaches,  and  invest- 
ing the  fort  on  all  sides,  could  by  no  means  be  put  in  exe- 
cution. The  present  station  of  the  men  of  war  being 
such  as  rendered  it  impossible  for  the  Enemy's  ships  to 
act  but  at  particular  periods,  the  marines  [whose  service, 
in  their  particular  line  of  duty,  was  not  immediately  re- 
quii'cd  ou  board]  were  ordered  on  shore  to  ^unison  duty, 


296  DOCUMENTARY. 

holding  themselves  in  re.^diness  to  embark  at  a  moment's 
notice,  which  with  ease  they  coukl  have  effected  in  ten  or 
fifteen  minutes.     Guard-boats  as  usual  during  the  night. 

July  29.  At  6  A.  m.,  the  Enemy's  ships  weighed,  and, 
altering  their  positions,  came  to  an  anchor  again.  The 
state  of  the  fortress  requiring  more  cannon,  some  remain- 
ing off-side  guns  were  landed  from  the  men  of  war,  and 
dragged  by  the  seamen  up  to  the  fortress,  for  its  use  and 
that  of  the  batteries ;  and  though  the  task,  to  be  performed 
up  a  steep  hill,  over  rocks  and  innumerable  stumps  of 
fallen  trees,  was  laborious,  yet  their  cheerfulness  and  zeal 
for  the  service,  surmounted  every  difficulty.  P.  M. — The 
Enemy  opened  their  batteries  on  the  heights  of  Majabig- 
waduce,  and  kept  up  a  warm  and  incessant  fire  against  the 
fortress.  The  commanding  ground  of  the  Enemy's  works, 
and  the  short  distance  from  the  fortress,  gave  them  some 
advantages  with  their  grape,  as  well  as  round  shot,  which 
considerably  damaged  the  store-house  in  the  garrison. 

Six  pieces  of  cannon  at  the  half-moon  battery,  near 
Bank's  house,  and  which  belonged  to  the  fortress,  being 
now  found  necessary  for  its  particular  defence,  were  moved 
up  to  it,  and  replaced  with  some  ship's  guns,  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  guimer  of  the  Albany,  with  a  l)arty  of  sea- 
men. Captain  Mowat  having  obtained  intelligence,  that 
the  Enemy,  in  despair  of  reducing  the  King's  ships  by  means 
of  their  own,  or  of  getting  possession  of  the  harbour,  had 
come  to  the  resolution  of  joining  their  whole  force  in 
troops,  marines,  and  seamen,  to  storm  the  fortress  the  next 
morning  at  daybreak,  he  judged  it  expedient  to  reinforce 
the  garrison  Avith  Avhat  seamen  could  be  conveniently 
spared  ;  and,  for  this  purpose,  at  the  close  of  the  evening, 
140  men,  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  Brooke,  were  sent 
into  garrison  :  part  of  these  were  immediately  detached  to 
reinforce  the  troops  on  the  outline  piquets,  others  manned 
the  facing  of  their  own  bastion,  while  the  remainder  were 
busily  employed  in  raising  cavaliers  in  the  fort.  In  all 
these  operations,  a  brotherly  affection  appeared  to  unite 
the  forces,  both  by  sea  and  land,  and  to  direct  their  views 
all  to  one  point,  much  to  their  credit,  and  to  the  honour 
and  benefit  of  the  service.  During  the  night  the  Enemy 
threw  a  number  of  shells  into  the  fortress.  At  10  P.  M.,  a 
few  shot  between  the  Enemy's  guard-boats  and  those  from 
the  King's  sliips. 

July  '60.     The  Enemy's  ships   preserve  their  disposition 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  297 

of  yesterday.  A  brisk  cannonade  the  whole  day,  between 
the  fortress  and  the  Enemy's  batteries  on  the  height;  and  a 
number  of  shells  thrown  on  both  sides.  The  store-houses 
being  apprehended  to  be  in  danger,  some  seamen  were 
ordei'ed  to  move  the  provisions  out  of  the  fortress  into  the 
ditch  in  its  rear ;  as  likewise  a  quantity  at  another  store- 
house.    Guard-boats  as  usual. 

July  31.  At  2  A.  M.,  the  seamen  and  marines  of  the 
Enemy's  fleet,  landed  to  the  westward  of  the  half-moon 
battery,  and,  under  cover  of  the  night,  attacked  the  piquet, 
and  by  heavy  [)latoon  firing,  ol>liged  them  to  retreat ;  but 
an  alert  reinforcement  of  fifty  men  who,  were  detached 
from  the  garrison,  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  Graham  of 
the  82d  regiment,  to  the  support  of  the  piquet,  drove  the 
Enemy  back  with  some  loss — in  killed,  wounded  and 
taken,  amounting  in  the  Avhole,  according  to  the  best  in- 
formation, to  about  100;  the  loss  on  the  part  of  the  King's 
forces,  amounting  to  thirteen  killed,  wounded  and  miss- 
ing, fell  chiefly  on  the  seamen  and  marines,  who  composed 
the  piquet  this  night.  Lieut.  Graham  unfortunately  re- 
ceived a  dangerous  wound  in  this  action. 

August  1.  A  slack  fire  on  all  sides.  At  4  p.  m.,  the 
Enemy's  fleet  getting  under  weigh,  and  the  wind  and  tide 
serving  them  to  enter  the  harbour,  the  embodied  seamen 
were  immediately  called  on  board  their  respective  ships; 
but  it  afterwards  appeared  that  the  Enemy  only  weighed 
to  form  a  closer  line.     Guard-boats  as  usual. 

August  2.  At  10  A.  M.,  three  of  the  Enemy's  ships 
weighed,  and  came  to  anchor  nearer  the  harbour's  moutli. 
Some  cannonading  between  the  fortress  and  the  Enemy's 
batteries  on  the  lieight.  The  outer  magazine  of  the  fortress 
being  too  much  exposed,  as  lying  in  front  and  between  the 
two  fires,  the  marines  were  charged  witli  the  duty  of  bring- 
ing it  to  the  magazine  in  the  fortress,  which  was  performed 
without  any  loss.  P.  M.  A  flag  of  truce  from  the  Enemy, 
to  treat  for  the  exchange  of  a  lieutenant  of  their  fleet, 
taken  (wounded)  at  the  half-moon  battery,  on  the  ^Ist 
ult. ;  but  he  had  died  of  his  wounds  this  morning.  This 
day  the  Enemy  posted  some  marksmen  behind  trees,  within 
musket  shot  of  the  fortress,  and  killed  and  wounded  some 
sentinels. 

August  3.  A  slack  fire  the  whole  day.  Perceived  the 
Enemy  busy  in  erecting  a  l)attery  to  the  northward,  on 
the  main,  above  the   King's  ships.     By  a  deserter   from 


298  DOCUMENTARY. 

the  Enem3^'s  fleet,  we  learn,  the  force  landed  below  the 
lialf-nioon  battery  was  1000  seamen  and  marines,  joined  on 
their  landing  by  200  troops;  that  their  intentions  were, 
to  storm  the  fortress  in  the  rear,  while  the  army  from  the 
heights  made  their  attack  in  front ;  that  it  was  not  in- 
tended to  storm  the  half-moon  battery,  but  that  they  had 
mistaken  their  road,  in  endeavoring  to  get  in  the  rear  of 
the  fortress,  when  they  received  the  first  fire  of  the  piquet ; 
wliich  led  tliem  to  suppose  that  their  design  had  been  dis- 
covered, and  tliat  they  were  ambushed.  The  army  also, 
believing  this  to  be  the  case,  retreated  to  their  ground. 
At  2  P.  M.,  some  seamen  were  sent  to  the  fortress  to 
assist  in  working  the  cannon,  and  another  party  for  the 
defence  of  the  Seamen's  bastion,  where  a  nundjer  of  swivels 
from  the  men  of  war  were  planted,  loaded  with  grape 
shot,  as  a  precaution  against  any  attempt  of  the  Enemy  to 
storm  the  works.  By  request  of  the  General,  a  number  of 
pikes  were  also  brought  from  the  King's  ships  to  the 
fortress,  and  put  in  the  hands  of  the  seamen,  to  prevent 
the  enemy  from  hoarding  their  bastion.  Guard-boats  out 
as  usual. 

August  4.  The  Enemy's  ships  retain  their  former 
situation.  A  smart  cannonading  between  the  fortress  and 
the  batteries  on  the  heights,  and  a  great  number  of  shells 
thrown  on  botli  sides.  Some  ship's  buckets  for  the  use  of 
the  garrison  brought  on  shore,  in  case  the  fascines  at 
the  well  bastion,  or  store-houses,  might  be  fired  by  the 
Enemy's  shells.  At  9  A.  m.,  the  Enemy  opened  their  new 
battery  near  Wesdoat's  house,  on  the  main,  to  the  north- 
ward of  the  shipping.  A  brisk  fire  was  kept  up  the  whole 
day,  and  the  men  of  war  suffered  much  in  their  rigging 
and  hulls;  being  too  far  from  the  battery  for  the  light 
metal  of  the  ships  to  produce  any  effect,  their  companies 
were  ordered  below.  P.  M.  Some  skirmishing  between 
the  piquets,  and  trifling  losses  on  both  sides ;  on  the 
Enemy's,  some  Indians  were  killed.  During  the  day, 
several  accidents  happened  by  cannon  shot  in  the  fort: 
among  others,  the  boatswain  of  the  Nautilus  was  wounded 
by  giape,  and  a  seaman  belonging  to  the  North  killed  by 
an  18-pounder,  at  the  guns  they  were  stationed  at  in  the 
fortress. 

August  5.  Cannonading  the  greatest  part  of  the  day 
between  the  fortress  and  the  Enemy's  batteries  on  the 
height,  and  fi-om  the  north  battery  against   the  men  of 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  299 

war,  damaging  their  hulls  and  rigging.  A.  M.  The 
remaining  off-side  guns  from  His  Majesty's  sloop  North 
brought  on  shore,  and  mounted  in  the  cavalier  in  the 
fortress.  P.  M.  The  garrison,  being  much  in  want  of 
wads  and  match,  was  supplied  from  the  men  of  war,  as 
also  with  some  six-pound  shot,  together  with  a  quantit}'  of 
twelve-pound  shot,  in  which  it  is  deficient.  The  north 
battery  on  the  main  having  the  commmand  of  the  opposite 
shore  on  tiie  peninsula  of  Majabagwaduce,  whei-e  the 
Enemy,  under  its  protection,  might  make  lodgments  in 
tlieir  approaches  towards  the  heights  opposite  the  men  of 
war  and  within  shot  of  the  fortress,  and  might  thereby 
destroy  communication  between  them  and  the  ganison; 
Captain  Mowat  judged  it  necessary  to  erect  a  work  in 
order  to  preserve  this  communication  ;  a  square  redoubt 
was  therefore  marked  out,  to  be  manned  Avith  fifty  sea- 
men, and  to  mount  eight  ship's  guns  en  barbette.  Guard- 
boats  as  usual  during  the  night. 

August  6.  Slack  fire  between  tlie  fortress  and  bat- 
teries on  the  heights ;  and  a  few  shot  from  tlie  north 
battery  against  the  men  of  war,  cutting  their  rigging,  and 
dismounting  a  six-pounder  on  board  the  No^-th.  At  four 
A.  M.,  seventy  seamen  from  the  different  ships,  under  the 
direction  of  Lieut.  Brooke,  of  the  North,  sent  on  shore  to 
raise  the  Seamen's  redoubt  on  the  height.  P.  M.  A 
quantity  of  musquet  cartridges  (of  which  the  garrison  was 
in  want)  brought  on  shore  from  the  men  of  war.  Guard- 
boats  as  usual.  At  11,  a  few  shot  exchanged  between  the 
Guard-boats. 

August  7.  The  Enemy's  ships  preserve  their  positions. 
At  9  A.  M.,  three  of  their  brigs  got  under  weigh,  and 
stood  down  the  bay,  supposed  to  be  on  the  lookout.  Some 
skirmishing  between  the  piquets,  with  loss  to  the  Enemy. 
Lieut.  McNeil,  of  the  82d,  and  one  private,  wounded. 
Slack  fire  between  the  batteries  and  the  fortress,  and  the 
north  battery  perfectly  silent.  At  4  P.  M.,  discovered  a 
boat  crossing  the  southeast  bay  to  Hainey's  plantation, 
where  the  Enemy  kept  a  piquet.  Lieut.  Congalton,  of 
the  Nautilus,  chaces  with  the  boats  from  the  men  of  war, 
and  took  her;  but  her  crew,  with  those  of  a  whale  boat, 
and  a  gondola  for  transporting  cannon,  got  safe  on  shore, 
and  joined  the  piquet.  Capt.  Farnham,  of  the  Nautilus, 
with  Lieut.  Brooke  and  fifty  seamen,  joined  by  a  party  of 
soldiers  i'roin  the  garrison,  landed  and  scoured  the  woods ; 


SOO  DOCUMENTARY. 

the  Enemy  fled  immediately,  and  so  effectnally  concealed 
themselves  as  not  to  be  discovered  ;  some  had  left  their 
arms,  ammunition  and  blankets,  which  were  taken  and 
brought  on  board.  Guard-boats  as  usual  during  the  night. 
By  a  deserter  from  the  Enemy  we  learn  that  General 
Lovell  had  sent  out  small  parties  from  his  army  round  the 
country,  and  brought  in  a  great  number  of  loyal  inhabit- 
ants, who  were  sent  on  board  their  fleet,  and  thrust  down 
the  holds,  heavily  laden  with  irons,  both  on  the  hands  and 
feet ;  their  milch  cows,  and  other  stock,  killed  for  the 
Enemy's  use  ;  all  their  moveables  destro}" ed  or  plundered, 
and  their  wives  and  children  left  destitute  of  every  support 
of  life. 

August  8.  A  constant  cannonade  the  whole  day  be- 
tween the  fortress  and  the  Enemy's  battery  on  the  heights  ; 
and  from  the  north  battery  against  the  men  of  war,  but 
returned  only  with  a  musquet.  At  10  A.  M.,  the  Enemy 
brought  a  field-piece  to  play  from  the  main  on  the  seamen 
working  at  the  redoubt ;  but  the  facing  towards  the 
Enemy  being  the  first  raised,  for  the  purpose  of  covering 
the  party,  it  was  impossible  to  dislodge  them ;  and  a 
covering  party  daily  attending  fiom  the  garrison,  pre- 
vented a  nearer  approach  on  any  other  ground.  This 
evening  the  redoubt  was  finished,  and,  to  the  credit  of  the 
seamen,  met  witli  the  approbation  of  the  General  and 
Engineers.     Guard-boats  as  usual  during  the  night. 

August  9.  Cannonading  as  usual.  At  9  A.  M.,  a  new 
battery  on  the  left  of  the  Enemy's  lines,  was  opened 
against  the  fortress,  and  its  chief  fire,  as  well  as  the  shells, 
directed  against  the  northwest  bastion,  raised  with  fas- 
cines only.  P.  M. — Discovered  the  Enemy  had  moved 
their  piquet  from  Hainey's  plantation  and  given  up  their 
design  of  cairying  on  a  work  for  two  18-pounders  against 
the  men  of  war.     Guard-boats  as  usual   during  the  night. 

August  10.  The  Enemy's  ships  in  their  former  posi- 
tion.    A  slack  fire  on  all  sides  ;  and  nothing  material. 

August  11.  A  smart  cannonading  from  all  the  batteries, 
and  some  shot  from  the  north  battery  well  directed  at  the 
men  of  war. 

August  12.  Slack  fire  on  all  sides,  and  no  material  op- 
erations tlie  whole  day:  but  at  9  P.  M.,  a  large  body  of  sea- 
men and  marines,  from  the  Enemy's  fleet,  landed  below 
Banks'  house  to  the  westward,  and  setting  a   fire  to  some 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  301 

barns,  houses,  and   a  quantity  of  lumber,  boards,  &c.,  on 
the  beach,  retreated  to  their  ships  again. 

August  13.  Some  skirmishing  at  daybreak,  between  the 
piquets,  but  no  material  loss  on  either  side.  At  1  P.  M., 
came  in  some  deserters  from  the  Enemy's  ships,  who  say, 
the  boat  chaced  on  shore  at  Hainey's  plantation  had  in  her 
the  Commodore  and  some  officers  of  their  fleet,  who,  hav- 
ing escaped,  returned  to  their  ship»s,  after  lying-  two  days 
and  a  night  in  the  woods ;  that  one  of  the  officers  (Capt. 
Ross  of  the  Monmouth)  had  broke  his  leg  in  the  woods; 
and  that  they  were  much  disconcerted  at  the  loss  of  the 
gondola,  which  was  intended  to  carry  over  some  18-pounders 
to  the  battery  on  the  plantation.  Captain  Mowat  also  (by 
his  usual  diligence)  obtained  information,  that  a  degree  of 
mutiny  prevailed  in  the  Enemy's  fleet  against  their  Com- 
modore, who,  notwithstanding  the  resolves  of  several 
councils  of  war,  and  the  urgent  solicitations  of  the  General 
to  make  another  attempt  on  the  King's  ships  had  hitherto 
declined  it  through  fear  of  losing  some  ships ;  but  that,  in 
consequence  of  another  council  held  this  morning  on  board 
the  Warren,  it  was  determined  to  force  the  harbour  next 
tide,  and  take  or  destroy  the  men  of  war ;  that  five  ships 
were  destined  for  this  service,  one  of  which  was  the  War- 
ren  ;  but  that  the  Putnam,  of  twenty  guns,  was  to  lead ; 
and  that  each  shij)  was  doubly  manned  with  picked  men. 
This  information  was  confirmed  at  noon  by  five  of  their 
fleet  getting  under  weigh,  and  coming  to  an  anchor  in  a 
line,  the  Putnam  being  the  headmost  ship.  The  marines 
were  now  called  on  board  their  respective  ships,  the  barri- 
cades strengthened,  guns  double-shotted,  and  every  dispo- 
sition made  for  the  most  vigorous  defence.  The  St.  Helena 
transport  had  been  brought  into  the  line,  and  fitted  out 
with  what  guns  could  be  procured,  and  the  crews  of  the 
transports  (now  scuttled  and  laid  on  shore,  to  prevent  them 
from  falling  into  the  Enemy's  hands)  turned  on  board  to 
fight  her,  and  the  General  had  also  advanced  five  pieces  of 
cannon,  under  cover  of  an  epaulement,  to  salute  them  as 
they  came  in.  But  at  5  P.  m.,  the  appearance  of  some 
strange  sails  in  the  offing,  disconcerted  the  Enemy's  plan ; 
and  the  five  ships,  getting  under  weigh  again,  stood  off  and 
on  the  whole  night:.  Guard-boats  watching  the  motions  of 
the  Enemy's  fleet ;  and  the  ships'  companies  standing  at 
their  quarters  until  daylight.  This  night  had  been  fixed 
39 


302       •  DOCUMENTARY. 

upon  to  storm  the  north  battery,  Avith  sixty  seamen,  under 
the  command  of  Lieut.  Brooke,  supported  by  Lieut. 
Caffrae,  of  the  82d,  with  fifty  soldiers ;  but  the  Enemy's 
operations,  and  the  appearance  of  the  strange  fleet,  pre- 
vented the  execution  of  it. 

August  14.  At  daybreak  this  morning  it  was  discovered 
that  the  Enemy  had  during  the  night,  moved  off  their  can- 
non, and  quitting  the  heights  of  Majabigwaduce,  silently 
embarked  in  small  vessels.  At  4  A.  M.,  after  firing  a  shot 
or  two,  they  also  evacuated  Nautilus  isLand;  and  leaving 
their  cannon  spiked  and  dismounted,  got  on  board  a  brig 
lying  to  receive  them,  and  made  sail  with  the  transports 
up  the  Penobscot  river.  The  whole  fleet  got  under  weigh, 
and  upon  one  of  the  brigs  he'aving  in  sight,  off  the  har- 
bour's mouth,  with  various  signals  abroad,  they  bore  up 
with  all  sail  after  the  transports.  There  remaining  now 
no  doubt  but  the  strange  fleet  was  the  relief  expected,  the 
off-side  guns  of  the  Albany^  North,  and  Nautilus,  were  got 
down  from  the  fortress,  and  being  taken  on  board,  the 
three  ships  slipped  their  stern  moorings,  hove  up  their 
bower  anchors,  and  working  out  of  the  harbour,  joined  in 
about  the  centre  of  the  King's  fleet,  in  pui^suit  of  the  flying 
Enemy,  who  were  now  crowding  with  every  sail  they 
could  set.  The  Hunter,  and  Hampden,  two  of  the  Enemy's 
ships,  of  twenty  guns  each,  attempted  to  escape  through 
the  passage  of  Long  Island,  but  were  cut  off"  and  taken; 
the  former  ran  in  shore,  all  standing,  and  was  instantly 
deserted  by  her  crew,  who  got  safe  on  shore;  and  the 
Raisonahle,  Sir  George  Collier,  being  the  sternmost  ship 
in  the  fleet,  took  possession,  and  got  her  off",  and  came  to 
anchor  near  her.  The  rest  of  His  Majesty's  ships  con- 
tinued in  chace  of  the  Enemy,  until  it  grew  so  dark,  as  to 
render  the  narrow  navigation  exceedingly  dangerous;  and 
then  were  obliged  to  anchor  for  the  night,  while  the 
Enemy,  having  good  pilots,  ran  some  miles  further  up  the 
river.  The  Defiance  brig,  of  fourteen  guns,  ran  into  an  in- 
let, where  she  could  not  be  pursued,  and  was  set  on  fire  by 
her  crew.  During  the  night  the  Enemy  set  fire  to  several 
ships  and  brigs,  which  blew  up  with  vast  explosions.  In 
short,  the  harmony  and  good  understanding  that  subsisted 
amongst  the  forces  by  sea,  and  by  land,  enabled  them  to 
effect  almost  prodigies,  for  so  ardently  did  they  vie  with 
each  other  in  the  general  service,  that  it  may  be  truly  said, 
not  a  single  Officer,  Sailor,   or   Soldier,  was   once   seen  to 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  303 

shrink  from  his  duty,  difficult  and  hazardous  as  it  was.  The 
flying  scout  of  fifty  men,  commanded  by  Lieut.  Caffrae,  of 
the  82d,  in  particuhir,  distinguished  themselves  to  admira- 
tion, marching  frequently  almost  round  the  peninsula,  both 
by  day  and  by  night,  and  with  drum  and  fife  playing  the 
tune  called  Yankee,  which  greatly  dispirited  the  Enemy, 
and  prevented  tbeir  small  parties  from  galling  our  men  at 
their  works.  In  one  instance,  they  even  drove  back  to 
their  encampment,  300  of  the  Enemy,  who  had  been  sent 
to  storm  an  out-work.  The  manoeuvres  of  the  Three  Sloops 
of  War,  under  the  direction  of  Captain  Mowat,  were, 
moreover,  such  as  enabled  the  King's  forces  to  hold  out  a 
close  siege  of  twenty-one  days,  against  a  fleet  and  army,  of 
more  than  six  times  their  number,  and  strength;  insomuch 
that,  on  the  first  appearance  of  the  reinforcement  from 
New  York,  in  the  offing,  the  Enemy  debarked  their  troops, 
and  sailed  with  their  whole  fleet  up  Penobscot  river,  where 
they  burnt  their  shipping,  and  from  thence  m.arclied  to 
their  respective  homes :  and  the  loj-al  inhabitants,  who 
were  taken  in  the  time  of  the  siege,  and  were  cruelly 
treated  on  board  their  ships,  had  their  irons  taken  off,  and 
were  set  at  liberty,* 

Thus  did  this  little  Garrison,  with  Three  Sloops  of  War, 
by  the  unwearied  exertions  of  Soldiers,  and  Seamen,  Avhose 
bravery  cannot  be  too  much  extolled,  under  the  judicious 
conduct  of  Officers,  whose  zeal  is  hardly  to  be  paralleled, 
succeed  in  an  enterprise  of  great  importance,  against  diffi- 
culties apparently  insurmountable,  under  circumstances  ex- 
ceedingly critical,  and  in  a  manner  strongly  expressive  of 
their  faithful  and  spirited  attachment  to  the  interests  of 
their  King  and  Country. 

*"To  give  them  a  cool  nirinpj,  as  the  Enemy  called  it,  once  a  day  the  irons 
were  knocked  oft'  tlieir  feet,  and  they  were  put  into  a  boat  alongside  the  ship, 
where  they  remained  about  an  hour,  and  had  the  filth  of  the  ship  poured 
upon  their  headis." 


304 


DOCUMENTARY. 
2. 


A  List  of  the  Enemy's  Ships,  &c.,  taken  and  destroyed 
in  Penobscot  River.'- ^• 

[By  Calef.] 


Ntinies, 


Commanders 


Guns. 


No.  of  Men. 

Jletiil. 

250 

18  &  12 

200 

9&6 

130 

9 

130 

9 

120 

6 

100 

(i 

130 

9»tC 

130 

6 

140 

9&6 

100 

6 

120 

6 

100 

6 

100 

6 

90 

(> 

90 

6 

90 

i 

80 

4: 

50 

6 

Ships. 
Warren, 
Sally, 
Putnam, 
Hector, 
Itcvenge, 
Monmouth, 
Hampden, 
Hunter, 
Vengeance, 
B  ack  Prince, 
Sky  llocket, 

Brigs. 
Hazard, 
Active, 
Tyi-annicide, 
Di'tiance, 
Diligence, 
Pallas. 

Sloop. 
Providence, 


Saltonstall, 

Holmes, 

Waters, 

Cairns, 

H..llett, 

Ross, 

Salter. 

Brown, 

Tliomus, 

West, 

Burke, 

Williams, 

Cathcart, 

Brown, 
Johnstone, 

Hacker, 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
18 
18 
IG 

IS 
16 
14 
14 
14 
14 

12 


Burnt. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Taken. 

do 
Burnt. 

do 

do 

do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 


do 


1.  Killed,  wounded  and  taken— on  the  Enemy's  side, 474 

Killed,  wounded  and  missing  of  His  .Majesty's  Sua  and  Land  forces,  .  .70 

2.  W;th  9  Sail  of  Transport  vessels, taken. 

With  10  Sail  of  Ti-ansport  and  Ordnance  vessels, burnt. 

Total, 37 

3. 

PROCLAMATION 

By  Brlgadler-Cieneral  Francis  M:Lean,  and  Andreiv  Bar- 
clay., Esq..,  commanding  Detachments  of  His  Majesty''s 
Land  and  Naval  Forces  in  the  Biver  Penobscot. 

Whereas  it  is  well  known  that  there  are  in  the  several 
Colonies  in  North  America,  now  in  open  rebellion,  many 
persons  who  still  retain  a  sense  of  their  duty,  and  who  are 
only  deterred  from  an  open  profession  of  it  by  the  fear  of 
becoming  objects  of  cruel  treatment,  which  they  had  seen 
exercised  on  others,  by  persons  who,  having  plunged  their 
country  into  the  horroi's  and  distresses  it  now  labors  under, 
industriously  seize  every  opportunity  of  gratifying  their 
avaricious  and  wicked  dispositions,  by  the  wanton  oppres- 
sion of  individuals : 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  305 

And  whereas  it  hath  been  represented,  that  the  greater 
part  of  the  inhabitants  on  the  river  Penobscot,  and  the 
several  ishinds  therein,  are  well  affected  to  His  Majesty's 
person,  and  the  ancient  constitntion  under  which  they 
formerly  flourished,  and  from  the  restoration  of  which 
they  can  alone  expect  relief  from  the  distressed  situation 
they  are  now  in  : 

Their  Excellencies,  the  Commanders  in  Chief  of  His 
Majesty's  naval  and  land  forces  in  North  America,  talking 
the  good  dispositions  of  the  inhabitants  above  mentioned 
(as  represented  to  them)  into  their  consideration,  and 
desirous  of  encouraging  and  protecting  the  persons  profess- 
ing them,  and  secuiing  them  from  any  molestation  on 
that  account,  have  ordered  here  the  forces  under  our 
respective  commands  for  that  purpose.  We,  therefore,  in 
obedience  to  their  directions,  hereby  invite,  and  earnestly 
request,  the  inhabitants  on  river  Penobscot,  and  the 
islands  therein  in  general,  to  be  the  first  to  return  to  that 
state  of  good  order  and  government  to  which  the  whole 
must,  in  the  end,  submit,  and  openly  to  profess  that 
loyalty  and  allegiance  from  which  they  have  been  led  to 
swerve  by  arguments  and  apprehensions,  of  the  falsehood 
of  which  they  must  long  ago  have  been  sensible,  as  well  as 
of  the  vicAvs  of  those  who  promoted  them. 

We  call  on  all  those,  also,  in  whom  these  principles 
have  never  been  shaken,  to  embrace  the  present  oppor- 
tunity of  manifesting  them  without  dread  or  apprehension, 
as  we  hereby  assure  them  of  every  protection  in  the 
power  of  the  forces  under  our  respective  commands  to 
bestow.  And,  to  quiet  the  apprehensions  of  any  persons 
who  might  be  deterred  from  embracing  this  opportunity 
by  the  dread  of  being  punished  for  any  former  acts  of 
rebellion  which  they  may  have  been  led  to  commit,  we, 
hereby,  declare  that  we  will  extend  our  protection,  and 
give  every  encouragement,  to  all  persons  of  whatever 
denomination,  without  any  retrospect  to  their  former 
behavior,  who  shall,  within  eight  days  from  the  date 
hereof,  take  the  oaths  of  allegiance  and  fidelity  to  His 
Majesty,  before  such  persons  as  we  shall  appoint,  either  at 
the  headquarters  of  His  Majesty's  trooj)s  at  Majal)ig\va- 
duce  Neck,  or  at  Fort  Pownal ;  which  oaths  of  allegiance 
and  fidelity  we  require  all  persons  whatever  to  come  and 
take  within  the  required  time,  and  not,  by  neglecting  to 
give  such  testimony  of  their  loyalty,  give  room  to  look 


306  DOCUMENTARY. 

on  them  as  desirous  of  continuing  in  an  obstinate  and 
unavailing  rebellion,  and  subject  tbemselves  to  the  treat- 
ment such  conduct  deserves. 

To  all  persons,  who,  by  returning  to  their  allegiance, 
shall  merit  it,  we  not  only  promise  protection  and 
encouragement,  with  the  relief  that  shall  be  in  our  power 
to  alleviate  their  present  distresses;  but  we  also  declare 
that  we  will  employ  the  forces  under  our  command  to 
punish  all  persons  whatever  who  shall  attempt  in  any 
manner  to  molest  them,  either  in  person  or  property,  on 
account  of  their  conduct  or  loyalty  towards  us ;  and  if 
forced  by  their  behavior  to  punish  any  men,  or  set  of  men, 
on  the  above  mentioned  account,  we  declare  that  we  will 
do  it  in  such  an  exemplary  manner  as  we  hope  will  deter 
others  from  obliging  us  to  have  recourse  to  such  severe 
means  in  future. 

And  whereas,  the  inhabitants  to  whom  this  proclamation 
is  addressed,  as  well  as  those  in  general  settled  in  that 
part  of  the  country  called  the  Province  of  Maine,  have 
settled  themselves  on  lands,  and  cnltivated  them,  without 
any  grant  or  title  by  which  their  possessions  can  be 
secured  to  them  or  their  posterity,  we,  therefore,  declare 
that  we  have  full  power  to  promise,  and  we  do  hereby 
promise,  that  no  person  whatever,  Avho  shall  take  the 
oaths  of  allegiance  as  above  required,  and  give  such  other 
testimony  of  their  attachment  to  the  constiution,  as  we,  or 
other  officers  commanding  His  Majesty's  forces,  may  re- 
quire, shall  be  disturbed  in  their  possessions ;  but  that 
whenever  civil  government  takes  place,  they  shall  receive 
gratuitous  grants  from  His  Majesty  (who  alone  has  the 
power  of  giving  them)  of  all  lands  they  may  have  actually 
cultivated  and  improved. 

And  whereas,  the  leaders  of  the  present  rebellion,  in 
pursuit  of  the  views  which  first  instigated  them  to  foment 
it,  and  probably  to  blind  the  people  with  regard  to  the 
cause  of  the  severe  distress  under  which  they  now  labour, 
have  industriously  propagated  a  notion,  that  the  officers  of 
His  Majesty's  sea  and  land  forces  willingly  add  to  their 
sufferings ;  we,  therefore,  to  remove  such  prejudices,  and, 
as  far  as  in  us  lies,  to  alleviate  the  misery  of  the  inhabit- 
ants of  the  villages  and  islands  along  the  coast  of  New 
England,  hereby  declare  that  such  of  them  as  behave 
themselves  in  a  peaceable  and  orderly  manner,  shall  have 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  307 

full  libert}''  to  fish  in  their  ordinary  coast-fishing  craft, 
without  any  molestation  on  our  part;  on  the  contrary, 
the}^  shall  be  protected  in  it  by  all  vessels  and  parties 
under  our  command. 

Given  on  board  His  Majesty's  Ship  Blande,  in  Majabig- 
waduce  river,  the  loth  of  June,  1779. 

PCi-        n  i  FRANCIS  McLEAN 

[bigneaj  ANDREW  BARKLAY. 


4. 

PROCLAMATION. 

By  Solomon  Lovell^  Esq.^  Brigadier- General  and  Com- 
mander in  Chief  of  the  Forces  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts 
Baij^  and  employed  on  aw  Expedition  against  the  Army  of 
the  King  of  Great  Britain^  at  Penobscot. 

"Whereas  it  hath  been  represented  to  Government,  that 
an  armament  of  some  sea  and  land  forces  belonging  to 
the  King  of  Great  Britain,  under  the  encouragement  of 
divers  of  the  inhabitants  of  these  parts,  inimically  disposed 
to  the  United  States  of  America,  have  made  a  descent  on 
Penobscot,  and  the  parts  adjacent;  and,  after  propagating 
various  false  reports  of  a  general  insurrection  of  the 
Eastern  and  Northern  Indians  in  their  favour,  a  Proclama- 
tion has  been  issued  on  the  loth  of  June  last,  signed  Francis 
McLean  and  Andrew  Barclay,  said  to  be  in  behalf  and  by 
authority  of  said  King,  promising  grants  of  lands  wliicli  he 
never  owned,  and  of  which  he  has  now  forfeited  the  juris- 
diction by  an  avowed  breach  of  that  compact  between  him 
and  his  subjects,  whereon  said  jurisdiction  was  founded, 
and  terrifying  by  threat nings  which  his  power  in  this  land 
is  unable  to  execute,  unless  his  servants  have  recourse  to 
their  wonted  methods  of  midnight  slaughter  and  savage 
devastation,  all  designed  to  induce  the  free  inhabitants  of 
this  part  of  the  State  to  submit  to  their  power,  and  to  take 
an  oath  of  allegiance  to  their  King,  whereby  they  must 
greatly  profane  the  name  of  God,  and  solemnly  intangle 
themselves  in  an  obligation  to  give  up  their  cattle,  pro- 
visions, and  labour,  to  the  will  of  every  officer  pretending 
the  authority  of  said  King,  and  finally  to  take  up  arms 
against  their  brethren  whenever  called  upon;  and  it  appears 
some  persons  have  been  induced  out  of  fear,  and  by  the 


308  DOCUMENTARY. 

force  of  compulsion,  to  take  said  oatli,  who  may  so  far  be 
imposed  on  as  to  think  themselves  bound  to  act  in 
conformity  thereto : 

I  have  thought  proper  to  issue  this  Proclamation,  here- 
by declaring  that  the  allegiance  due  to  the  ancient  constitu- 
tion^ obliges  to  resist  to  the  last  extremity  the  present  sys- 
tem of  tyranny  in  the  British  Government,  which  has  now 
overset  it ;  that  by  this  mode  of  government  the  people 
have  been  reduced  to  a  state  of  nature,  and  it  is  utterly 
unlawful  to  require  any  obedience  to  their  forfeited  author- 
ity ;  and  all  acts  recognizing  such  authority,  are  sinful  in 
their  nature  ;  no  oaths  promising  it  can  be  lawful  ;  since, 
if  any  act  be  sin  itself  no  oath  can  make  it  a  duty:  the  very 
taking  of  such  an  oath  is  a  crime,  of  which  every  act  adher- 
ing to  it  is  a  repetition  with  dreadful  aggravations. 

In  all  cases  where  oaths  are  imposed,  and  persons  com- 
pelled to  submit  to  them,  b}^  threats  of  immediate  destruc- 
tion, whicli  they  cannot  otherwise  avoid,  it  is  manifest  that, 
however  obligatory  they  ma}''  be  to  the  conscience  of  the 
compeller^  whose  interest  and  meaning  is  thereby  so  sol- 
emnly witnessed,  it  can  have  no  force  on  the  compelled, 
whose  interest  was  known  by  the  compulsion  itself,  to  be 
the  very  reverse  of  the  words  in  which  it  is  expressed. 

At  the  same  time  I  do  assure  the  inhabitants  of  Penob- 
scot, and  the  country  adjacent,  that  if  the}^  are  found  to  be 
so  lost  to  all  the  virtues  of  good  citizens,  as  to  comply  with 
advice  of  said  pretended  Proclamation,  by  becoming  the 
first  to  desert  the  cause  of  freedom,  of  virtue,  and  of  God, 
which  the  whole  force  of  Britain,  and  all  its  auxiliaries, 
now  find  themselves  unable  to  overthrow,  they  must  expect 
also  to  be  the  first  to  experience  the  just  resentment  of  this 
injured  and  betrayed  Country,  in  the  condign  punishment 
which  their  treason  deserves.  From  this  punishment  their 
invaders  will  be  very  unlike  to  protect  them,  as  it  is  now 
known  they  are  not  able  to  protect  themselves  in  any  part 
of  America  ;  and  as  the  protection,  on  which  those  pro- 
claiming Gentlemen  say  they  have  only  power  to  promise, 
can  be  afforded  by  nothing  but  the  forces  which  they  com- 
mand, and  of  these  forces  bj^  the  blessing  of  God,  I  doubt 
not  in  a  very  short  time,  to  be  put  in  possession  ;  so  there 
is  no  more  reason  to  expect  it  from  the  Indian  nations 
around,  as  good  part  of  them  are  now  in  my  encampment, 
and  several  hundreds  more  on  their  way  speedily  to  join 
me ;  and  I  have  the  best  evidences  from   all  the   rest,  that 


REVOLUTIONARY    PERIOD.  309 

they  steadfastly  refused  to  accept  of  any  presents,  sign  the 
papers,  or  do  any  of  the  barbarous  acts  assigned  them  by 
bur  Enemies ;  and,  on  the  contrary,  hold  themselves  in 
readiness,  on  the  shortest  notice,  to  turn  out  for  the  defence 
of  any  place  which  these  men  may  attack. 

Therefore,  as  the  authority  committed  to  me  necessitates 
my  executing  my  best  endeavours  to  rid  this  much-abused 
country,  not  only  of  its  foreign,  but  also  from  its  domestic 
enemies,  I  do  therefore  declare,  that  when,  by  the  blessing 
of  Heaven  on  the  American  arms,  we  shall  have  brought 
the  forces  that  have  invaded  us  to  the  state  they  deserve, 
it  shall  be  my  care  that  the  laws  of  this  State  be  duly 
executed  upon  such  inhabitants  thereof  as  have  traitorously 
abetted  or  encouraged  them  in  their  lawless  attempts. 

And  that  proper  discrimination  may  be  made  between 
them  and  the  faithful  and  liege  subjects  of  the  United 
States,  I  further  declare,  that  all  persons  within  the  Eastern 
Country,  that  have  taken  the  oath  prescribed  by  the 
Enemy  and  shall  not  within  forty-eight  hours  after  receiv- 
ing notice  of  this  Proclamation,  repair  to  my  camp  at 
Majabigwaduce,  with  such  arms  and  accoutrements  as  they 
now  possess,  shall  be  considered  as  traitors,  who  have  vol- 
untaril}''  combined  with  the  Common  Enemy  in  the  com- 
mon ruin  ;  but  all  such  as  shall  appear  at  head-quarters 
within  said  term  and  give  proper  testimony  of  their  deter- 
mination to  continue  cordially  in  allegiance  to  the  United 
States  of  America,  shall  be  recognized  as  good  and  faithful 
members  of  the  community,  and  treated  accordingly,  any- 
thing obnoxious  in  their  taking  the  oath,  notwithstanding. 

Given  at  Head  Quarters  on  the  Heights  of  Majabigwa- 
duce, this  29th  Day  of  July,  Anno  Domini  1779,  and  in 
the  Fourth  Year  of  the  Independence  of  America. 

(Signed)  S.  LOVELL,  Brig.  General. 

By  Command  of  the  General. 

(Signed)  JOHN  MARSTON,  Secretary. 


40 


310  DOCUjVIENTAEY. 

5. 

Co'py  of  Gieneral  LovelVs  Letter  to  Commodore  Saltonstall; 
taken  with  other  Papers  on  hoard  the  Transport. 

Head  Quarters,  Majabigwaduce  Heights,    ) 

August  11,  1779.  i 

Sir: 

In  this  alarming  posture  of  affairs,  I  am  once  more 
obliged  to  request  the  most  speedy  service  in  your  depart- 
ment; and  that  a  moment  be  no  longer  delayed  to  put  in 
execution  what  I  have  been  given  to  understand  was  the 
determination  of  your  last  council. 

The  destruction  of  the  Enemy's  ships  must  be  effected 
at  any  rate,  although  it  might  cost  us  half  our  own ;  but  I 
cannot  possibly  conceive  that  danger,  or  that  the  attempt 
will  miscarry.  I  mean  not  to  determine  on  your  mode  of 
attack;  but  it  appears  to  me  so  very  practicable,  that  any 
further  delay  must  be  infamous ;  and  I  have  it  this  moment 
by  a  deserter  from  one  of  their  ships,  that  the  moment  you 
enter  the  harbour  they  will  destroy  them ;  which  will  effect- 
ually answer  our  purpose. 

The  idea  of  more  batteries  against  them  was  sufficiently 
reprobated;  and,  would  the  situation  of  ground  admit  of 
such  proceeding,  it  would  noiv  take  up  dangerous  time  ;  and 
we  have  already  experienced  their  obstinacy  in  that  respect. 
You  cannot  but  be  sensible  of  my  ardent  desire  to  co-operate 
with  you ;  and  of  this  the  guard  at  Westcot's  is  a  sufficient 
proof,  and  which,  I  think,  a  hazardous  distance  from  my 
encamjDment.  My  situation  is  confined ;  and  while  the 
Enemy's  ships  are  safe,  the  operations  of  the  army  cannot 
possibly  ])e  extended  an  inch  beyond  the  present  limits; 
the  alternative  now  remains,  to  destroy  the  ships,  or  raise 
the  siege.  The  information  of  the  British  ships  at  the 
Hook  (probably  sailed  before  this)  is  not  to  be  despised ; 
not  a  moment  is  to  be  lost;  we  must  determine  instantly, 
or  it  may  be  productive  of  disgrace,  loss  of  ships  and  men  ; 
as  to  the  troops,  their  retreat  is  secure,  although  I  would 
die  to  save  the  necessity  of  it. 

I  feel  for  the  honor  of  America,  in  an  expedition  which 
a  nobler  exertion  had  long  before  this  crowned  with  suc- 
cess; and  I  have  now  only  to  repeat  the  absolute  necessity 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  311 

of  undertaking  the  destruction  of  the  ships,  or  quitting  the 
place ;  and  with  these  opinions  I  sliall,  impatiently,  wait 
your   answer. 

I  am,  Sir,  Yours,  &c. 
[Signed.]     S.  LOVELL,  Brig.  General. 

To  Commodore  Saltonstall. 


6. 
POSTSCRIPT. 
[To  Doctor  Calef's  Journal.] 

Inasmuch  as  the  Country  of  Penobscot  has,  till  lately, 
been  but  little  known  or  considered  by  Britons,  the  Editor 
[John  Calef]  has  thought  proper  to  give  the  Public  the 
following  short  Account  of  it ;  having  of  late  years  trav- 
elled eight  times  through  the  same,  and  made  himself 
acquainted  with  the  most  respectable  persons  in  each 
Town,  and  with  the  minutest  circumstances  which  respect 
that  District. 

Penobscot,  sometimes  called  the  territory  of  Sagada- 
hock,  lies  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Province  of  Massachu- 
setts Bay,  having  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia  (viz:  Passa- 
maquodie)  for  its  Eastern,  the  Province  of  Main  (viz : 
Kennebec  River  its  Western  ;  Canada  its  Northern,  and 
the  Ocean  its  Southern  boundary ;  and  is  nearly  as  large  as 
the  kingdom  of  Ireland.  The  French  were  formerly  in 
possession  of  part  of  this  Country,  viz :  from  Penobscot 
River,  eastward  ;  they  had  a  Fort  ofi  the  Peninsula  of 
Majabigwaduce,  commanded  by  Monsieur  Castine,  and  a 
great  number  of  French  inhabitants  settled  upon  Penob- 
scot, and  on  other  rivers,  and  along  the  sea-coast  to  Nova 
Scotia.  On  the  reduction  of  Louisburg,  in  the  5'ear  1745, 
Monsieur  Castine  demohshed  the  Fort ;  and  all  the  inhabit- 
ants of  this  District  broke  up,  and  removed  to  Canada. 

At  the  end  of  the  last  war,  viz:  in  17G3,  the  General 
Assembly  of  Massachusetts  Bay  granted  thirteen  Town- 
ships, each  of  six  miles  square,  lying  on  the  East  side  of 
Penobscot  River,  to  thirteen  Companies  of  Proprietors, 
who  proceeded  to  lay  out  the  said  Townships,  and  returned 
plans  thereof  to  the  General  Assembly,  which  were  ap- 
proved and  accepted.     In   consequence  of  this  measure, 


312  DOCUMENTARY. 

about  sixty  families  settled  on  each  Township,  and  made 
great  improvements  of  the  land.  These  settlers  employed 
the  then  Agent  for  the  said  Province  at  the  Court  of  Great 
Britain,  to  solicit  the  Royal  approbation  of  those  grants ; 
and  in  the  year  3773,  as  also  in  the  last  year  (1780,)  they 
sent  an  Agent,  expressly  on  their  own  account,  for  the 
same  purpose,  and  further,  to  pray  that  His  Majesty  would 
be  graciously  pleased  to  sever  that  District  from  the 
Province  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  and  erect  it  into  a  Govern- 
ment under  the  authority  of  the  Crown  ;  which  solicita- 
tion has  hitherto,  however,  been  without  effect. 

The  inhabitants  of  this  Country  are  in  general  loyal, 
except  those  of  the  Township  of  Machias,  who  have  at 
that  place  a  small  Fort,  under  the  direction  of  Congress, 
and  about  135  Indian  warriors  of  the  Machias  tribe,  in 
their  interest ;  all  the  other  tribes  of  Northern  Indians  are 
in  the  King's  peace. 

The  soil  of  this  Country  is  good,  and  well  adapted  to 
the  culture  of  every  sort  of  English  grain,  as  well  as 
hemp,  flax,  &c.,  but  it  is  more  especially  proper  for  graz- 
ing (in  which  it  excels  every  other  part  of  America)  and 
for  breeding  cattle,  sheep,  swine,  and  horses.  Its  woods 
abound  with  moose,  and  other  kinds  of  deer,  beaver,  and 
several  kinds  of  game  good  for  food. 

A  few  miles  from  the  sea-coast  are  large  tracts  of  land, 
covered  with  pine  trees,  suitable  for  masts  of  the  largest 
size.*  Timber  for  ship-building,  staves,  boards,  and  all 
other  sorts  of  lumber.  On  the  rivers  and  streams  there 
were  more  than  200  saw-mills,  when  the  rebellion  broke 
out,  and  many  more  might  be  erected.  The  rivers  abound 
with  salmon  and  various  other  kinds  of  fish ;  several  of 
which  rivers  are  navigable  50  or  60  miles  for  ships  of  300 
tons,  and  much  further  for  small  craft.  There  are,  on  the 
sea-coast  from  Falmouth  to  Passamaquoddy,  which  is 
about  70  leagues,  more  than  twenty  harbours ;  many  of 
them  are  very  large,  with  deep  water,  and  good  bottom, 
and  are  not  incommoded  with  ice  in  the  winter  season, — 
viz :  Falmouth,  Sheepscut,  Townsend,  George's  Islands, 
Penobscot,  Algemogin,  Bass,  Cranberry  Islands,  French- 
man's Bay,  Gouldsborough,  Machias,  Narraguagus,  and 
East  Passamaquodie.     In  each  of  these  harbours,  ships  of 

*ror  this  article  Britain  has  been  obliged  to  the  Northern  powers,  Russia 
in  particular. 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  313 

the  largest  size  may  ride  in  safety,  in  the  most  violent 
winds. 

In  the  harbour  of  Majabigwaduce,  is  a  large  sandy  beach ; 
the  tide  flows  from  fifteen  to  eighteen  feet,  and  a'  dock- 
yard may  be  erected  there,  at  a  small  expence,  for  the  col- 
lection of  masts,  lumber,  &c.,  and  to  heave  down  the 
largest  men  of  war.  Near  the  entrance  of  the  harbour,  is 
good  fishing  ground,  where  cod,  shell,  and  several  other 
kinds  of  fish  are  taken  in  plenty. 

In  October,  1772,  there  were  in  this  District,  forty-two 
towns,  and  2,638  families,*  who  have  since  greatly  in- 
creased, at  least  in  the  proportion  of  one-fourth,  which  is 
659  families,  making,  in  the  whole,  3,297  families: — Reck- 
oning, then,  five  souls  to  each  family  (which  is  a  moderate 
computation)  there  are  now  16,485  souls. 

To  this  New  Country,  the  Loyalists  resort  with  their 
families,  (last  summer,  particularly,  a  great  number  of 
families  were  preparing  to  remove  thither)  from  the  New 
England  Provinces,  and  find  an  asylum  from  the  tyranny 
of  Congress,  and  their  taxgatherers,  as  well  as  daily  em- 
ployment, in  fishing,  lumbering,  clearing  and  j^reparing 
land  for  their  subsistence ;  and  there  they  continue  in  full 
hope,  and  pleasing  expectation,  that  they  may  soon  re-en- 
joy the  liberties  and  privileges  which  would  be  best  se- 
cured to  them  by  laws,  and  under  a  form  of  government, 
modelled  after  the  British  Constitution ;  and  that  they  may 
be  covered  in  their  possessions,  agreeably  to  the  Petition 
to  the  Throne  in  1773  ;  which  was  renewed  last  year. 

Should  this  District  be  severed  from  the  Province  of 
Massachusetts  Bay,  and  erected  into  a  Province  under  the 
authority  of  the  Crown  and  the  inhabitants  quieted  in 
t\\Q.\x  poHsesdons^  it  would  be  settled  with  amazing  rapidity ; 
the  Royal  Navy,  West  India  Islands,  and  other  parts  of 
His  Majesty's  Dominions,  well  and  plentifully  served  for 
centuries  to  come,  from  this  District,  with  every  article 
above  mentioned,  without  being  obliged  to  other  Powers 
for  the  same  ;  and  the  profits  of  the  whole  would,  fall  into 
the  lap  of  Great  Britain,  in  return  for  her  INIanufactures. 
Roads  would,  moreover,  be  opened  for  communication  with 
other  of  His  Majesty's  Provinces,  which  might  be  travelled, 
in  a  short  time,  by  the  following  routes: — 

*"  As  appears  by  a  list  taken  by  a  respectable  person." 


814  DOCUIVIENTAET. 

Distance  froni  Qiiebeck  to  Passadonkeag,  Indian 


Oldtown,  on  Penobscot  river. 

65  Miles. 

Souadabscook, 

35      " 

Fort  Halifax,  on  Kennebec  river, 

19      " 

Pownalborough, 

33       " 

Falmouth, 

54      " 

Portsmouth, 

53 

Boston, 

65      " 

324 

Distance  from  Annapolis,  Nova  Scotia,  to  St. 

John's,  16  leagues. 

48  Miles. 

Penobscot  River, 

55      " 

Fort  Halifax, 

19       " 

Boston, 

205      " 

327       " 
N.  B.  from  Boston  to  Halifax,  is  a  good  Cart  Road. 

7. 

SERGEANT  LAWRENCE'S  JOURNAL. 

Remarks  on  the  Siege  of  Majabiguaduce  from  July  24:th  to 
August  14ith,  1779. 

Sat.  July  24th.  Saw  a  large  fleet  of  Ships,  Brigs, 
Sloops  and  Schooners,  amounting  to  37  sail  or  upwards. 

Sun.  25.  This  morning  the  Fleet,  belonging  to  the 
Rebels,  anchored  in  this  harbour,  and  in  the  afternoon 
came  and  attacked  our  little  fleet  very  warmly,  and  was 
returned  as  smartly  both  by  our  Ships  and  Batteries.  They 
were  endeavoring  to  land  their  forces  this  afternoon,  but 
were  repulsed,  and  obliged  to  return  to  their  shipping  with 
a  considerable  loss. 

Mon.  26.  They  were  very  busy  in  landing  their  men  at 
Matthew's  Point,  opposite  the  neck,  and  we  were  as  busy 
in  preparing  platforms,  «fec.,  to  annoy  the  Rebels,  if  any 
attack  on  the  fort  should  be  made.  A  constant  firing 
of  Cannon  commenced  between  both  sides  again,  with  the 
shipping  and  our  batteries  from  about  two  o'clock  until  3 — 
when  the  Rebels  returned  back  till  about  six,  when  they  once 
more  ventured  the  second  attack,  and  so  continued  till 
dark — though  not  much  damage  supposed  to  be  done  on 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  315 

eitlier  side.  This  evening  they  landed  some  men  on  Banks' 
island,  with  a  design  to  sink  our  ships  and  play  on  our  fort. 

Tues.  27.  We  were  pretty  quiet  all  day,  except  a  few 
cannon  tired  at  our  Batteries,  which  was  accordingly 
returned  by  us  with  as  good  sulphur  as  Britons  could  give, 
and  we  hope  they  did  proper  execution.  This  night  they 
were  very  busy  about  making  a  Battery  on  Banks'  island. 
They  also  attempted  to  land  on  our  neck,  but  our  picquet 
repulsed  those  poor  and  misled  conquerors,  as  they  thought 
themselves,  by  dividing  their  plunder  and  selling  their 
shares  one  among  another,  at  as  high  a  price  as  the  billings- 
gate leaders  does  the  furniture. 

They  drew  close  in  shore,  in  order  to  cover  their  land- 
ing, which  they  effected  by  a  constant  firing  from  their  ship- 
ping— they  landed  their  troops  in  all,  at  that  time,  about 
600.  Although  our  pic(]^uet  behaved  with  the  usual  spirit 
of  Britons  they  were  forced  to  retreat  to  the  fort,  with  the  loss 
of  several  killed  and  wounded,  but  not  one-half  part  was  our 
loss  to  what  the  rebels  were.  One  principal  officer  of  tjie 
Rebels  was  killed  by  a  soldier  of  the  82d  Regt.,  as  he  was 
endeavoring  to  penetrate  his  wa}^  through  a  constant  fire  of 
small  arms,  and  climbing  a  steep  hill.  The  remainder 
part  of  the  day  some  cannon  was  fired  from  us  to  divert 
the  Yankees,  besides  some  small  arms. 

Thurs.  29.  This  morning  they  opened  a  battery  at 
Nautilus  island  consisting  of  two  18-pounders  and  one  12- 
pounder — their  rel)ellious  spirit  they  begun  to  show  by  fir- 
ing on  our  Ships,  Fort  and  Batteries — we  did  not  spare 
powder  and  ball  to  the  Rebels  in  part  of  payment  for  their 
compliment  of  this  morning.  Our  ships  were  obliged  to 
remove  their  stations,  and  go  further  up  the  harbour,  as 
they  met  with  some  small  damage  by  their  heavy  metal. 
There  was  two  men  wounded  on  board  the  ships,  one  of 
which  is  since  dead.  One  of  their  18-pounder  shot  they 
sent  into  our  fort,  which  killed  a  bullock  on  the  parade — 
thus  they  finished  this  day's  malice. 

Frid.  '60.  Tliis  morning  they  opened  a  battery  in  the 
Avenero,  distance  from  us  about  488  yards,  consisting  of 
one  18-Pr.  and  two  12-Prs.  from  which  they  kept  a  con- 
tinual firing  on  purpose  to  make  a  breach  through  our 
works,  Init  their  attempts  proved  in  vain,  for  they  could 
not  obtain  their  vile  intentions,  as  we  was  well  lined  with 
brave  Britons.  This  afternoon  they  killed  two  of  the 
additional  gunners,  belonging  to  the  74th  Regt.,  with  their 


816  DOCUMENTARY. 

cannon.  They  also  began  to  throw  small  shells  at  us.  We 
also  began  to  throw  a  few  small  pills  at  them  in  partner- 
ship with  our  broad  Arr.  G-entlemen,  which  without  doubt 
they  paid  their  journey  well. 

Sat.  31.  The  usual  sport  of  cannonading  at  each  other 
commenced.  This  night  the  Rebels,  under  cover  of  the 
dark  of  night  and  a  thick  fog,  they  surrounded  our  battery 
at  Banks'  house,  and,  like  skulking  savages  lay  concealed 
till  this  morning,  when  about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning 
they  were  discovered,  and  a  very  smart  attack  with  small 
arms  commenced  on  both  sides,  considering  our  strength, 
which  did  not  exceed  forty  officers  and  privates — the 
Rebels  were  upwards  of  300 — they  drove  our  party  from 
the  works  awhile,  but  daylight  coming  on,  our  brave 
soldiers  advanced  on  them  again,  and  drove  them  from  our 
lost  Battery.  We  had  in  the  first  retreat  and  advancing 
six  men  killed  and  five  wounded,  oneof  which  was  Lieut. 
Graham,  of  the  82d  Regt. — they  this  once  more  begun 
their  cruelty  by  setting  on  their  most  outrageous  villains 
with  the  Indians,-  scalping  and  stripping  our  men  after 
they  were  dead — but  the  brave  spirit  of  our  soldiers  would 
not  let  them  deal  so  with  them  after  they  drove  those 
scoundrels,  but  showed  them  mercy ;  for  when  they  re- 
treated they  left  fifteen  prisoners,  some  of  which  was 
wounded,  one  of  those  was  a  Lieutenant,  who  died  since. 
They  also  intended  to  storm  our  fort,  but  was  most  badly 
disappointed  in  a  shameful  manner. 

Mond.  Aug.  2.  All  last  night  the  Rebels  were  very 
hurried  in  making  a  battery  at  the  back  of  Waistcoat's 
house,  to  damage  our  shipping — we  were  constantly 
cannonading  each  other  all  this  day.  We  had  two  addi- 
tional gunners  belonging  to  the  74th  Regt.  killed,  one  car- 
penter killed,  and  the  boatswain  of  the  Nautilus  wounded 
by  their  cannon  shot. 

Tues.  Aug.  3.  The  Rebels  still  at  work  at  their  battery 
to  play  on  our  ships,  and  we  as  busy  as  possible,  throwing 
shells  and  cannonading  them,  which  pass  away  time  very 
merrily.  We  were  always  in  expectation  of  their  coming 
to  storm  us,  and  we  were  as  ready  to  receive  them  on  the 
point  of  our  bayonets.  We  met  with  no  damage  this  day, 
worth  mentioning. 

Wed.  4.  We  begin  with  the  old  story  on  both  sides. 
They  killed  one  man  on  board  thie  North,  from  the  battery 
on    Nautilus  Island.     The   Rebels  this  day  opened  their 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  817 

battery  at  Wescutt's,  consisting  of  two  18-Prs.,  and  one 
12-Pr. — they  sent  one  ball  into  the  Nautilus — this  was  all 
the  damage  done  by  the  villains  this  day.  Lieut.  Carfrey, 
of  the  82d  Regt.,  with  a  party  of  light  infantry,  played 
them  Yankee  Doodle  in  open  defiance,  in  front  of  their 
batter}^,  but  the  cowardly  boasters  dare  not  attempt  to  face 
him. 

Thurs.  5.  Early  this  morning  the  Rebels  begun  on  our 
ships,  from  Nautilus  Island  and  Wescott's  battery,  as  also 
a  smart  fire  with  small  arms,  which  lasted  half  an  hour. 
We  had  one  man  killed  and  one  wounded.  One  Indian 
and  one  Yankee  were  killed  in  plain  view,  and  without 
doubt,  many  more  fell  in  the  action.  Their  batteries  kept 
a  continual  fire  on  our  ships.  Batteries,  and  on  the  Fort, 
which  we  returned  with  the  spirit  of  Britons.  Their 
batteries  hulled  the  Nautilus  three  times;  they  wounded 
one  man  on  board  in  both  hands.  This  afternoon  our 
chief  Engineer  was  "  diverted  "  in  raising  a  battery  for 
our  seamen,  in  case  they  had  been  obliged  to  leave  their 
shipping,  and  secure  their  retreat,  and  maintain  a  constant 
communication  with  the  Fort. 

Fri.  6.  This  morning  one  of  the  74th  Regt.  was  killed, 
and  in  payment  for  their  trouble  one  of  our  marines  shot  a 
Rebel  in  open  view,  in  front  of  the  74tli  old  Camp  ground. 
A  constant  cannonading  on  both  sides,  but  no  damage  re- 
ceived on  ours — the  seamen  at  work  on  their  reserve  battery, 
with  great  expedition. 

Sat.  7.  This  morning  commenced  with  the  common 
game  of  exchanging  shot  on  l)oth  sides,  and  one  Corporal 
of  the  74th  stood  in  the  way  of  a  stranger,  as  he  was  pass- 
ing over  our  fort,  taking  his  way  through  the  Commis- 
sary's store,  made  bold  to  take  the  Corporal's  head  off  his 
shoulders,  without  asking  any  other  pay  for  his  journey. 
This  afternoon  a  smart  skirmish  began  with  the  Rebels  and 
a  party  of  our  light  infantry,  Lieut.  McNeil  of  the  82d,  was 
wounded,  and  one  private.  We  may  well  suppose  the 
Yankees  did  not  return  without  loss,  as  they  were  forced 
to  fly  to  the  woods  for  shelter,  like  a  cowardly  crew,  and 
seen  to  carry  several,  eitlier  killed  or  wounded  with  them. 
A  detachment  from  the  Fort  joined  the  seamen,  and  was 
sent  to  a  place  called  Ilainey's  Rcnnt,  opposite  our  ship- 
ping, where  the  Rebels  intended  to  erect  a  Battery,  which 
of  consequence  would  liave  done  much  damage  to  every 
41 


Ml 8  DOCUMENTARY. 

vessel  in  our  hiirboiir  l)el()ii,t,niig  to  His  Majesty — in  wliich 
case,  tlie  mistaken  pickaroons  fired  a  few  small  arms  at 
onr  boats,  as  they  were!  landiuLf  their  men,  and  so  fled  to 
the  woods,  as  usual,  lor  safety,  and  left  their  boats  to  be 
towed  alonjj^  side  our  shi])S — they  bein*j^  (content  to  jiad  the 
hoof  throuijfh  woods,  swamps,  and  briars,  &g.  This  eve- 
ning, the  Rebels  set  lire  to  Master  Hanks'  and  Dyco's  houses 
and  Barns — both  these  was  true  friends  to  government. 

Sund.  8.  Only  a  few  cannon  shot  exchangeil,  by 
reason  of  a  heavy  rain. 

Mon.  9.  All  day  |)retty  (juiet  till  night,  when  a  cannon 
ball  was  sent  from  tlu;  Jiebels,  and  killed  one  of  the  74th. 
We  are  always  in  hojxis  wi;  i)aid  them  for  their  trouble,  as 
we  commonly  ])lay  as  good  a  stick  as  they. 

Tues.  10.  'Ihis  morning  a  few  cannon  shot  was  lircd  in 
exchange,  till  wc;  discovered  one  ])iece  of  Ordnance  in  a 
new  work,  directly  in  a  line  from  our  works.  lint  we 
soon  rooted  them  from  that  work,  with  the  usual  alertness 
of  Hritons.  This  afternoon  came  in  a  deserter  from  the 
Kcbels,  and  iid'ormed  us  of  scmu;  shij)S  cruising  off  the  har- 
bour, which  was  no  disagr(HuU)le  news  to  us,  as  we  expected 
a  reiidorecnienl  to  assist  us  to  give  these  two  bold  command- 
cis  of  the  ^'ankees  a  proper  disabling,  and  teaeh  them  the 
(piickstep. 

Wed.  11.  This  morning  they  lirctl  on  our  picquet,  and 
killed  one  man  and  wounded  another.  This  evening  Lieut. 
CarlVey  of  the  (S2d,  and  his  light  infantry  went  to  recon- 
noitre round  the  neck  and  fell  in  with  a  party  of  the 
lU'bels,  consisting  of  al)()ut  l>00  scari>crows,  at  Banks'  Bat- 
tery— Our  Lieut,  ordered  to  give  them  a  volley  of  small 
arms  and  a  tap  of  the  Grenadier's  march,  accompanied 
with  Yankee  l)oodle,  which  so  dauntcul  these  i)oor  devils 
that  they  hove  some  of  their  arms  away  and  ran  to  the 
woods — they  threw  a  few  Balls  out  oi'  their  mortars  at  us, 
but  did  us  no  damage.  We  i-losed  the  day  by  sending 
them  j)l(>nty  of  12-I*r.  shot. 

Thurs.  \'2.  This  nu)rning  the  Rebels  seemed  as  if  they 
had  meant  \o  make  an  attack  on  the  fort,  for  at  daybreak 
they  opened  all  their  batteries  on  the  fort  and  shipping. 
We  also  em])loyed  ourselves  to  make  them  a  recompense 
f(»r  tluir  extravaganees.  The  ( Jeneral  and  all  our  principal 
ofticers  were  of  opinion  the  Yankees  had  taken  courage  to 
storm  our  fort,  which  seemed  very  likely  by  their  landing 
many  t»f  their  troops  and  often  forming  them  in  open  view 


UEVlMA'TlONAKY    PKKlOn.  810 

of  our  sooutinijj  purtios.  AVo  woro  (liis  at'tornoon  busy  in 
raising  a  bit  of  a  battorv  for  four  O-Prs.  to  play  on  thoir 
shipping,  if  in  case  ihov  should  make  an  attempt  to 
approach  ours,  uhich  would  sooner  have  perished  in  the 
attack  than  have  fallen  a  prey  to  these  savage  plunderers. 
This  evening  they  set  lire  t(^  Perkins'  h(nis(>  and  barn,  and 
also  many  feet  of  boards  and  other  lumber,  whieii  \V(ndd, 
they  thought,  have  been  of  use  to  us.  This  day  we  closed, 
but  the  Rebels  did  not  make  their  attempt,  as  we  could 
have  wished  them  to  have  done. 

Frid.  lo.  'I'his  nuu-ning  we  were  pretty  quiet  till  about 
noon,  when  they  opened  their  batteries  and  some  Held 
j)ieces  on  us,  as  we  were  hauling  our  eanncui  to  the  new 
liattery  to  interpose  their  sliii>ping,  if  in  case  of  an  attempt 
on  ours.  Towards  the  evening  the  Rebels  advanced 
towards  Joseph  Perkins'  house,  but  we  soon  deprived  them 
of  that  desigii  by  the  opening  of  both  round  and  grapo 
shot  among  them,  both  from  our  batteries  and  shi])ping — 
at  the  same  time  we  discovi'red  some  large  shi[)s  off  the 
harboiu',  which  glorious  sight  put  our  whole  soldiers  in 
fresh  spirits,  as  we  made  no  doubt  but  they  Avere  friends 
and  would  soon  bo  in  pursuit  of  the  Rebels,  as  it  seemed 
very  probable  by  their  signal  vessel  coming  with  all  speed 
anil  making  many  dift\'rcnt  signals  to  their  (^ommodore — at 
the  same  linn>  we  iired  some  signal  guns  fn>n\  the  fort  to 
our  sup)u)seil  fritMuls,  which  was  returned  by  tiring  some 
guns  to  Leeward  and  hoisting  English  colors.  We  soon 
observed  the  rebel  ileet  to  be  in  great  confusion.  At  dusk 
they  fired  one  18-Pr.  which  was  the  last  they  tired — at 
which  time  they  kilkul  a  (\Mporal  of  the  S'Jd  Regt.  Thus 
ended  the  exploits  of  this  day,  with  the  liebcls  all  in  sur- 
prise not  knowing  which  way  their  course  to  steer. 

Sat.  14.  This  nnn-n  to  our  great  s;itisfaction  we  found 
what  we  expected  from  the  night  before.  Rut  the  morn- 
ing being  entirely  eahn  (Uir  ship{)ing  could  not  get  under 
weigh  till  about  nine  o'chn'k,  when  they  threw  the  Rebels 
in  not  lung  but  a  rapid  t'onfusion.  Tlu'  (n>nl.  detai'hetl  par- 
leys to  their  dilVerent  j)Osts  and  found  them  all  evacuated. 
A  party  was  also  sent  to  Matthew's  (^ove,  which  [)arty  was 
joined  by  the  Artiticers,  covereil  by  two  3-Prs.  to  endeavor 
to  stop  them  from  carrying  their  cannon  away,  and  if  possi- 
ble to  catch  some  prisoners,  but  they  having  too  much  tlu^ 
start  of  us,  we  was  disappt)intcd  and  couUl  oidy  stop  one 
rebel;  which  was  effected  i)y  one  of  the  carpenters  named 


320  DOCUMENTARY. 

Stanford,  as  he  was  attempting  to  make  his  escape  thro'  a 
corn-field.  By  this  time  the  Rebel  fleet  was  all  in  readi- 
ness to  make  their  last  attempt  some  way  or  other,  as  to 
fighting  we  thought  it  was  not  their  intention,  for  they  left 
the  soldier  part,  or  forgot  it,  when  they  came  from  Yankee 
town.  About  noon  they  got  to  be  all  in  a  line,  and  soon 
after  he  was  the  best  fellow  who  could  run  and  sail  the 
fastest,  for  Sir  George  Collier  and  his  fleet  came  so  fast  on 
them,  that  some  ran  on  shore,  some  taken,  burnt,  or  blown 
up,  so  that  none  got  liberty  to  go  back  to  carry  the  news 
to  Yankee  town,  except  what  poor  creatures  can  travel 
through  a  most  miserable,  fatiguing,  and  almost  starved 
country,  and  most  lost  all  expectation  of  driving  us  from 
Maj.  In  the  afternoon  we  fired  a  royal  salute  from  the 
fort,  and  by  accident  of  a  gun  hanging  fire,  one  of  the 
Artillery  had  his  right  arm  broke,  and  his  thumb  blown  off. 

Now  the  Siege  is  raised,  our  fears  are  ended,  we  will  re- 
turn thanks  to  God  that  he  has  delivered  us  from  outrage- 
ous men,  and  Rebels,  such  that  was  commanded  by  Gen- 
eral Lovell. 

[The  spelling  of  the  foregoing  journal  has  been  cor- 
rected in  a  few  places,  but  otherwise,  in  style  and  gram- 
mar, this  is  a  correct  copy  of  the  original.  Lawrence  was 
an  Orderly  Sergeant  of  the  Royal  Artillery.  He  with 
another  soldier  of  that  corps  was  sent  across  from  Boston 
to  Cambridge,  on  the  evening  before  the  march  to  Lexing- 
ton, to  instruct  the  Infantry  how  to  throw  hand-grenades 
— was  on  the  Common  Avhen  the  first  gun  was  fired — after- 
wards fought  and  was  wounded  at  Breed's  Hill.  He  was 
in  Castine  during  the  whole  of  the  Siege,  and  at  the  con- 
clusion of  peace  was  honorably  discharged.  I[e  afterwards 
settled  in  Bucksport,  where  he  died  not  very  many  years 
ago,  at  an  advanced  age.] 


Extracts  from  Sergeant  Laivrence''  s  Orderly  Book — 1779. 

[Substantially  correct,  but  not  verbatim.'] 

[The  first  entry  occurs  July  11th,  1779,  and  is  an  order 
to  parade.] 

1779.  July  20.  Small  change  is  so  scarce  that  dollars 
are  cut  into  five  pieces,  by  command  of  the  General,  each 


EEVOLUTIONAEY  PERIOD.  321 

part  to  pass  for  one  shilling.  Soldiers  are  forbidden  to 
take  up  any  potatoes  belonging  to  the  inhabitants,  niider 
pain  of  severe  punishment. 

July  28th.  Soldiers  are  forbidden  to  leave  the  fort, 
without  permission.  Marauding  is  forbidden,  and  also 
smoking  within  the  fort. 

August  5.  Strict  injunctions  against  soldiers  leaving 
the  fort  without. permission,  for  the  purpose  of  shooting  at 
the  enemy — as  had  been  done. 

August  11.  None  of  the  inhabitants  allowed  within 
the  fort,  except  those  employed  in  His  Majesty's  service, 
viz :  Mr.  Nathan  Phillips  ;  Mr.  Cunningham,  family  and 
driver;  Mr.  Dyce  and  family;  and  Mr.  Finley  McCul- 
lorn. 

August  18.  The  General  thanks  the  officers  and 
soldiers  for  their  spirited  conduct  while  the  enemy  were  in 
the  wood.  Hereafter  nothing  is  to  be  taken  from  any  of 
the  inhabitants,  without  payment. 

August  19.  Soldiers  are  forbidden  to  set  fire  to  the 
houses  of  the  inhabitants,  without  the  General's  orders. 

August  21.  Lieutenant  Wilson  is  ordered  to  send  a 
man  from  the  Artillery,  with  a  Gin,  for  weighing  the 
guns  of  those  ships  that  were  burned. 

August  29.  Parties  of  Rebels  reported  to  be  lurking  in 
the  woods,  and  officers  recommended  to  be  careful  about 
going  into  them. 

August  30.  A  detachment  sent  up  the  river  for  lumber, 
with  two  days'  provisions. 

September  25.  All  Rebel  firelocks  are  ordered  to  be 
brought  in  by  the  inhabitants,  and  the  sum  of  three  dol- 
lars each  to  be  paid  for  them. 

November  14.  Owing  to  fraudulent  practices,  the  cut 
pieces  of  dollars  are  to  be  called  in.  Doctor  Calef  is 
appointed  as  Overseer  and  Commissary  of  the  inhabitants. 
Mr.  MacZachlar  is  to  be  Barrack  Master,  and  to  act  as 
Quarter  Master  General.  General  McLean  is  preparing 
to  leave,  and  Colonel  Campbell  has  taken  the  command. 

November  16.  The  inhabitants  are  not  allowed  to 
leave  the  peninsula,  without  a  written  pass  from  Doctor 
Calef. 

November  22.  All  the  inhabitants  drawing  provisions 
from  the  King's  stores  are  allowed  till  the  twenty-ninth 
inst.  to  make  their  dwellings  comfortable  and  convenient. 
On  that  day  all  (who  are  tit)  are  to  be  employed  on  the 


S22  DOCUMENTARY. 

King's  works,  at  reasonable  wages,  and  those  who  refuse 
are  to  have  their  names  struck  from  the  list  of  those  who 
draw  provisions. 

December  5.  The  inhabitants  having  neglected  to 
comply  with  the  order  of  the  fifth  inst.,  none  are  to  receive 
provisions  except  those  who  produce  a  certificate  from 
the  chief  Engineer  or  from  Doctor  Calef.  Mr.  Archibald, 
Nathan  Phillips  and  David  Cunningham,  being  considered 
as  always  engaged,  do  not  need  certificates. 

December  24.  The  inhabitants  are  forbiden  to  sell 
liquor  to  any  one. 

1780.  Jan.  2.  Soldiers  are  restricted  to  two-thirds 
an  allowance  of  Rum  and  Butter. 

January  27.  All  strangers  intending  to  stay  over  night 
are  ordered  to  report  to  Doctor  Calef.  No  persons  are 
allowed  to  go  on  or  off  the  peninsula  after  sunset  without 
permission  from  Doctor  Calef.  All  persons  not  reporting 
to  Doctor  Calef  are  to  be  fined  or  corporally  punished. 
This  order  to  be  publicly  posted  and  copies  of  it  sent  to 
the  neighboring  towns.  No  person  known  to  be  disaffected 
is  to  be  allowed  to  dwell  on  the  peninsula.  All  the  inhab- 
itants are  to  be  armed  and  accoutred  and  ready  for  action 
at  a  moments  notice.  The  inhabitants  are  also  to  be  mus- 
tered and  inspected  once  each  week  by  their  Overseer. 

[The  rest  of  the  Orderly  Book  is  filled  with  countersigns, 
paroles,  &c.,  &c. — The  last  date  in  the  book  is  Feb.  28, 
1780.] 


9. 


William  Hutchings''  Narrative  of  the  Siege,  and  other  remi- 
niscences. 

[The  following  account  was  narrated  to  Mr.  Joseph  L. 
Stevens,  Jr.,  in  August,  1855,  by  Mr.  William  Hutchings  of 
Penobscot.] 

The  British  landed  in  front  of  Joseph  L.  Perkins'  house, 
June  17,  1779,  which  stood  on  what  is  now  the  south  east- 
ern corner  of  Main  and  Water  streets.  They  seemed  as 
frightened  as  a  flock  of  sheep,  and  kept  looking  around 
them  as  if  they  expected  to  be  fired  on  by  an  enemy  hid 
behind  the  trees.  This  day  they  did  not  stop,but  returned 
to  their  vessels.     The  next  day  they  came  on   shore,  and 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  323 

encamped  on  the  open  land  east  of  where  the  fort  now 
stands.  They  immediately  began  to  fortify  the  place.  In 
a  short  time  the  American  expedition  came,  and  orders 
were  sent  out  for  the  inhabitants  to  come  in  and  work.  I 
helped  to  haul  the  first  log  into  the  south  bastion.  It  was 
on  the  Sunday  before  the  Americans  arrived,  and  was  the 
only  Sunday  on  which  I  had  to  work  in  my  life.  The 
peninsula  was  then  covered  with  a  heavy  growth  of  trees. 
When  the  fort  was  built  it  was  mostly  spruce,  and  the 
trees  were  rather  small,  but  farther  to  the  westward  there 
was  a  good  deal  of  maple,  beech,  birch,  etc. 

General  Lovell  built  his  works  mostly  of  logs  and  brush. 
He  had  to  cut  away  a  great  many  trees  to  make  a  passage 
for  his  cannon  balls  to  the  fort.  General  McLean  expected 
to  be  taken,  and  when  his  troops  were  driven  back  into 
the  fort,  the  morning  the  American  troops  landed — July 
28,  1779 — he  stood  with  the  pennant  halliards  in  his  own 
hands  all  ready  to  strike  the  colors  himself.  He  said  he 
had  been  in  nineteen  battles  without  getting  beaten,  but 
he  expected  he  should  be  beaten  in  the  twentieth  one. 
The  walls  of  the  fort  were  so  low  at  that  time  that  I  heard 
a  soldier  say  he  could  jump  over  with  a  musket  in  each 
hand.  McLean  considered  that  every  day  the  Americans 
delayed  the  attack  was  as  good  to  hira  as  another  thousand 
men.  My  father  was  among  the  patriots  who  joined  the 
Americans.  He  was  stationed  part  of  the  time  at  Hainey's 
point,  and  always  thought  he  killed  an  English  soldier 
there.  A  party  of  English  came  to  drive  the  Americans 
away,  and  most  of  them  speedily  retreated ;  but  my  father 
and  a  few  others  stopped  to  give  them  a  parting  shot, 
when  the  boat  should  come  in  good  range.  One  of  the 
guard  afterward  said  to  him  at  Mrs.  Hainey's  house  that 
when  my  father  fired  he  saw  a  soldier  in  one  of  the  boats 
fall,  and  heard  him  cry  out.  Mrs.  Hainey  was  along  and 
she  subsequently  reported  this  at  head  quarters,  and  we 
supposed  it  the  reason  of  our  family  being  driven  away. 
I  worked  on  the  battery  at  Wescott's,  in  all,  eight  days. 


We  kept  up  a  hot  fire  on  the  sliips,  and  drove  the  men 
ashore  and  below.  There  were  three  frigates — the  Albany^ 
North,  and  Nautihis.  We  could  hear  our  shot  go  —  thud — 
into  them.  We  cut  away  an  anchor  hanging  at  tlie  bows 
of  one  of  them.     I  marked  where  it  fell,  as  I  thought  some- 


324  DOCUMENTARY. 

time  or  otlier  I  might  want  to  get  it  up.  When  the  siege 
was  raised  the  guns  were  carried  across  to  Matthews'  point 
to  be  put  on  board  the  transports.  In  the  hurry  of  getting 
them  on  board  a  brass  four-pounder  was  lost  overboard. 
One  night  the  Americans  undertook  to  surprise  the  Enghsh 
but  they  fell  in  with  the  British  guard  at  Banks's  battery, 
and  had  a  sharp  fight.  Quite  a  number  were  killed  on  both 
sides.  I  afterwards  saw,  up  by  the  narrows,  some  bloody 
uniforms,  tied  up  in  a  blanket,  that  had  been  stripped  from 
the  English  soldiers  killed  that  night.  Major  Sawyer  was 
killed,  or  drowned,  in  aboat  that  Avas  sunk  by  a  cannon 
ball  fired  from  the  fort,  while  it  was  passing  from  the  fleet  to 
to  Nautilus  Island.  A  cannon  shot  from  the  battery  on  Nau- 
tilus Island  came  in  the  fort  gate  and  passing  between  Gen- 
eral McLean  and  one  of  his  officers,  killed  an  ox  belonging 
to  my  father — which  he  had  raised  himself.  Hatch's  barn  was 
used  as  a  hospital.  I  was  there  after  the  siege  was  raised, 
and  the  floor  was  then  covered  with  beds  so  thick  that 
there  was  scarcely  room  to  pass  between  them.  The  poor 
fellows  groaned  a  good  deal  when  the  doctors  dressed  their 
wounds.  I  believe  most  of  those  who  died  there  were 
buried  on  the  lower  side  of  the  road.  Being  so  young  I 
was  allowed  to  go  off  and  on  the  peninsula,  but  the  soldiers 
sometimes  used  to  call  me  "a  damned  little  rebel."  It  was 
reported  that  there  was  to  be  a  combined  attack  on  the 
fort  and  frigates,  at  a  set  time,  by  the  Americans.  I  went 
with  a  number  of  others  to  the  high  land  in  Brooksville, 
opposite  Negro  Island,  but  it  did  not  take  place.  At  that, 
or  another  time,  I  recollect  seeing  some  of  the  American 
fleet  drop  in  behind  Nautilus  Island  and  fire  across  the  bar 
at  the  English  ships.  Their  last  shot  ploughed  up  the  dry 
sod  near  Hatch's  house,  and  set  considerable  of  it  on  fire. 
A  drummer  was  killed,  the  night  of  the  skirmish,  at  the 
battery  near  Banks'  house,  and,  for  a  good  many  years 
after,  people  used  to  say  that  they  could  hear  Ms  ghost 
drumming  there  at  midnight.  I  saw  both  Lovell  and  Wads- 
worth.  I  did  not  like  the  appearance  of  Lovell  very  well, 
but  Wadsworth  was  a  beautiful  man.  There  was  no  canal 
duCT  across  the  neck  at  that  time. 


A  good  many  years  ago,  I  used  to  know  a  man  named 
Conolly,  who  told  me  that  he  once  found  near  the  second 
Narrows,  on  or  near  the  shore,  a  kind  of  chest  p;retty  much 


EEVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  325 

covered  over  with  moss  or  grass,  as  if  it  had  been  exposed 
to  the  weather  many  years.  On  opening  it  he  found 
French  goods,  such  as  handkerchiefs,  etc.  As  long  ago  as 
I  can  remember  there  was  what  was  called  the  "  Old 
French  Fort,"  down  by  the  shore  below  Banks's  house. 
There  were  a  great  many  spruce  poles  around  it  and  posts 
in  the  shore,  when  I  was  a  boy.  There  used  to  be  a  con- 
siderable growth  of  oak  there.  I  do  not  remember  ever 
hearing  that  there  were  in  old  times  any  Mills  about  here 
belonging  to  Frenchmen — what  used  to  be  called  the 
•'  Winslow"  farm,  at  the  head  of  Northern  Bay,  was  a  great 
while  ago  called  "  Frenchman's"  farm,  and  the  pond  at 
the  head  of  a  stream  that  runs  through  it,  was  called 
"  Frenchman's"  pond,  when  I  was  a  boy,  and  there  was  an 
old  cellar  there  they  used  to  call  the  old  Frenchman's 
celLar.  It  may  be  all  gone  now.  If  not,  you  will  tind  it 
between  Perkins'  store  and  the  shore. 

Sutchings''  Narrative  to  Joseph    Williamson,  Esq.,  in  Feh- 
riiary,  1860. 

****** 

In  Wescott's  battery  there  were  three  guns,  one  12-lb., 
one  6-lb.,  and  one  3-lb.  brass  field  piece,  which  was  lost  over- 
board off  Stover  Perkins'  point,  when  the  Americans  were 
trying  to  carry  it  off.  It  lays  there  now,  I  suppose — a  lit- 
tle way  from  the  shore.  The  transport  must  have  come 
as  nigh  as  she  could.  It  probably  slipped  out  of  the 
slings. 

I  saw  as  many  as  50  or  60  cannon  the  English  got  from 
the  fleet  up  the  river.  They  all  lay  at  high  water  mark 
on  the  shore,  loaded,  and  were  fired  off,  to  see  if  they 
were  cracked,  or  anything  the  matter  with  them. 

Doctor  Calf  [Calef]  l)uilt  the  old  Mann  house  about  a 
year  before  the  British  came.     He  was  a  Tory  refugee. 

We  shot  an  anchor  from  Wescott's  battery  off  the 
Santillana  [St.  Helena]  near  Hatch's  Point.  Three  or 
four  ships  lay  along  there.  I  saw  it  at  low  tide,  and  suj)- 
pose  1  might  have  got  it,  if  I  had  had  spunk  enough. 

The  old  wreck  on  the  shore  down  below  Hatch's  was 
the  Providtnee*     The  St.  Helena  was  a  letter-of-marque, 

*This  is  corroborated  l)y  a  lotti-r  from  J.  Snellin^^  Esq.,  of  Halifax,  Ic  tliu 
wife  of  Col.  (ioldtlnvaite,  at  Bafrnduco.  Tliis  letter  was  dated  Dec.  IT,  1779, 
and  eoniuiimicates  tlic  inforinatiuii  that  the  St.  IlclcnK  had  recently  ijeen  east 
away,  with  j,'reat  hjss  of  life,  at  some  plaee,  tlu'  name  of  w  liieh  we  cannot 
deciijlier  from  the  nianuscri])t,  hut  which  cei'tainly  was  not  I'enobscot  or 
Bagaduee.    The  word  looks  like  "  Salu — inj;.'' 

4-2 


326  DOCUMENTARY. 

of  fourteen  guns.  She  was  not  in  the  regular  service. 
The  Providence  was  an  old  transport,  that  troops  came 
over  in.  She  fell  over  there,  I  believe,  and  stove  her  side 
in. 

The  Albany  carried  sixteen  guns,  the  Nautilus  twenty- 
two,  and  the  North  twenty-eight.  She  was  an  old  French 
ship,  and  was  not  good  for  much  of  anything.  Her  guns 
were  light-mounted. 

Nautilus  Island  Avas  named  after  the  Nautilus,  and  I 
suppose  I  saw  the  caper  that  was  the  occasion  of  it.  The 
Hazard  and  other  vessels,  ran  in  behind  the  island,  and 
fired  across  the  bar,  and  raked  the  ships  that  lay  across 
the  mouth  of  the  harbor.  They  cut  or  slipped  their 
cables,  and  dropped  up  further.  Nautilus  Island  used  to 
be  called  Banks'  Island  ;  was  called  Nautilus  Island  after 
that. 

The  guard  at  Hainey's  Point  all  ran  off  but  live,  who 
fired  and  killed  one  man — the  first  who  was  killed.  My 
father  is  said  to  have  done  it  on  the  second  shot,  and  the 
Tories  (the  commanding  officer  didn't  say  it)  said  he 
would  be  hung.  Mrs.  Hainey  told  of  it,  and  ray  mother 
was  so  frightened  we  had  to  move  away.  Ah  !  hard  and 
trying  times  those  were  ! 

.  The  Santillana  was  a  very  nice  ship.  The  old  Provi- 
dence was  an  old  vessel.  She  fell  over  and  stove  her 
broadside  in.  She  was  one  of  the  British  fleet.  They 
hauled  the  transports  ashore,  when  the  Americans  came. 
Otter  Rock  was  named  for  the  ship  Otter,  which  went  on 
the  rock  close  by,  at  the  eastward  of  it,  going  out,  I  think. 

I  went  aboard  the  Nautilus.  I  was  a  boy.  One  of  my 
countrymen  took  me  down  below,  and  fed  me  pretty  well, 
then  told  me  he  was  a  pressed  man.  He  had  tried  to  run 
away,  and  got  flogged  for  it.  I  saw  two  men  flogged  on 
the  Albany.  They  can  say  what  they  please,  when  tied 
up,  and  one  man  told  the  officer  he  should  run  away  again 
every  chance.  An  English  soldier  joined  us  on  the  Kenne- 
bec, and  then  ran  into  the  country.  He  was  brought 
back  and  court  martialed,  and  sentenced  to  200  lashes. 
The  blood  ran  down  and  filled  his  shoes.  When  he  had 
received  100,  they  had  to  take  him  down.  About  that 
ship  Providence,  you  needn't  be  afeared  to  assert  it  as 
truth,  because  I  know  all  about  it.  *  *  *  Xhe  frigate 
Blande  was  one  of  the  convoy  that  came  with  McLean.^ 
She  did  not  come  in,  but   lav  outside  of  the  harbor.     I 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  827 

used  to  go  on  board,  to  sell  milk,  &c.  She  was  a  beautiful 
ship — was  not  here  at  the  time  of  the  siege,  had  gone 
away.  The  Albany  was  commanded  by  an  American. 
Mowatt  was  a  Portland  man. 

I  remember  when  Pomroy  was  cut  out  by  Little.  He 
chased  Pomroy  about,  but  couldn't  bring  him  to  an  engage- 
ment. Little  said  he  would  have  him,  if  he  followed  him 
to  h — 11.  Pomroy  had  taken  a  coasting  vessel  which  Lit- 
tle retook.  Little  got  a  whale-boat  at  Fox  Islands,  which 
he  left  with  some  men,  below  Nautilus  Island,  to  make 
his  escape  in,  if  necessary.  Pomroy  had  a  14-gun  Brig; 
Little  had  a  12-gun  Sloop.  He  came  in  on  the  top  of  the 
tide,  just  at  the  close  of  the  day — before  dark.  When  the 
sentry  hailed  him,  he  replied  that  he  was  a  prize  from  Fox 
Island.  "Who  commands  her?"  "Peter  Littlejohn." 
He  ran  alongside  of  the  brig,  and  told  them  to  heave  him 
a  warp,  as  he  had  lost  both  anchors  in  Fox  Island  thorough- 
fare. He  had  his  men  all  ready,  and  jumped  aboard  with 
them,  and  took  her.  The  sloop  kept  right  on,  and  stood 
out  of  the  harbor,  but  the  brig  had  to  make  a  couple  of 
tacks.  The  people  collected  to  look  on,  and  Captain  Lit- 
tle afterwards  said  he  might  have  swept  the  streets  as  he 
went  by.  He  was  fired  on  from  the  fort,  and  men  ran 
down  to  the  old  French  fort  and  fired.  Commissary  Mc- 
Laughlin told  a  man  (I  heard  him)  that  he  delivered  out 
1700  rounds.  It  was  said  that  Little  picked  up  bullets  by 
the  bucketful  from  his  deck,  where  they  fell,  after  striking 
among  the  sails  and  rigging.  A  shot  from  the  sloop,  or 
brig,  when  going  out  of  the  harbor,  struck  a  crowbar,  and 
drove  it  through  a  hogshead  of  rum  that  stood  in  the 
King's  store,  about  ten  rods  below  the  Fort  gate.  William 
Redhead  told  me  that  shot  cost  him  one  hogshead  of  rum. 
He  was  a  sort  of  deputy  Commissary,  and  came  over  with 
the  British.  He  married  old  Banks'  daughter.  Pomroy 
was  a  Tory.  He  and  most  of  his  crew  were  ashore. 
Next  day  the  British  officers  laughed  at  him.  They 
thought  very  much  of  Little. 


When  the  British  came  I  was  at  Fox  Islands,  with  my 
uncle — where  we  went  fishing  in  an  open  boat.  We  had 
news  of  their  coming,  and  when  the  fleet  came  in  sight, 
uncle  said,  "  there  comes  the  devils."  We  started  for 
home,  and  when  the  fleet  followed  us  up  we  knew  it  was 


328  DOCUMENTARY. 

them.  We  reached  Castine  when  they  were  firing  guns 
for  pilots.  Nine  of  the  vessels  came  in.  They  anchored 
off  Dice's  Head,  I  should  think  by  eleven  o'clock.  Their 
boats  came  ashore  down  at  the  beach,  below  Johnson's 
corner.  I  was  there  when  they  landed.  As  many  as  twenty 
officers  came  ashore.  They  looked  all  around  as  if  they 
were  considerably  frightened.  They  didn't  do  much  that 
day.  I  went  home  that  night.  Can't  say  if  troops  came 
next  day  or  day  after.  When  I  went  down  they  were 
camped  in  tents  on  the  ridge  to  northeast  of  where  the 
fort  is. 

When  Little  came,  I  had  come  back  from  the  Kennebec, 
(a  year  before  father)  and  worked  about  here  with  the 
neighbors.  I  was  then  at  old  I\Ir.  Samuel  Wescott's.  I 
had  gone  up  to  go  to  bed,  and  was  leaning  on  a  chest  by 
the  window.  I  heard  a  great  firing  of  guns,  and  couldn't 
think  what  it  all  meant.  Wescott  was  on  the  peninsula, 
and  when  he  came  home  he  told  us  all  about  it.  I  went 
down  next  day  and  saw  Pomroy,  who  looked  as  if  he  had 
been  stealing  sheep,  and  had  lost  all  the  friends  he  had  in 
the  world.  General  McLean  was  an  excellent  officer.  He 
was  very  angry  because  the  Tories  drove  off  so  many  of  the 
Americans  by  saying  that  the  English  were  going  to  hang 
them.  The  old  General  didn't  go  about  much,  but  the  other 
officers  used  to.  They  went  to  Orland,  to  see  Old  Vyles' 
daughters.  ***** 

As  soon  as  the  boats  went  off,  the  guard  ran  off.  We 
thought  they  would  come  in  above  and  cut  us  off.  My  father 
came  near  shooting  one  of  our  men  who  had  run  off.  He 
was  in  the  bushes,  and  started  up.  Father  saw  him  and 
brought  his  gun  to  fire  on  him.  He  had  a  fur  cap  on,  and 
father  saw  a  mark  on  the  back  of  it. 

10. 

Letter  from  David  Perliam^  giving  Colonel  Breiver^s  account 
of  the  Expeditio7i  against  Penobscot^  in  1779. 

[From  Bangor  Whig  and  Courier,  of  August  13,  1846.] 

"  Early  in  the  month  of  June  1779,  General  Francis 
McLean,  who  commanded  the  King's  troops  in  Nova  Scotia, 
entered  Penobscot  Bay,  with  650  men  in  transports,  es- 
corted by   three  sloops,  and  took  possession  of  the  Peninsu- 


REVOLUTIONARY   PERIOD.  329 

la  (now  called  Castine)  formed  by  the  waters  of  Penob- 
scot Bay,  and  the  Majabagaduce  River,  which   struck  the 
inhabitants  with   terror — especially  the  women  and  chil- 
dren.    At  this  time  provisions  Avere   very  scarce,  and  the 
inhabitants  almost  destitute  of  arms  and  ammunition.     A 
meeting  was  called  of  the  principal   officers,  to   determine 
on  defence,  or  submission ;  at  which  it  was  concluded  to 
send  a  committee  to   treat  with  the  General ;  and  myself 
[Colonel  Brewer]  and  Captain  Smith  of  Marsh  Bay,  were 
chosen.     We  proceeded  on  our  mission,  and  obtained  as- 
surance that,  if  the  inhabitants  would  mind  their  business, 
and  be  peaceable,  they  should  not  be  disturbed  in  person 
or  property;  but  afterwards  they  were  called  upon  to  take 
the  Oath  of  Allegiance,  or  of  Neutrality.     Nothing  further 
occurs  to  my  mind  worthy  of  relating,  till  a  few  days  before 
the  American  Fleet  arrived  in  the   Bay,   when  Captain 
Smith  and  myself  were  again  called  upon  by  the  people  to 
wait  upon  General  McLean  to  transact  certain   business, 
which  we  accomplished  to  our  satisfaction,  and  obtained 
our  pass  to  return  home.     I  then  had  a  full  view  of  their 
works.      About  four  o'clock  P.  m.,  I  observed  a  very  rapid 
movement  of  the  troops,  and  told  Captain  Smith  it  was  time 
for  us  to  be  off.     We  proceeded  immediately  to  our  boat, 
and  had  just  gotten  from  the  shore,  v/hen  the  Grand  Rounds 
went  for  no  one  to  leave  the  Peninsula.    We  continued  our 
course,  with  a  small  breeze,  up  the  Penobscot  River,  when 
casting  our  eyes  down  the  Bay  we  discovered  a  large  fleet 
of  shipping   standing  up,  and  knew   pretty  well  what  it 
must   be,  for  myself  and  others   had   kept  a  birch  canoe 
passing   every   few   days  from  my  house  to  Camden,  for 
information.     We  stood  up  the  river  about  six  miles,  where 
we  staid  all  night ;    but  got  little  sleep  for  joy  at  what  we 
had  seen,  and  what  we  expected  would  take  place.     Next 
morning,  July  26th,  we  Avcnt  down  in  our  boat  about  three 
miles,  to  make  further  discovery  of  the  fleet ;    but  the  fog 
being  so  thick  we  could  not  see  it.     We  then  stood  up  the 
river  to  old  Fort  Point,  there  landed  and  went  back  about 
half  a  mile,  when  the  fog  cleared  away,  and  we  liad  a  full 
view  of  the  fleet,  which  had  just  got  under  weigh,  standing 
up  with  a  small  breeze,  in  line  of  battle, — as  they  passed 
they  discharged  their  guns  at  the  British  shipping,  then 
lying  in  the  river.     This  drew  our  attention  for  sometime, 
but  casting  my  eyes  westward,  I  discovered,    under  the 
bank,  a  number  of  whale  boats  full  of  armed  men,  and  I 


880  DOCUMENTARY. 

told  Captain  Smith  it  was  no  place  for  us-  We  started  for 
our  boat,  which  we  had  regained,  and  were  getting  up 
our  sails,  when  the  boats  came  up  with  us  and  ordered  us 
to  stand ;  and  who  should  it  be  but  my  brother  (Colonel 
Josiah  Brewer)  who  was  sent  with  a  detachment  of  sol- 
diers as  an  advance  guard  to  be  stationed  at  Buckstown,  to 
stop  communication.  He  ordered  us  to  get  under  weigh 
as  soon  as  possible,  came  on  board  with  one  or  two  of  his 
men,  and  we  arrived  at  Buckstown,  about  five  o'clock  P.  M. 
Having  stationed  his  guard  and  taken  some  refreshments, 
he  manned  a  boat  and,  taking  Captain  Smith  and  myself 
with  him,  set  out  to  go  on  board  of  the  fleet,  which,  on  ac- 
count of  darkness  and  fog,  we  did  not  reach  until  after 
sunrise  in  the  morning.  We  went  on  board  of  General 
Lovell's  vessel,  and  being  introduced  by  my  brother,  were 
very  politely  received  by  the  General,  who,  on  being  in- 
formed that  Captain  Smith  and  myself  had  left  the  Penin- 
sula about  four  o'clock,  on  the  25th,  sent  immediately  for 
Commodore  Saltonstall  to  come  on  board.  When  he  ar- 
rived, my  brother  told  them  whatever  information  we 
should  give,  might  be  relied  upon.  We  were  then  invited 
into  the  cabin.  I  told  them  at  four  o'clock — as  above 
stated — I  reviewed  all  their  works,  and  was  in  their  Fort. 
That  the  Northerly  side  next  to  the  Cove  was  about  four 
feet  high,  the  Easterly  and  Westerly  ends  were  something 
like  a  stonewall,  laid  up  sloping  ;  from  the  back  side  to  the 
front  there  was  but  one  sag,  and  the  ground  not  broken. 
On  the  backside  the  ditch  was  about  three  feet  deep, — the 
ends  were  sloping  according  to  the  height  of  the  wall — not 
a  platform  laid,  nor  a  gun  carriage  up  to  the  Fort.  I  also 
told  him  a  part  of  the  troops  were  stationed  near  the  upper 
end,  on  the  heath ;  but  there  was  no  appearance  of  Artil- 
lery. That  there  was  one  six  gun  battery  at  Dice's  Point, 
(as  it  is  called)  and  that  was  all  they  would  have  to  con- 
tend with  on  the  land.  I  told  him,  likewise,  there  was  a 
small  battery  begun  on  Cape  Kozier.  There  was  Captain 
Moat's  [Mowatt's]  ship  mounting  twenty  guns,  and  one 
other  mounting  ten,  which  I  thought  lay  nearly  opposite 
the  Fort.  General  Lovell  seemed  much  pleased  with  the  in- 
formation. I  then  told  the  Commodore  that  being  all  the 
force  he  would  have  to  meet,  I  thought  that  as  the  wind 
breezed  up  he  might  go  in  with  his  shipping,  silence  the 
two  vessels  and  the  six-gun  battery,  and. land  the  troops 
under  cover  of  his  own   guns,  and  in  half  an    hour  make 


BEVOLUTIONAEY  PERIOD.  331 

everytliing  his  own.  In  reply  to  which  he  hove  up  his  long 
chin,  and  said,  "  You  seem  to  be  d — n  knowing  about  the 
matter !  I  am  not  going  to  risk  my  shipping  in  that  d — d 
hole  !" 

Captain  Smith  and  myself  returned  home,  having  re- 
ceived orders  from  my  brother,  then  my  colonel,  to  return 
immediately  with  half  of  my  company — I  being  then  a 
captain.  This  order  I  obeyed ;  but  m}'  family  not  then 
being  in  a  situation  to  leave,  ray  men  were  put  under  the 
command  of  another  captain,  and  I  returned  home  for  one 
week,  when  I  again  repaired  to  my  post.  Next  morning 
we  discovered  a  party  of  the  British  going  down  from  the 
head  of  the  Point,  and  supposing  it  to  be  their  intention 
to  come  on  the  rear  of  us,  I  marched  out  my  company 
to  attack  them  ;  but  we  soon  perceived  their  object  to  be 
fishing,  which  a  few  shot  defeated,  and  they  hurried  back 
again.  Nothing  important  appearing  to  be  going  on,  I 
again  returned  home  ;  and  the  next  information  I  had  was 
from  my  brother,  who  came  up  in  a  boat,  double-manned, 
said  he  did  not  think  anything  would  be  done,  and  was 
unwilling  to  leave  his  wife  and  effects.  He  staid  about 
two  hours,  when  he  took  his  wife  and  best  furniture,  and 
returned  down  the  river.  His  wife  was  landed  at  Cam- 
den, and  his  furniture  was  put  on  board  the  General's 
ship,  which  I  afterwards  saw  on  Captain  Moat's  ship. 

The  next  information  was  received  from  Doctor  Down- 
ing, Chief  Surgeon  of  the  army,  with  whom  I  had  formerly 
been  acquainted.  He  arrived  at  my  house  on  the  morning 
of  the  fourteenth  of  August,  with  the  sick  and  Avounded 
Americans,  and  said  the  siege  was  raised,  and  the  fleet 
and  army  of  the  Americans,  between  3000  and  4000,  were 
on  their  way  up  the  river,  followed  by  Sir  George  Collier, 
with  the  British  fleet.  The  Doctor  stopped,  dressed  the 
wounded,  got  some  refreshments,  and  enquired  wdiere 
would  be  the  best  place  of  safety  for  the  men  under  his 
care.  I  directed  him  to  Major  Treat's,  about  two  miles 
above  navigation,  where  he  landed  and  left  them,  under 
the  care  of  Doctor  Herberd,  leaving  with  him  his  medicine 
chest.  Before  night,  such  of  the  shipping  as  were  not 
taken  or  destroyed  below,  appeared,  which  were  blown  up 
and  burnt  the  next  morning,  and  the  troops  took  their 
flight  into  the  woods. 

The  next  day  I  was  again  requested  by  the  inhabitants 
to  wait  on  General  McLean  to  know  our  fate,  which  I  did 


832  DOCUMENTARY. 

ill  company  with  Captain  Ginn.  We  accordingly  proceeded 
on  that  duty.  At  the  Narrows,  where  the  ship  Blande  lay 
at  anchor,  we  were  hailed  and  went  on  board.  The  Cap- 
tain being  informed  what  our  business  was,  gave  us  a  pass, 
and  we  proceeded  to  the  Peninsula.  When  I  called  on  the 
General  he  received  me  very  politely,  and  said,  '  Mr.  Brewer, 
you  have  come  to  see  me  again,  what  is  the  news  up  the 
river?  and  where  are  the  rebels?  have  they  dispersed?'  I 
told  him  they  had.  He  replied  :  '  I  believe  the  commanders 
were  a  pack  of  cowards  or  they  would  have  taken  me.  I 
was  ill  no  situation  to  defend  myself,  I  only  meant  to  give 
them  one  or  two  guns,  so  as  not  to  be  called  a  coward, 
and  then  have  struck  my  colors,  which  I  stood  for  some 
time  to  do,  as  I  did  not  wish  to  throw  away  the  lives  of  my 
men  for  nothing.'  He  then  said  :  '  What  is  your  request  ?' 
I  told  him  that  the  inhabitants  were  in  distress,  waiting  to 
know  his  determination.  If  it  be  favorable,  they  will  stay 
at  home  ;  if  not,  they  will  quit  their  houses  and  take  to  the 
wood,  which  some  have  already  done.  To  which  he  made 
answer  :  '  Go  home  and  tell  them  if  they  will  stay  in  their 
houses  and  live  peaceably  and  mind  their  business,  they 
shall  not  be  hurt ;  but  if  not,  all  the  houses  that  are  left 
shall  be  burnt.'  My  next  request  Avas  to  know  what 
should  be  done  with  the  sick  and  wounded  men  who  had 
been  left.  He  asked: — '  What  is  your  wish  ?  '  I  replied 
that  they  might  be  conveyed  to  their  friends,  as  soon  as 
convenient.  To  which  he  said  :  '  Go  up  and  get  a  vessel, 
if  you  can  ;  if  not,  I  will  provide  one.'  I  told  him  I  had 
one  in  view  that  I  could  get.  '  Then  get  it,'  he  said  ;  'fit 
her  out  in  good  order,  and  take  all  the  sick  and  wounded 
on  board  ;  come  down  with  them,  and  return  me  a  list  of 
their  names,  and  I  will  give  you  a  pass,  or  a  cartel,  to 
deliver  them  where  it  will  be  most  convenient  for  the 
men.'  I  told  him  there  would  be  some  stores  wanted,  that 
could  not  be  procured  up  the  river.  He  replied :  '  Get 
what  you  can,  and  make  out  a  memorandum  of  what  you 
want  more,  and  I  will  supply  you  here.'  I  then  returned 
home,  and  on  the  way  chartered  a  schooner,  shipped  a 
master  and  hands,  and  the  next  day  she  came  up  the 
river,  and  went  to  Bangor,  there  to  be  fitted  up  with  plat- 
forms and  bunks  convenient  for  the  purpose.  In  a  few 
days  Captain  Moat  came  up  the  river,  and  anchored  his 
ship  oft'  my  cove.  At  night  when  I  came  down  I  was 
hailed,  gave  my  name  and  told  them  I  lived   abreast  his 


BEVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  333 

ship — which  was  communicated  to  Captain  Moat.  He  re- 
turned,— that  he  wished  me  to  call  on  him  in  the  morning ; 
which  I  did,  and  informed  him  what  my  orders  were,  from 
the  General,  in  relation  to  the  sick  and  wounded.  He 
wished  me  to  accomplish  the  business  as  soon  as  I  could. 
He  frequently  called  me  on  board  when  I  was  passing,  and 
enquired  af fer  the  sick  and  wounded,  and  often  invited  me 
into  his  cabin  to  take  a  glass  of  wine  or  brandy.  This 
friendship  subsisted  till  the  schooner  was  completed,  when 
he  went  up  to  see  the  same  previous  to  her  sailing.  When 
in  readiness  I  informed  him  the  schooner  would  be  down 
in  the  evening,  and  in  the  following  morning  he  gave  me  a 
pass  to  General  McLean. 

On  my  way,  at  Marsh  Bay,  I  heard  of  Captain  George 
Ross  and  his  cabin  boy,  and  sent  tlie  boat  on  shore  with 
Doctor  Herberd,  to  bring  off  Captain  Ross.  He  had  com- 
manded one  of  the  20-gun  ships,  and  was  wounded  the 
day  he  landed.  He  and  the  boy  were  brought  on  board, 
and  I  entered  his  name,  George  Ross,  on  my  list,  likewise 
the  brig's  name,  and  proceeded  down  to  the  General's 
quarters,  and  presented  him  with  my  list,  which  he  appeared 
to  be  very  much  pleased  with.  I  made  out  a  memoran- 
dum of  what  was  wanted,  which,  by  his  order,  was  fur- 
nished and  put  on  board.  He  then  gave  a  pass  for  the 
schooner,  as  a  cartel,  to  proceed  to  Boston,  or  other  places 
where  it  would  be  most  convenient  for  the  men  ;  and  I  then 
returned  home  late  at  night,  much  fatigued  with  the  tour. 
Before  I  got  home,  Ichabod  Colson,  then  of  Marsh  Bay, 
went  up  and  informed  Captain  Moat  that  I  had  sent  my 
boat  on  shore,  and  taken  off  Captain  Ross  and  his  cabin 
boy.  Early  in  the  morning  after  my  return.  Moat  sent 
his  boat  on  shore,  with  a  message  for  me  to  go  on  board 
his  shi]).  I  sent  in  reply  that  I  was  much  fatigued, 
having  been  out  most  of  the  night,  but  that  I  would  call 
on  board  in  the  afternoon.  When  I  had  gotten  ready  to 
go,  I  saw  him  land  on  the  opposite  point  of  land  below  my 
house ;  and  I  took  my  canoe  and  passed  over  to  him.  He 
saw  me  coming  and  walked  towards  me  ;  we  met  at  a  lit- 
tle distance  from  the  sliore,  and  were  together  about  a 
tjuarter  of  an  hour,  and  our  meeting  was  not  very  cordial. 
Tlie  first  compliment  I  received  was  :  'you damned  rebel,  I 
understand  that  you  stopped  at  Marsh  Bay,  and  took  on 
board  Captain  Ross,  one  of  the  finest  officers  there  was  in 
43 


334  DOCUMENTARY. 

the  Navy.  I  meant  to  have  kept  him  and  had  two  of  my 
captains  for  him,  he  was  such  a  fine  fellow.  Did  you  re- 
turn him  as  a  Captain  ?'  '  No  !  I  returned  him  as  George 
Ross.'  Making  use  of  the  same  opprobrious  language,  he 
added,  'Did  you  not  know  that  I  had  not  given  you  orders 
to  take  any  man  on  board?'  I  answered,  'yes.'  Then 
said  he,  with  his  sword  flourishing  over  my  head,  '  how 
dare  you  do  it  ?'  '  Because,'  said  I,  'I  received  my  orders 
another  way.'  '  Which  way?' said  he.  I  answered:  'from 
General  McLean,  your  Master.'  It  may  well  be  supposed, 
from  my  answer,  that  I  was  somewhat  agitated.  He 
stepped  back,  and  drawing  his  sword  out  of  its  scabbard, 
said  :  '  You  d — d  rebel  I  I  have  a  good  mind  to  run  you 
through.'  I  opened  my  breast  and  told  him :  '  there  is 
your  mark,  do  it  if  you  dare  !  I  am  in  your  power.'  He 
turned  on  his  heel  and  stepped  back  a  little,  then  turned 
and  advanced,  flourishing  his  sword  with  more  passion 
than  could  be  well  expressed,  said,  '  before  sunrise  to-mor- 
row morning,  your  buildings  shall  be  laid  in  ashes.'  I  told 
him  it  was  in  his  power  to  do  it,  but  I  asked  him  what  he 
thought  I  should  be  doing  in  the  meantime.  Upon  which 
he  turned  on  his  heel  again  and  marched  off  to  his  boat, 
and  I  to  mine.  I  came  home  and  told  Mrs.  Brewer,  what 
had  passed,  so  that  she  might  not  be  surprised  if  he  pro- 
ceeded to  put  his  threat  in  execution — though  I  did  not 
believe  he  would.  I  always  kept  a  good  musket  well 
loaded,  and  intended  to  do  what  lay  in  my  power  to  defend 
myself.  However,  we  did  not  have  so  good  a  night's  rest 
as  usual ;  but  nothing  further  occurred,  worthy  of  remark, 
till  the  next  day  about  four  o'clock  p.  m., — at  Avhich  time 
I  saw  Captain  Moat  come  on  shore  at  my  landing.  I  told 
Mrs.  Brewer  of  it,  and  it  put  her  in  a  panic.  He  walked 
along  very  moderately,  till  he  got  nearly  up  with  ray  door, 
when  I  stepped  out  and  met  him.  He  very  politely  asked 
me  how  I  and  my  family  did ;  I  invited  him  to  walk  in, 
which  he  readily  did ;  and  Mrs.  Brewer  was  introduced  to 
him,  which  took  off  most  of  her  panic.  He  took  a  seat 
and  opened  most  of  the  conversation  by  stating  how  much 
he  regretted  the  situation  of  the  inhabitants,  and  felt  for 
their  distress  ;  and  went  into  a  very  social  conversation  for 
two  or  three  hours,  and  took  coffee  with  us.  He  inquired 
into  the  situation  of  my  family — how  many  children  we  had, 
and  whether  it  would  not  be  very  difficult  for  me  to  sup- 
jDort  them  without  assistance.     I  told  him   I  should  try. 


KEVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  335 

He  then  said :  '  If  you  think  you  cannot,  I  will  supply  you 
with  such  things  as  you  want  for  your  family,  to  the 
amount  of  £1000  sterling,  at  the  first  cost  at  Halifax.  If 
you  make  out  a  memorandum,  I  will  send  by  the  first  ves- 
sel for  them.'  I  thanked  him  for  his  good  will,  and  we 
separated. 

At  all  other  times  than  the  one  above  stated,  both  before 
and  after,  he  appeared  very  friendly.  Soon  after  his  first 
arrival  he  called  all  hands  on  deck  and,  in  mj^  presence, 
told  them  if  they  took  one  thing  out  of  my  garden,  or  field, 
they  should  be  punished  ;  and  they  strictly  adhered  to  his 
orders  during  their  whole  stay.  I  supplied  him  with  milk, 
garden  vegetation,  and  pigeons,  for  his  cabin — which  he 
generously  paid  me  for  in  money.  Before  he  left  this 
place  he  agreed  with  me  for  1200,  to  take  down  my 
brother's  house,  which  was  nearly  as  much  as  the  building 
was  worth.  In  the  situation  of  things,  I  considered  the 
house  of  very  little  value  to  my  brother,  especially  as  the 
enemy  claimed  the  right  of  doing  as  they  saw  fit — and  so 
indeed  they  did  with  all  others — and  that  it  is  as  well  to 
save  something  as  to  have  the  whole  lost.  Pie  was  to  send 
up  a  vessel  to  carry  the  materials  of  which  the  liouse  was 
composed,  to  the  Fort.  But  soon  after  he  left,  some  per- 
son, in  the  night,  took  out  all  the  windows  and  concealed 
them.  Upon  which  I  had  to  report  what  had  taken  place 
to  General  McLean — for  that  being  the  orders  in  all  cases 
where  there  was  a  contract.  I  accordingly  went  down  to 
the  Fort  and  called  upon  the  General,  and  was  very  civilly 
received.  He  said  :  '  Well,  Mr.  Brewer,  you  have  called 
on  me  again.  What  is  the  news  ?  and  what  is  your  re- 
quest?' '  It  is  to  report  to  you  that  I  agreed  with  Captain 
Moat  to  take  down  a  house  for  him,  which  he  was  to  send 
a  vessel  for.  But  on  a  certain  night,  some  persons  un- 
known to  me,  took  out  all  the  windows,  and  have  carried 
them  off.'  To  which  he  replied :  '  Well,  man,  you  must 
get  them  again.'  I  told  him  I  could  not,  for  I  knew  not 
where  they  were  nor   whom  to   suspect.     He  answered  : 

*  Then  man,  you  must  stay  here  till  you  produce  them.'  I 
told  him  that  would  be  impossible  for  me  to  do  without 
having  liberty  to  search  for  them.     To    which   he  replied, 

*  well,  man,  I  guess  you  know  as  well  where  they  are  as 
anybody !  I  will  give  you  a  week,  or  fortnight,  to  go  home 
and  get  them,  and  if  you  don't  bring  them  here  witliin  that 
time,  I  will  put  you  under  confinement.'     I   thanked  him 


836  DOCUMENTARY. 

for  his  lenity,  bid  him  good  bye,  and  went  directly  home ; 
but  instead  of  making  search  for  those  windows,  I  hid  my 
own,  together  with  ray  other  things,  and  packed  up  my  beds 
and  clothing — that  I  pretended  to  take  with  me — and  made 
the  best  of  my  way  out  of  his  control. 

Major  George  Ulmer,  then  having  a  command  at  Cam- 
den, was  up  the  river,  at  my  house,  with  a  large  boat  and 
a  party  of  soldiers,  getting  what  remained  from  the 
destruction  of  the  vessels,  &c.  He  offered  his  services  to 
take  my  family  with  him  to  Camden,  which  then  consisted 
of  nine  beside  myself,  which  he,  with  my  small  effects, 
safely  landed  at  Camden.  I  collected  about  half  of  my 
stock  of  cattle, — one  yoke  of  oxen,  three  cows,  and  my 
horse, — joined  stock  with  Mr.  John  Crosby  and  others, 
making  about  thirty  head  in  the  whole,  and  laid  our  course 
through  the  woods,  as  direct  as  possible,  for  Camden, 
where  we  arrived  in  three  or  four  days.  Thence  I  took  my 
family  to  the  westward  of  Boston  —  where  we  remained  till 
peace  was  restored,  when  I  again  returned  with  my  family 
to  my  former  residence  in  Penobscot." 
I  am,  sir,  with  respect. 

Your  obedient  servant, 
[Signed]         DAVID  PERHAM. 
To  WiUiam  D.  Williamson,  Esq. 

[The  foregoing  account  was  contained  in  a  letter  from 
Colonel  Brewer  to  David  Perham,  and  was  found  among 
the  papers  of  the  latter  at  his  decease.] 


11. 


Account  of  a  Skirmish  at  Biguyduce^  July  28,  1779,  By 
Lieutenant  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Moore.  [From  British 
Plutarch  page  243.] 

"On  the  28th,  after  a  sharp  cannonade  from  the  ship- 
ping on  the  wood,  to  the  great  surprise  of  General  McLean 
and  the  garrison,  the  Americans  effected  a  landing.  I 
happened  to  be  on  piquet  that  morning,  under  the  com- 
mand of  a  Captain  of  the  74th  Regiment,  who,  after  giving 
them   one   fire,    instead   of    encouraging   his    men — who 


REVOLUTIONARY  PERIOD.  337 

naturally  had  been  a  little  startled  by  the  cannonade — to 
do  their  duty,  ordered  them  to  retreat,  leaving  me  and 
about  twenty  men  to  shift  for  ourselves. 

After  standing  for  some  time  I  was  obliged  to  retreat  to 
the  Fort,  having  five  or  six  of  my  men  killed  and  several 
wounded.     I  was  lucky  to  escape  untouched." 


12. 

MacZachlar's  Order. 
Fort  George's,  Penobscot,  Ocf.  1780. 

For  His  Majesty's  Service  : 

You  are  hereby  Ordered  and  Directed  to  Bring  down  to 
this  Place  all  the  Cord  Wood  that  you  can  find  upon  the 
Shores  of  Northern  Bay,  Majebagwaduce  River,  belonging 
to  Sparks  Perkins,  Charles  Hutchings,  Jack*  Perkins, 
Daniel  Perkins,  and  such  oth''  Inhabitants  as  have  left 
their  Possessions  and  Gone  to  Enemy's  Country  by  Com- 
mandant's Orders. 

For  Jeremiah  Wardwell  and  )       pe-       ^-i 
Thomas  Cutter,  Inhabitants,  j 

Northern  Bay,  Majabagwaduce  River. 

P.  W.  MacZachler,  Asst.  Dpt. 
Q^  M^  General. 

[The  original  order  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Hosea 
Wardwell,  of  Penobscot.] 

♦Probably  a  mistake  for  Jacob,  as  Jack  is  the  synonym  for  John,  and  Mr. 
John  Perkins  is  not  known  to  have  had  any  lot  at  the  Head  of  the  Bay,  while 
Jacob  Perkins  resided  there  at  that  time. 


838  DOCUMENTARY. 


III. 

DOCUMENTS   RELATING   TO    THE    MUNICIPAL 

PERIOD. 

1. 

RESOLVE. 

Confirming  a  grant  of  land  to  David   Marsh   and   others 
co7iditionally . 

November  17,  1786. 

The  committee  on  the  subject  of  unappropriated  lands 
in  the  county  of  Lincohi,  when  they  made  their  report  on 
the  17th  of  March,  1785,  on  the  petition  of  Enoch  Bartlett 
and  others,  praying  for  the  confirmation  of  six  townships 
lying  between  Penobscot  river,  and  the  Union  river,  which 
were  conditionally  granted  to  David  Marsh  and  others,  on 
the  second  day  of  March,  1762,  omitted  to  report  respect- 
ing the  township  No.  3,  commonly  called  Majabigwaduce, 
for  reasons  therein  set  forth ;  but  having  since  examined 
into  the  state  of  the  said  township,  so  far  as  circumstances 
would  permit,  now  take  leave  to  report, 

That  in  their  opinion,  it  will  be  expedient  to  confirm  to 
the  said  Marsh  and  others,  the  said  township  No.  3,  on  the 
conditions  contained  in  the  following  articles: 

1st.  That  the  proprietors  heretofore  known,  as  proprie- 
tors of  the  said  township,  or  as  holding  under  David  Marsh 
and  others,  do  grant,  allot,  and  mete  out  one  hundred  acres 
of  land  unto  each  settler  on  the  said  township,  his  heirs  or 
assigns  who  before  the  first  day  of  January  1784,  settled 
thereon,  and  made  separate  improvement,  the  same  to  be 
laid  out  in  one  lot,  in  such  manner  as  best  to  include  his 
improvements.  And  where  any  original  settler  has  sold, 
or  otherwise  disposed  of  his  improvements  to  any  other 
person,  the  purchaser  or  his  heirs  and  assigns  shall  hold 
the  same  lands,  which  such  original  settler  would  have 
held,  by  virtue  of  this  article,  if  there  had  been  no  such 
sale  or  disposition. 


MUNICIPAL  PERIOD.  839 

2nd.  That  in  lite  manner  there  be  allotted  and  meted 
out  unto  each  proprietor,  his  heirs  or  assigns,  Avho,  before 
the  first  day  of  January,  1784  settled  thereon,  and  made  a 
sei^arate  improvement,  two  hundred  acres  of  land,  one 
hundred  acres  of  which  to  be  in  consideration  of  his  being- 
a  settler ;  the  same  to  be  laid  out  in  such  manner  as  best  to 
include  his  improvements. 

3d.  That  in  the  said  township  there  be  allotted,  reserv- 
ed and  appropriated  four  lots  of  land  of  three  hundred 
acres  each,  in  situation  and  qualit}^  equal  in  general  to  the 
lots  in  the  division,  for  the  following  purposes,  viz.  One 
lot  for  the  first  settled  minister,  his  heirs  and  assigns ;  one 
for  the  use  of  the  ministry  ;  one  to  and  for  the  future  appro- 
priation of  government ;  and  one  for  the  use  of  a  school 
forever. 

4th.  That  each  settler  mentioned  in  article  1st,  his  heirs 
or  assigns,  who  has  not  already  done  it,  shall  within  five 
years,  build  a  house,  not  less  than  eighteen  feet  square, 
and  seven  feet  stud;  and  clear  and  cultivate  five  acres  of 
land  fit  for  mowing  or  tillage ;  and  pay  within  six  months 
into  the  treasury  of  the  propriety  of  the  said  townships, 
thirty  sJdllinc/s,  to  be  appropriatecl  to  defray  the  expense  of 
surveying  and  dividing  the  said  township,  and  laying  out, 
clearing,  and  repairing  of  roads  within  the  same. 

5tli.  That  where  a  settler  has  made  improvement,  by 
clearing  or  inclosing  with  a  good  fence,  more  than  one 
hundred  acres,  he  shall  have  the  liberty  to  purchase  the 
lands  so  improved  at  a  reasonable  price,  estimating  the  same 
as  if  in  a  state  of  nature ;  or  to  receive  of  the  proprietor 
or  proprietors  of  such  land,  a  reasonable  allowance  for 
extra  improvements  at  the  settler's  election ;  and  in  case  of 
any  disagreement  about  the  said  price  ;  or  allowance,  or  any 
other  matter  relating  to  a  settlement,  that  the  same  be 
decided  by  disinterested  men,  one  of  whom  shall  be  chosen 
by  the  proprietor  or  proprietors,  one  by  the  settler,  and  in 
case  they  cannot  agree,  the  third  by  the  two  chosen  as 
aforesaid. 

6th.  That  after  the  allotments  to  the  settlers,  resident 
proprietors,  and  for  public  uses,  are  made  as  aforemen- 
tioned, the  residue  and  remainder  of  the  said  lands  shall  be 
divided  to,  and  among  the  proprietors  heretofore  known  as 
the  proprietors  of  the  said  township,  or  as  holding  under 
David  Marsh  and  others  to  whom  the  said  township  was 
coudiuonaily  granted,  their  heirs  or  assigns  in  proportion 


340  DOCUMENTARY. 

to  the  respective  shares  or  rights,  held  in  the  original 
division  of  the  said  town. 

7th.  That  the  division  and  allotments  in  the  said  town- 
ship be  made  conformably  to  the  foregoing  articles,  within 
the  space  of  twelve  months  from  this  time,  and  a  return 
thereof  be  made  on  or  before  the  expiration  of  the  said 
term  of  time  to  the  committee  on  the  subject  of  unappro- 
priated lands  in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  specifying  and 
describing  therein  the  lots,  number  of  each,  names  of  the 
persons  to  whom  allotted,  and  those  for  public  uses,  under 
their  particular  heads.  And  if  it  shall  appear  by  the  said 
return,  that  a  quantity  of  land  exceeding  six  thousand 
acres,  has  been  allotted,  meted  and  assigned  by  the  said 
proprietors,  to  that  class  of  settlers  included  in  article  1st 
and  by  virtue  of  the  same  in  manner  aforesaid,  then  there 
shall  he,  granted  and  conveyed  to  the  said  proprietors,  their 
heirs  and  assigns,  in  some  parts  of  the  township  No.  7,  in 
the  first  division  of  townships  east  of  Penobscot  river, 
adjoining  southerly  on  the  township  No.  6  of  the  same 
division  in  part  and  partly  on  township  No.  1,  of  the  second 
division  of  townships,  and  lying  on  both  sides  of  Union 
river,  so  many  acres  as  shall  be  equal  to  the  quantity  of 
land  above  six  thousand  acres  which  shall  be  allotted  and 
assigned  to  the  settlers  as  aforesaid. 

8th.  If  no  return  be  made  to  the  said  committee,  as 
required  in  the  preceding  article,  the  said  committee  shall 
appoint,  and  they  are  hereby  accordingly  empowered  to 
appoint  three  disinterested  persons  as  commissioners,  to 
report  to  the  said  township,  to  make  the  division  and 
return  required,  and  allot  and  divide  the  same  conformably 
to  the  articles  1,  2  and  3,  and  make  return  thereof  to  the 
said  committee,  and  conformably  to  the  seventh  article  ; 
and  the  said  commissioners  shall,  six  weeks  at  least,  before 
they  proceed  on  the  said  business,  give  public  notice  in 
Adams  and  Nourse's  Independent  Chronicle,  the  Portland 
newspaper,  and  by  a  written  notification,  posted  up  in 
some  convenient  place  in  the  said  township,  of  their  ap- 
pointment and  of  the  time  when  they  shall  proceed  on  the 
said  business,  that  all  persons  interested  therein  may  be 
apprised  thereof;  and  the  lots  the  said  commissioner  shall 
lay  out  to  the  resident  proprietors  and  settlers  as  provided 
for  in  article  first  and  second  shall  be  confirmed  unto  them, 
and  the  remaining  lots  shall*  be  subject  to  the  order  and 
disposal  of  the  General  Court,    and  the    expense    arising 


MUNICIPAL  PERIOD.  341 

from  said  appointment  of  commissioners,  shall  be  defrayed 
by  the  resident  proprietors  and  settlers  of  said  township, 
provided  they  have  prevented  or  obstructed  the  division  as 
provided  for  in  articles  2nd,  3d,  and  6th ;  otherwise,  so  much 
of  the  remainder  of  the  lands  (after  allotments  and  divisions 
made  to  the  resident  proprietors,  settlers,  and  for  public 
uses  as  aforesaid)  shall  be  sold  by  the  said  committee,  as 
shall  be  sufficient  to  defray  the  said  expence. 

9th.  That  notwithstanding  the  conditions  and  regula- 
tions contained  in  the  foregoing  articles,  if  the  proprietors 
and  settlers  of  the  said  township,  shall  agree  among  them- 
selves, and  settle  all  matters  in  dispute,  relating  to  the 
quantities  of  land  respectively  to  be  held  and  retained  by 
them,  and  such  other  matters  and  things  as  immediately 
respect  the  settlement  of  said  lands,  and  make  a  report 
of  the  same  to  the  said  committee,  within  six  months 
from  this  time,  with  the  names  of  the  settlers  and  proprie- 
tors resident  and  non-resident,  the  quantity  allotted  to  each, 
and  the  right  reserved  for  public  uses,  conformably  to 
article  3d,  in  such  case  the  said  committee  shall  have  full 
authority  to  confirm  the  said  township ;  but  in  case  no 
report  shall  be  made  asa  foresaid  to  the  said  committee,  nor 
return  as  in  the  7th  article  is  required,  the  said  committee 
shall  appoint  commissioners,  as  provided  for  in  the  8th 
article  ( twelve  months  having  been  expired,  as  mentioned 
in  the  said  7th  article)  who  shall  proceed  on  their  business 
as  pointed  out  in  the  said  8th  article. 

10th.  It  shall  be  understood,  notwithstanding  anything 
contained  in  the  foregoing  articles,  that  the  final  confirma- 
tion of  the  said  township,  shall  not  be  made  until  there  be 
in  the  said  town,  sixty  dwelling-houses  not  less  than 
eighteen  feet  square,  and  seven  feet  stud ;  sixty  protestant 
families,  and  also  five  acres  of  land  cleared  on  each  share, 
fit  for  mowing  and  tillage  ;  also  a  meeting-house  for  the 
public  worship  of  God;  and  until  the  proprietors  and  set- 
tlers of  said  township,  shall  have  settled  a  learned  and 
protestant  minister,  and  provided  for  his  comfortable  sup- 
port, for  which  purposes  five  years  shall  be  allowed. 

SAMUEL  PHILLIPS,  jun.    ) 
NATHANIEL  WELLS,  )    Committee. 

JOHN  BROOKS,  ) 

44 


342  documentary. 

Boston,  Nov.  4, 1786. 

Read  and  accepted,  and  thereupon  Resolved,  That,  the 
township  No.  3,  commonly  called  Majorbigwaduce,  condi- 
tionally granted  to  David  Marsh  and  others,  on  the  second 
of  March,  1762,  be,  and  it  is  hereby  confirmed  to  the  said 
Marsh  and  others,  on  the  conditions  and  with  the  reserva- 
tions which  in  the  foregoing  report  are  specified. 


Act  of  Incorporation  of  the  Town  of  Penobscot. 

Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

In  the  year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty- 
seven. 

An  Act  for  Incorporating  a  certain  plantation  in  the 
County  of  Lincoln,  called  Majorbigwaduce,  or  Number 
Three,  into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Penobscot. 

Whereas,  the  Inhabitants  of  the  said  plantation,  labor 
under  many  difficulties  and  inconveniences  for  Avant  of 
being  Incorporated  into  a  town,  therefore. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  Honse  of  Representa- 
tives in  General  Court  assembled,  and  by  the  Authority  of 
the  same,  that  all  the  Lands  lying  within  the  following 
limits,  with  the  Inhabitants  thereon,  viz:  Beginning  at 
Buck's  Harbor,  so  called,  on  the  dividing  line  between 
Number  Three,  and  Nnmber  Four  ;  and  from  thence  run- 
ning Northeasterly  on  the  westerly  line  of  Number  Four, 
Number  Five,  and  Six  to  the  Southerly  Corner  of  Number 
Two;  thence  westerly  on  the  Southerly  line  of  Number 
'J'wo  to  Penobscot  River ;  thence  Southerly  doAvn  the  same 
river  and  Penobscot  Bay,  to  the  Southwesternmost  part  of 
Cape  Rozier ;  thence  Easterly,  including  Spectacle  Island, 
to  Buck's  Harbor,  aforesaid,  the  place  of  beginning, 
be  and  are  hereby  Incorporated  into  a  town  by  the  name  of 
Penobscot,  and  the  said  Town  is  hereby  invested  witli  all 
the  powers,  privileges,  and  immunities  that  the  towns  of 
this  Commonwealth  are  entitled  to  according  to  Law. 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  Joseph  Hibberd,  Esq., 
be,  and  he  hereby  is,  empowered  to  issue  his  warrant  to  some 
principal  inhabitant  of  said  town,  to  warn  the  Inhabitants 
thereof  to  assemble  at  such  time  and  place  in  said  town,  as 
by  said  warrant  shall   be   appointed,  to  elect   such   Town 


MUNICIPAL  PERIOD.  343 

Officers  as  are  empowered  by  Law  to  be  chosen  annually 
in  the  month  of  March  or  April,  and  the  said  Inhabitants 
being  so  assembled,  shall  be,  and  hereby  are  empowered  to 
choose  such  Officers  accordingly. 

Provided,  nevertheless,  that  nothing  in  this  Act  shall  in 
any  manner  affect  the  right  of  Soil  in  the  lands  aforesaid, 
or  discharge  the  taxes  already  assessed,  or  ordered  to  be 
assessed,  in  the  said  plantation,  but  the  said  town  shall  be 
considered  as  held  to  pay  all  such  taxes  which  remained 
due,  unpaid,  from  the  said  plantation. 

In  the  House  of  Representatives,  February  22,  A.  D. 
1787. 

This  bill  having  had  three  successive  readings  passed  to 
be  Enacted. 

[Signed.]     ARTEMAS  WARD,  Speaker  of  House. 

In  Senate,  February  23,  A.  D.  1787 :  This  bill  having 
had  two  several  readings  passed  to  be  Enacted. 

[Signed.]  SAMUEL  PHH.LIPS,  Jr., 

President  of  Senate. 

By  the  Governor,  Approved. 

[Signed.]  JAMES  BOWDOIN. 

A  true  copy, 

[Signed.]  JOHN  AVERY,  Jr..  Secretary. 


3. 

Act  of  Incorporation  of  the  Toivn  of   Castine. 

Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
ninety-six. 

An  Act  to  divide  the  Town  of  Penobscot  into  two  dis- 
tinct towns,  and  to  incorporate  the  southerly  part  thereof 
into  a  Town  by  the  name  of  Castine. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representa- 
tives in  General  Court  assembled,  and  by  authority  of  the 
same,  that  the  Town  of  Penobscot  in  the  County  of  Han- 
cock, be,  and  hereby  is,  divided  into  two  separate  and  dis- 
tinct towns,  and  that  the  southerly  part  thereof,  bounded 
as  follows,  viz:  beginning  at  the  northwest  corner  of  An- 
drew Steele's  lot  of  land  on  Penobscot  Bay,  or  river,  so 


344  DOCUMENTARY. 

called,  thence  running  on  said  Steele's  northerly  line  till 
it  strikes  the  center  line,  so  called,  dividing  the  lots  on 
each  side  of  the  neck  of  land ;  thence  down  said  center 
line  a  southwesterly  course  till  it  comes  to  the  dividing  line 
between  Oliver  Parker,  Esq.,  and  Peter  Mograge;  thence 
by  said  dividing  line  a  southerly  course  to  Moore's  Cove, 
so  called ;  from  thence  over  the  waters  of  Majabiguaduce 
river,  so  called,  including  the  whole  of  the  Penin&iula,  to 
the  northerly  line  of  land  belonging  to  John  Condon,  in 
the  Cove  opposite  the  Peninsula;  thence  running  south 
seventy-eight  and  three-quarters  of  a  degree  east,  to  the 
line  dividing  Penobscot  from  Sedgwick;  thence  south- 
westerly adjoining  the  Town  of  Sedgwick,  to  Buck's  Har- 
bor, so  called;  thence  following  the  course  of  the  Bay 
round  Cape  Rozier  to  the  northwestern  extremity  of  the 
Peninsula  of  Penobscot;  thence  round  the  Bay  called 
Penobscot  Bay,  or  river,  to  the  northwesterly  corner  of 
Andrew  Steele's  lot  aforesaid ;  together  with  all  Islands 
included  within  said  lines ;  and  the  Inhabitants  within  the 
same  be,  and  they  hereby  are.  Incorporated  into  a  Town  by 
the  name  of  Castine,  with  all  the  powers,  privileges,  and 
authority  of  other  towns  in  this  Commonwealth. 

And  whereas,  the  Courts  of  Common  Pleas,  and  Court  of 
General  Sessions  of  the  Peace  for  the  County  of  Hancock, 
have  been  heretofore  holden  in  that  part  of  the  Town  of 
Penobscot  now  hereby  incorporated : 

Be  it  further  enacted  by  the  Authority  aforesaid,  that 
the  said  Courts  shall  continue  to  be  holden  in  said  Town  of 
Castine;  and  that  the  said  Town  of  Castine  shall  be,  and 
hereby  is  constituted  the  Shire  Town  of  said  County  of 
Hancock;  and  all  writs,  precepts,  and  judicial  proceedings 
whatever,  which  are,  or  may  be,  returnable  to  either  of  the 
Courts  aforesaid,  shall  be  accepted,  adjudged  and  considered 
by  the  said  Courts  in  the  said  Town  of  Castine,  any  law 
to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  Authority  aforesaid, 
that  until  a  new  general  valuation  is  taken,  the  State  taxes 
which  may  be  called  for  from  the  aforesaid  towns,  shall  be 
levied  in  the  following  proportion,  viz:  three-fifths  of  the 
whole  sum  on  the  Town  of  Castine,  and  two-fifths  thereof 
on  the  Town  of  Penobscot ;  and  each  of  the  aforesaid 
towns  shall  be  holden  to  pay  such  proportion  accordingly. 

And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  Authority  aforesaid, 
that  Oliver  Parker,  Esq.,  be,  and  hereby  is,  authorized  and 


MtTNICIPAL  PERIOD.  345 

directed  to  issue  his  warrant  to  some  principal  inhabitant 
of  the  said  Town  of  Castine,  requiring  him  to  notify  the 
Inhabitants  of  said  town,  qualified  as  the  law  directs,  to 
assemble  at  the  time  and  place  by  hira  appointed,  to  elect 
such  Town  Officers  as  they  are  by  law  empowered  to  elect 
in  the  months  of  March  or  April  annually: — 

Provided,  however,  that  nothing  in  this  Act  contained, 
shall  be  construed  as  a  relinquishment  of  any  Property, 
which  eitlier  of  the  towns  aforesaid  may  claim,  as  belong- 
ing to  Township  Number  Three,  before  its  incorporation. 

In  the  House  of  Representatives,  February  the  eighth, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-six.  This  bill  hav- 
ing had  three  several  readings  passed  to  be  enacted. 

[Signed]  EDWIN  H.  ROBBINS,  Speaker. 

In  Senate,  February  the  eighth,  one  thousand  seven  hun- 
dred and  ninety-six.  This  bill  having  had  two  several 
readings  passed  to  be  enacted. 

[Signed]         THOMAS  DAWES,  President  pro.  tern. 

By  the  Governor,  Approved  February  the  thirteenth, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-six. 

[Signed]  SAMUEL  ADAMS. 

A  true  copy— Attest 

[Signed]  JOHN  AVERY,  Jr.,  Secretary. 

Attest 

[Signed]  THOMAS  PHILLIPS,  Town  Clerk. 

[From  the  Town  Records.] 


S46 


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MUNICIPAL    PERIOD. 


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MUiaCIPAL   PERIOD.  851 

5. 

An  Act  to  incorporate  the  town  of  Broohsville. 

Sec.  1.  Be  it  enacted  hy  the  Senate  and  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives in  G-eneral  Court  assembled,  and  by  the  authority 
of  the  same,  That  those  parts  of  the  towns  of  Castine, 
Penobscot,  and  Sedgwick,  included  in  the  following  bound- 
aries, viz :  Beginning  at  the  water  on  the  line  between 
Castine  and  Penobscot,  there  bounded  by  the  waters  of 
the  harbour  of  Castine,  and  by  Castine  river,  to  land  of 
John  Walker,  on  the  southerly  side  of  said  river ;  thence 
on  the  line  of  said  lot,  including  the  same  to  the  water ; 
thence  from  the  outlet  of  Walker's  Pond,  so  called,  south- 
westerly, to  the  southerly  line  of  Isaac  Billings'  land; 
thence,  on  said  southerly  line,  to  the  sea  ;  thence  running 
by  the  sea-shore  round  Cape  Rozier,  and  by  the  shores  of 
Castine  harbour,  to  the  first  mentioned  bounds;  together 
with  the  inhabitants  thereon,  be,  and  are  hereby  incorpora- 
ted into  a  town,  by  the  name  of  Brooksville  ;  and  the  said 
town  is  hereby  vested  with  all  the  privileges  and  immuni- 
ties which  other  towns  do,  or  may  enjoy  by  the  Constitu- 
tion and  laws  of  this  Commonwealth :  Provided,  that  the 
inhabitants  within  the  boundaries  aforesaid,  shall  be  holden 
to  pay  to  the  several  towns,  to  which  they  have  heretofore 
belonged,  their  several  proportions  of  all  taxes  voted  by 
said  towns,  together  with  all  state  and  county  taxes,  appor- 
tioned on  said  towns,  before  the  passing  of  this  act. 

Sec.  2.  Be  it  further  enacted.  That  in  all  state  taxes, 
which  shall  hereafter  be  granted  by  the  General  Court  of 
this  Commonwealth,  until  a  new  valuation  shall  be  settled, 
one-eighth  part  of  the  taxes  which  would  have  been  set  to 
the  town  of  .Sedgwick,  one-fifth  part  which  would  have 
been  set  to  the  town  of  Penobscot,  and  one-fifth  part  which 
would  have  been  set  to  Castine,  according  to  the  last  valua- 
tion, shall  be  taken  from  said  towns  and  set  to  the  said 
town  of  Brooksville. 

Sec.  3.  Be  it  further  enacted.  That  William  Abbott, 
Esquire,  be,  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  to  issue  a  warrant, 
directed  to  some  suitable  inhabitant  of  said  town  of  Brooks- 
ville, requiring  him  to  notify  the  inhabitants  thereof,  to 
meet  at  such  time  and  place  as  shall  be  appointed  in  said 
warrant,  for  the  election  of  all  such  officers  as  towns  are 
entitled  to  choose  in  the  month  of  March,  or  A})ril  annually. 
— Approved  by  the  Governor,  June  lo,  1817. — 
[Laws  of  Massachusetts — 1817.] 


852  DOCUMENTARY. 

6. 

An  Act  to  set  off  a  part  of  the  town  of  Penohscat^  and  annex 
the  same  to  the  town  of  Castine. 

Sec.  1.  Be  it  enacted  hy  the  Senate  and  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives^ in  Greneral  Court  assembled^  and  by  the  authority 
of  the  same,  That  that  part  of  the  town  of  Penobscot,  in 
the  county  of  Hancock,  hereafter  described,  and  the  inhabi- 
tants thereon,  be  annexed  to  the  town  of  Castine,  in  said 
county,  viz :  That  part  of  said  Penobscot  lying  between 
Penobscot  and  Castine  rivers,  and  southerly  and  westerly 
of  t  f^  following  lines,  viz  :  Beginning  at  the  first  narrows 
in  Cas'tine  river,  on  the  northerly  line  of  Lot  Number  sixty, 
laid  out  to  Pelatiah  Freeman,  deceased,  and  surveyed  by 
John  Peters,  and  John  Peters,  Jun. ;  thence  on  the  north- 
erly line  of  said  Lot  Number  sixty,  north-westerly  to  the 
centre  line ;  thence  northerly  on  the  centre  line,  to  the 
southerly  line  of  Lot  Number  twenty-two  ;  thence  westerly 
to  the  easterl}^  end  of  Lot  Number  twenty-three ;  thence 
northerly  on  the  head  or  easterly  end  of  Lot  Number  twenty- 
three,  and  continuing  the  same  course  to  the  stream,  which 
empties  into  Morse's  Cove,  so  called ;  thence  down  said 
stream  to  said  Cove. 

Sec.  2.  JBe  it  further  enacted.  That  the  inhabitants  of 
the  said  part  of  the  town  of  Penobscot,  by  this  act  annexed 
to  the  said  town  of  Castine,  shall  be  holden  to  pay  such 
taxes  as  have  been  assessed,  or  ordered  to  be  assessed  on 
them  by  the  said  town  of  Penobscot,  previous  to  passing 
of  this  act. 

Sec.  3.  Be  it  further  enacted,  That  in  all  state  taxes, 
which  shall  hereafter  be  granted,  by  the  General  Court  of 
this  Commonwealth,  until  a  new  valuation  shall  be  settled, 
one  quarter  part  of  the  taxes  which  would  have  been  set  to 
the  town  of  Penobscot,  according  to  the  last  valuation, 
shall  be  taken  therefrom  and  set  to  the  town  of  Castine. 

Sec.  4.  Be  it  further  enacted,  That  no  person  who  is 
now  supported  wholly  or  in  part,  by  any  town  in  this 
Commonwealth,  shall,  by  the  passing  of  this  act,  thereby 
gain  a  settlement  in  said  town  of  Castine. 

— Approved  by  the  Governor,  June  16,  1817. — 
[Laws  of  Massachusetts,  1817— p.  420.] 


IVnjNICIPAL    PERIOD.  853 

7. 
General  Skerhrook^s  Account  of  the  Capture  of  Castine. 
[From  an  Englisli  Paper.] 

DowNiKG  Street,  October  9, 1814. 
Major  Addison  lias  arrived  with  the    following  despatch 
from  Lieutenant  General  Sherbrook,  dated : 

Castine^  at  the  entrance  to  the  Penobscot^  Sept.  18. 

My  Lord  : 

I  have  now  the  lionor  to  inform  your  Lordship  that, 
after  closing  my  despatch,  on  the  26th  ult. — in  which  I 
mentioned  my  intention  of  proceeding  to  the  Penobr  cot — 
Rear  Admiral  Griffith  and  myself  lost  no  time  in  sailing 
from  Halifax,  with  slich  a  naval  force  as  he  deemed  neces- 
sary, and  the  troops  as  per  margin,*  to  accomplish  the  ob- 
ject we  had  in  view. 

Very  early  in  the  morning  of  the  30th,  we  fell  in  with 
the  Rifleman^  Sloop  of  war,  when  Captain  Pearse  informed 
us  that  the  United  States  frigate  Adams^  had  got  into  the 
Penobscot,  but  from  the  apprehension  of  being  attacked  by 
your  cruisers,  if  she  remained  at  the  entrance  of  the  river, 
she  ran  up  as  high  as  Llampden,  where  she  had  landed  her 
guns,  and  mounted  them  on  shore  for  her  protection. 

On  leaving  Halifax,  it  was  my  original  intention  to  have 
taken  possession  of  Machias,  on  our  way  hither ;  but  on 
receiving  this  intelligence,  the  Admiral  and  myself  were  of 
opinion  that  no  time  should  be  lost  in  proceeding  to  our 
destination,  and  we  arrived  here  very  early  on  the  morning 
of  the  first  instant. 

The  Fort  of  Castine,  which  is  situated  upon  a  peninsula, 
of  the  eastern  side  of  the  Penobscot,  near  the  entrance  of 
that  river,  was  summoned  a  little  after  sunrise ;  but  the 
American  officer  refused  to  surrender  it,  and  immediately 
opened  a  fire  from  four  24-pounders  upon  a  small  schooner 
that  had  been  sent  with  Lieutenant  Colonel  Nicholls  (com- 
maTiding  the  Royal  Engineers)  to  reconnoitre  the  work. 

Arrangements  were  immediately  made  for  disembarking 
the  troops ;  and  before  a  landing  could  be  effected,  the 
enemy  blew  up  his  magazine,  and  escaped  up  the  Majeta- 
quadous  river,  carrying  off  iu  the  boats  with  them  two 
field-pieces. 

As    we   had  no  means  of  ascertaining  what  force  the 

*See  note  on  p.  'AbQ. 


854  DOCUMENTAET. 

Americans  had  on  this  peninsula,  I  Landed  a  detachment 
of  Royal  Artillery,  with  two  companies  of  the  60th  and  98th 
regiments,  under  Colonel  Douglass,  in  the  rear  of  it,  with 
orders  to  secure  the  isthmus,  and  to  take  possession  of  the 
heights  which  commanded  the  town  ;  but  I  soon  learned 
that  there  was  no  regulars  at  Castine,  except  the  party 
which  had  blown  up  the  magazine  and  escaped,  and  that 
the  militia  which  were  assembled  there  had  dispersed 
immediately  on  our  landing. 

Rear  Admiral  Griffith  and  myself  next  turned  our 
attention  to  obtaining  possession  of  the  Adams,  or,  if  that 
could  not  be  done,  to  destroying  her.  The  arrangements  for 
this  service  having  been  made,  the  Rear  Admiral  entrusted 
the  execution  of  it  to  Captain  Barrie,  Royal  Navy,  and  as 
the  co-operation  of  the  land  force  was  necessary,  I  directed 
Lieutenant  Colonel  John,  with  a  detachment  of  artillery, 
the  flank  companies  of  the  29th,  62d,  and  98th  regiments, 
and  one  rifle  company  of  the  60th,  to  accompany  and  co- 
operate with  Captain  Barrie  on  this  occasion ;  but  as 
Hampden  is  twenty-seven  miles  above  Castine,  it  appeared 
to  be  a  necessary  measure  of  precaution  first  to  occupy  a 
port  on  the  western  bank,  which  might  afford  support,  if 
necessary,  to  the  force  going  up  the  river,  and  at  the  same 
time  prevent  the  armed  population,  which  is  very  numer- 
ous to  the  southward  and  westward,  from  annoying  the 
British  in  their  operations  on  the  Adams. 

Upon  inquiry,  I  found  that  Belfast,  which  is  upon 
the  high  road  leading  from  Hampden  to  Boston,  and 
which  perfectl}^  commands  the  bridge,  was  likely  to  answer 
both  these  purposes,  and  I  consequently  directed  Major 
General  Gosselin  to  occupy  that  place  with  the  29th  regi- 
ment, and  to  maintain  it  till  further  orders. 

As  soon  as  this  was  accomplished,  and  the  tide  served, 
Rear  Admiral  Griffith  directed  Captain  Barrie  to  proceed 
to  his  destination,  and  the  remainder  of  the  troops  were 
landed  that  evening  at  Castine. 

Understanding  that  a  strong  party  of  militia  from  the 
neighboring  township,  had  assembled  at  about  four  miles 
from  Castine,  on  the  road  leading  to  Bluehill,  I  sent  out  a 
strong  patrol  on  the  morning  of  the  second,  before  day- 
break. On  arriving  at  the  place,  I  was  informed  that  the 
militia  of  the  county  had  assembled  thereon,  the  alarm 
guns  being  fired  at  the  Fort  at  Castine,  upon  our  first 
appearance,  but  that  the  main  body  had  since  dispersed 


MUNICIPAL   PERIOD.  355 

and  returned  to  their  respective  homes.  Some  stragglers 
were,  however,  left,  who  fired  upon  our  advanced  guard, 
and  then  took  to  the  woods ;  a  few  of  whom  were  made 
prisoners.  No  intelligence  having  reached  us  from  Cap- 
tain Barrie  on  Saturday  night,  I  marched  with  about  700 
men  and  two  light  field-pieces  on  Buckstown,  at  three 
o'clock  on  Sunday  morning,  the  fourth  inst.,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  learning  what  progress  he  had  made,  and  of  afford- 
ing him  assistance,  if  required.  This  place  is  about 
eighteen  miles  higher  up  the  Penobscot  than  Castine,  and 
on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  river.  Rear  Admiral  Griffith 
accompanied  me  on  this  occasion,  and  as  we  had  reason  to 
believe  that  the  light  guns  which  had  been  taken  from 
Castine  were  secreted  in  the  neighborhood  of  Buckstown, 
we  threatened  to  destroy  the  town,  unless  they  were 
delivered  up,  and  the  two  brass  3-pounders  on  travelling 
carriages  were,  in  consequence,  brought  to  us  in  the 
course  of  the  day,  and  are  now  in  our  possession. 

At  Buckstown  we  received  very  satisfactory  accounts  of 
the  success  which  had  attended  the  force  employed  up 
the  river.  We  learned  that  Captain  Barrie  proceeded  from 
Hampden  to  Bangor ;  and  the  Admiral  sent  an  officer  in  a 
boat  from  Buckstown  to  communicate  with  him,  when 
finding  there  was  no  necessity  for  the  troops  remaining 
longer  at  Buckstown,  they  marched  back  to  Castine  the 
next  day. 

Having  ascertained  that  the  object  of  the  expedition  up 
the  Penobscot  had  been  attained,  it  was  no  longer  necessary 
for  me  to  occupy  Belfast,  I  therefore,  on  the  evening  of 
the  sixth,  directed  Major  General  Gosselin  to  embark  the 
troops  and  join  me  here. 

Machias  being  the  only  place  now  remaining  where  the 
enemy  had  a  post  between  the  Penobscot  and  Passama- 
quoddy  Bay,  I  ordered  Lieutenant  Colonel  Pilkington  to 
proceed  with  a  detachment  of  Royal  Artillery  and  the  27th 
regiment  to  occupy  it ;  and  as  naval  assistance  was  required, 
Rear  Admiral  (iriffith  directed  Captain  Parker,  of  the 
Tenedos,  to  co-operate  with  Lieutenant  Colonel  Pilkington 
on  this  occasion. 

On  the  morning  of  the  ninth  Captain  Barrie,  with  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  John,  and  the  troops  which  had  been  em- 
ployed with  him  up  the  Penobscot,  returned  to  Castine. 
It  seems  the  enemy  blew  up  the  Adams,  on  his  strong 
position  at  Hampden  being  attacked ;  but  all  his  artillery, 


S56  DOCUMENTAEY. 

two  stands  of  colors,  and  a  standard,  with  several  merchant 
vessels,  fell  into  our  hands.  This,  I  am  happy  to  say,  was 
accomplished  with  very  little  loss  on  our  part ;  and  your 
Lordship  will  perceive,  by  the  return  sent  herewith,  that 
the  only  officer  wounded  in  this  affair  is  Captain  Gell,  of 
the  29th  Grenadiers. 

[Signed.]  J.  C.  Sheebkook. 

*First  Company  Royal  Artillery,  two  rifle  companies  of 
the  7th  batt.  60th  Eegt.  29th,  62d  and  98th  regiments. 


Deeds  of  Peninsula  School  Lot. 
1.     Joseph  Perkins  to  Treasurer  of  Castine. 

KNOW  ALL  MEN  BY  THESE  PRESENTS, 

That  I,  Joseph  Perkins,  of  Castine,  County  of  Hancock, 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  Merchant,  in  considera- 
tion of  ninety  dollars  to  me  in  hand  paid  by  William  Ma- 
son, of  Castine,  aforesaid.  Clerk  and  Treasurer  of  the  Town 
of  Castine,  aforesaid,  in  behalf  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
school  district  in  said  town,  commonly  known  and  called 
by  the  name  of  the  Peninsula  School  District,  the  receipt 
whereof,  I  do  hereby  acknowledge,  do  give,  grant,  sell,  and 
convey  to  the  said  William  Mason,  a  certain  tract,  or  lot  of. 
land  lying  in  said  Castine,  bounded  and  described  as  fol- 
lows, to  wit :  Beginning  on  Center  street,  fifty-one  feet 
northwest  from  the  west  corner  of  land  belonging  to  the 
heirs  of  Samuel  Whitney,  deceased ;  thence  running  north- 
easterly, at  right  angles  from  said  street,  one  hundred  feet ; 
thence  northwesterly  on  a  line  parallel  with  said  street, 
thirty  feet;  thence  southwesterly  on  a  line  parallel  Avith  the 
line  just  above  described,  one  hundred  feet  to  said  street; 
and  thence  southeasterly  on  said  street  thirty  feet  to  the 
first  mentioned  bounds.  To  Have  and  to  Hold  the  afore- 
granted  premises  to  him  the  said  William  Mason,  his  suc- 
cessors in  the  said  office  or  assigns,  in  trust  to  and  for  the 
sole  use  and  benefit  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the  said  School 
District,  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  thereon  a  building  for 
the  accommodation  of  said  District  for  a  school  house  for- 
ever.    And  I  do  covenant  with  the  said  William  Mason, 


MTJNICIPAL  PEKIOD.  357 

his  successors  and  assigns,  that  I  am  lawfully  seized  of  the 
aforegranted  premises ;  that  they  are  free  of  all  incum- 
brances ;  that  I  have  a  good  right  to  sell  and  convey  the 
same,  in  manner  aforesaid  ;  and  that  I,  my  heirs,  executors, 
and  administrators  will  warrant  and  defend  the  same  to 
the  said  William  Mason,  his  successors  in  said  office  or 
assigns,  against  the  lawful  claims  and  demands  of  all  per- 
sons. In  witness  whereof,  I,  the  said  Joseph  Perkins, 
together  with  Phoebe,  wife  of  the  said  Joseph,  she  hereby 
relinquishing  her  right  of  dower,  have  hereunto  set  our 
hands  and  seals  this  twenty-eighth  day  of  September,  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eleven. 

Signed,  Sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  us, 
David  Willson.    )  [Signed]  JOSEPH  PERKINS.  [Seal.] 
William  Abbott,  j  [Signed]   PHCEBE  PERKINS.  [Seal.] 

Hancock  ss.  Castine,  November  4, 1811.  Personally 
appeared  the  above  named  Joseph  Perkins,  and  acknowl- 
edged the  foregoing  instrument  to  be  his  free  act  and  deed. 

Before  me,  [Signed]     WILLIAM  ABBOTT,   J.  P. 

2.     John  Perkins  to  Treasurer  of  Castine. 

KNOW  ALL  MEN  BY  THESE  PRESENTS,  that 
I,  John  Perkins,  of  Castine,  in  the  County  of  Hancock, 
Merchant,  in  consideration  of  ninety  dollars  to  me  paid  by 
William  Mason,  of  Castine  aforesaid.  Clerk  and  Treasurer 
of  the  Town  of  Castine,  aforesaid,  in  behalf  of  the  Inhab- 
itants of  the  school  district  in  said  town,  commonly  known 
and  called  by  the  name  of  the  Peninsula  School  District, 
the  receipt  whereof  I  do  hereby  acknowledge,  do  give, 
grant,  sell  and  convey  to  the  said  William  Mason  a  certain 
tract  or  lot  of  land  lying  in  said  Castine,  bounded  and 
described  as  follows,  to  wit :  beginning  on  Center  street, 
twenty-one  feet  northwest  from  the  west  corner  of  land 
belonging  to  the  heirs  of  Samuel  Whitney,  deceased ; 
thence  running  northeasterl}'-  at  right  angles  from  said 
street  one  hundred  feet ;  thence  northwesterly  on  a  line 
parallel  with  said  street  thirty  feet ;  thence  southwesterly 
on  a  line  parallel  with  the  line  first  above  described  one 
46 


358  DOCUMENTAKY. 

hundred  feet  to  said  street ;  and  then  southeasterly  on  said 
street  to  the  bounds  first  mentioned. 

To  Have  and  to  Hold  the  aforegranted  premises  to  him 
the  said  William  Mason,  his  successors  in  the  said  office  or 
assigns,  in  trust  to  and  for  the  sole  use  and  benefit  of  the 
Inhabitants  of  the  said  School  District,  for  the  purpose  of 
erecting  thereon  a  building  for  the  accommodation  of  said 
District  for  a  school  house  forever.  And  I  do  covenant 
with  the  said  William  Mason,  his  successors  and  assigns, 
that  I  am  lawfully  seized  of  the  premises ;  that  they  are 
free  of  all  incumbrances  ;  that  I  have  good  right  to  sell 
and  convey  the  same  in  manner  aforesaid ;  and  that  I,  ray 
heirs,  executors  and  administrators,  will  warrant  and  de- 
fend the  same  to  the  said  William  Mason,  his  successors  in 
said  office  or  assigns,  against  the  lawful  claims  and  demands 
of  all  persons.  In  witness  whereof,  I  the  said  John  Perkins, 
have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  this  twenty-eighth 
day  of  September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  eighteen  hundred 
and  eleven. 

[Signed]  JOHN  PERKINS,     [l.  s.] 

his  X  mark. 

Signed,  Sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  us. 
The  words  '"in  trust "  interlined 
before  signing,  [Signed]  B.  PIALL. 

Hancock  ss.  Castine,  November  4,  1811.  Then  the 
aforenamed  John  Perkins  acknowledged  the  aforegoing 
instrument  to  be  his  free  act  and  deed. 

Before  me,  [Signed]         B.  HALL,  Justice  of  Peace. 

9. 

Deed  of  Meeting-House  Lot.,  ^-c. 

John  Perlcins  to  Inhabitants  of  Castine. 

KNOW  ALL  MEN  BY  THESE  PRESENTS, 

That  I,  John  Perkins,  of  Castine,  in  the  County  of  Han- 
cock, and  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  Gentleman, 
in  consideration  of  ten  dollars,  paid  by  the  Inhabitants  of 
Castine,  in  said  County,  the  receipt  whereof  I  do  hereby 
acknowledge,  do  hereby  give,  grant,  sell  and  convey  unto 
the  said  Lihabitants  a  certain  piece  or  lot  of  land  lying 
and  being  in  said  Town  of  Castine,'  and  bounded  as  fol- 


MUiSriCIPAL  PERIOD.  359 

lows,  viz : — Beginning  at  tlie  northerly  corner  bounds  of 
a  piece  of  land  lately  conveyed  by  Captain  Joseph  Perkins 
to  the  Inhabitants  of  the  County  of  Hancock  ;  thence  run- 
ning northeast  by  land  improved  by  James  Perkins,  Henry 
Whitney  and  myself,  to  land  belonging  to  William  Free- 
man, Esq.,  to  a  post,  being  the  west  corner  bound  of  said 
Freeman's  land ;  thence  southeast  by  said  Freeman's  land 
to  Court  street ;  thence  southwest  on  said  Court  street  to 
said  iand  conveyed  as  aforesaid  to  said  Inhabitants  of  said 
County ;  thence  northwest  on  the  same  land  to  the  bound 
first  mentioned.  Said  land  is  hereby  conveyed  to  said 
Inhabitants  of  saidCastine,  for  the  public  buildings  of  said 
town,  and  other  public  uses — on  which  the  Meeting  House 
and  School  House  now  stand — whenever  the  premises  shall 
cease  to  be  improved  by  said  Inhabitants  for  said  purposes, 
the  same  shall  then  revert  to  the  said  John  Perkins  and  his 
heirs  :  reserving  however  a  free  passage  to  said  Whitney 
from  his  dwelling  house  to  said  Court  street.  To  have  and 
to  Hold  the  aforegranted  premises  to  the  said  Inhabitants 
of  said  Castine  for  said  purposes,  to  their  use  and  behoof 
forever.  And  I  do  covenant  with  the  said  Inhabitants  of 
said  Castine  and  their  successors,  that  I  am  lawfully  seized 
in  Fee  of  the  afore-granted  premises  ;  that  they  are  free  of 
all  incumbrances  ;  that  I  have  good  right  to  sell  and  convey 
the  same  to  the  said  Inhabitants  of  the  said  Castine  ;  and 
that  I  will  warrant  and  defend  the  same  premises  to  the 
said  Inhabitants  of  said  Castine  and  their  successors  forever, 
against  the  lawful  claims  and  demands  of  all  persons. 

In  witness  whereof,  I,  the  said  John  Perkins,  have  here- 
unto set  my  hand  and  seal  this  seventh  day  of  June,  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  fifteen. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered 
in  presence  of  us. 

Mason  Shaw.  )  ro-        it 
Doty  Little.    \  [^^S^^ed.] 

[Signed.]  JOHN  PERKINS,  [l.  s.] 

his  X  mark. 

Hancock  ss.  Castine,  June  7,  1815.  Then  the  above 
named  John  Perkins,  personally  appeared  and  acknoAvl- 
edged  the  above  instrument  to  be  his  free  Act  and  Deed. 

Before  me, 

[Signed.]  MASON  SHAW,  Justice  of  Peace. 


360  DOCUMENTAEY. 

10. 

Deeds  of  Coinmon  Lot. 

1.      Winsloio  Lewis  to  Inhabitants  of  Castine. 

KNOW  ALL  MEN  BY  THESE  PRESENTS, 

That  I,  Winslow  Lewis,  of  Boston,  in  tlie  Commonwealth 
of  Massachusetts,  Physician,  in  consideration  of  seventy- 
five  dollars,  to  me  paid  by  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Town 
of  Castine,  in  the  County  of  Hancock,  in  the  State  of 
Maine,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknoAvledged,  do 
by  these  presents  grant,  remise,  release,  and  forever  QUIT 
CLAIM,  unto  the  said  Inhabitants,  and  their  successors, 
and  assigns,  all  my  right,  title,  interest  and  estate  in  and 
to  a  certain  piece  or  parcel  of  land  situated  in  said  Cas- 
tine, and  known  as  the  Common  Lot,  upon  which  the 
Countj^  Buildings  of  the  said  County  of  Hancock  were 
placed,  and  bounded  as  follows,  namely :  northwesterly 
by  land  of  the  heirs  of  the  late  Peggy  Brooks,  and  by  land 
of  William  Witherell,  and  Charles  J.  Abbott;  southeast- 
erly by  Court  street ;  northeasterly  by  Castine  Common  ; 
and  southwesterly  by  land  of  Otis  Little ;  being  the  same 
lot  assigned  to  Rufus  Perkins,  by  Commissioners  of  Divi- 
sion, as  will  appear  by  their  Report  in  Hancock  County 
Probate  Office.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  above  described 
Premises,  to  them  the  said  Inhabitants,  their  successors  and 
assigns,  to  their  use  and  behoof  forever. 

And  I  do  covenant  for  my  heirs,  executors,  and  admin- ' 
istrators,  to  and  with  them,  their  successors  and  assigns, 
that  I  will  and  my  heirs  shall  warrant  and  defend  the  said 
Premises  unto  them,  their  successors  and  assigns,  against 
the  lawful  claims  of  all  persons  claiming  by,  through,  or 
under  me  but  not  otherwise. 

And  for  the  consideration  aforesaid,  and  for  divers  other 
good  and  valuable  considerations,  I,  Emeline  Lewis,  wife 
of  the  said  Winslow  Lewis,  do  hereby  release,  and  Quit 
Claim  unto  the  said  Inhabitants,  their  successors  and  as- 
signs, all  my  right,  claim,  or  possibility  of  dower,  in  or 
out  of  the  afore-described  premises. 

In  witness  whereof,  we,  the  said  Winslow  Lewis  and 
Emeline  Lewis,  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  seals  this 


MUNICIPAL  PEEIOD.  861 

twenty-ninth  day  of  April,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  eighteen 
hundred  and  forty. 

Sighed,  sealed  and  delivered 
in  presence  of  us, 

The  words  "  by  Commissioners 
of  Division  "  previously  interlined. 

John  A.  Andrew.  )  re-        n 

A.  H.  Fiske.  1  l^'S^^'^^ 

[Signed]         WINSLOW  LEWIS,    [l.  s.] 

[Signed]         EMELINE  LEWIS,     [l.  s.] 

re-        n   T>  A  ntn^T   r^  \  tdt  ^?r^^r\^lJ   \  Witness  to  signature 
[Signed]   RACHEL  CARLETON,  j  ^^  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^.^^ 

Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

Suffolk  ss.  29th  April,  A.  D.  1840.  Then  personally 
appeared  the  above-named  Winslow  Lewis,  and  acknowl- 
edged the  foregoing  instrument  to  be  his  free  act  and  deed. 

Before  me  [Signed]    A.  H.  FISKE,  Justice  of  Peace. 

[Recorded  in  Book  No.  72,  Page  506.] 

2.      Otis  Little  to  Inhabitants  of  Castine. 

KNOW  ALL   MEN  BY  THESE  PRESENTS, 

That  I,  Otis  Little,  of  Castine,  in  the  County  of  Han- 
cock, and  State  of  Maine,  Esq.,  and  Dorothy  Little,  my 
wife,  in  her  right,  in  consideration  of  fifty  dollars,  paid  by 
Silas  H.  Martin,  Rowland  H.  Bridgham,  and  Jonathan 
Perkins,  Selectmen  of  Castine,  and  in  behalf  of  the  Inhab- 
itants of  said  town,  the  receipt  whereof  we  do  hereby 
acknowledge,  do  hereby  remise,  release,  bargain,  sell  and 
convey,  and  forever  QUIT  CLAIM  unto  the  said  Inhabit- 
ants of  Castine,  their  heirs  and  assigns  forcA'er,  all  our 
right,  title,  and  interest  in  and  to  a  certain  piece  of  land 
situated  in  Castine,  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz :  Begin- 
ning at  the  corner  post  of  Otis  Little's  garden  fence  ; 
thence  northwesterly  by  the  Town  House,  eighteen  inches 
from  the  same,  seventy-six  feet  eight  inches  to  a  stake  and 
stones  at  the  corner  of  the  Town  House,  eighteen  inches 
from  the  same ;  thence  northeasterly  nineteen  feet  eight 
inches  to  a  stake  and  stones  ;  thence  southeasterly  seventy- 
six  feet  four  inches  to  the  street ;  thence  southwesterly 
twenty-one  feet  four  inches  to  the  bounds  first  mentioned ; 


362  DOCIJMENTAKY. 

3t  being  part  of  tlie  ground  on  which  the  Town  House 
now  stands.  To  Have  and  to  Hold  the  same,  together 
with  all  the  privileges  and  appurtenances  thereunto  belong- 
ing to  the  said  Inhabitants  of  Castine,  their  heirs  and 
assigns  forever,  against  the  lawful  claims  and  demands  of 
all  persons  claiming  by,  through,  or  under  me.  Iisr  WIT- 
NESS WHEREOF,  we,  the  said  Otis  Little  and  Dorothy  Lit- 
tle, have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  seals  this  twenty- 
sixth  day  of  August,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  forty-one. 
Signed,  Sealed  and  delivered 

in  presence  of 
[Signed]  Thomas  Cobb. 

[Signed]  OTIS  LITTLE.  [l.  s.] 

[Signed]  DOROTHY  LITTLE.       [l.  s.] 

Hancock  ss.  August  26,  1841.  Personally  appeared 
the  above  named  Otis  Little  and  Dorothy  Little,  and 
acknowledge  the  above  instrument  to  be  their  free  act  and 
deed. 

Before  me,         [Signed]  THOMAS  COBB, 

Justice  of  Peace. 
[Recorded  in  Book  No.  72,  Page  506.] 


A    list   of  the    Residents    of  Majabigivaduce^    who   were 
Soldiers  in  the  French  and  Indian  War,  in  1759.* 

Aaron  Banks,  Andrew  Herrick, 

Hate-evil  Colson,  Charles  Hutchings, 

Josiah  Colson,  Nathaniel  Veazie. 


A  List  of  the  Residents  of  Plantation  No.  3,  who  were 
Soldiers  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution.* 

Theodore  Bowden,  Stephen  Kevan, 

Edmund  Bridges,  Alexander  McCarslin, 

Hate-evil  Colson,  Noah  Norton, 

Henry  Dorr,  Nathaniel  Patten, 

David  Danbar,  Moses  Veazie, 

William  Hutchings,  Daniel  Webber, 
William  Webber. 

*This  list  is  derived  from  traditional  and  not  from  documentary  sources, 
and  may  not  contain  all  the  names  that  belong  in  it. 


MUNICIPAL      PEEIOD. 


363 


Soldiers  of  the  War   of  1812, — Residents  of   Castine,  (In- 
cluding Brooksville.^* 


Benjamin  Bolton, 
Nehemiah  Bowden, 
Oliver  Bridges,! 
James  Collins, f 


Joshua  Foster, 
Cornelius  McGee, 
John  Gray, 
Henry  Keeler, 


Eben  Richardson,  f 
Soldiers  of  the  War  of  1812. — Residents  of  Penobscot. 


Nicholas  Bartlett,:j: 
Nehemiah  Bowden, 
Ralph  Bowden, 
Cyrus  Buker, 
Henry  Dorr, 
Stephen  Ellis, 
Aaron  Gray, 
John  Gray. 

Eliakim  W.  Hutchings, 
David  Leach, 
Joseph  Leach, 
William  Leach, 

David 


Alexander  McCarslin, 
Adam  McCarslin, § 
Andrew  McCarslin,§ 
James  McCarslin,§ 
Reuben  McCarslin,§ 
Mark  S.  Patten, 
Mighill  Patten, II 
Abijah  Pray, 
John  Springfield, 
Joel  Wardwell,^ 
Lewis  Wardwell, 
Samuel  Weaver, 
Wescott.** 

11. 


List  of  the  memhers  of  the  Hancock   Gruards  U'ho  ivent  to 
the  Aroostook,  in  1839. ff 


Captain  Charles  H.  Wing, 

J.  Selden  Burbank, 

Charles  A.  Cate,|J 

Mr.  — Crehore,  Orderly  Sg't. 

Charles  Fitz, 

Oakman  Gardner, 

Thomas  E.  Hale, 

John  Heath,  Drummer, 


Ithiel  Lawrence, $f 
J.  Haskell  Noyes, 
Robert  Perkins,  Jr., 
John  Prim, 
Robert  Straw, 
Wm.  B.  Walker, 
Benj.  J.  Wilson, 
John  B.  Wilson. 


*Tliis  list  is  derived  from  traditional  and  not  from  docunteutary  sources, 
and  mav  not  contain  all  the  names  that  belong  in  it. 

t.Still"living. 

+lle  lost  a  leg  at  Plattsl)Hrg. 

Ssons  of  Alexander  McCarslin. 

f|T!ie  onlv  one  living,  in  Penobscot,  in  Sept.,  1874. 

niMediedat  Piattsburg. 

**He  ilied  in  Canada. 

tH)nly  the  sixteen  tirst  mentioned  wore  actually  members  of  the  Hancock 
Guards,"  lliougii  the  others  were  constructively  so. 

liStarted  with  the  company,  but  provided  substitutes  on  the  way. 


8U 


DOCUMENTAEY. 


The  following  persons  also  went  at  this  time,  either  as 
substitutes,  or  in  some  other  company : 

Samuel  Bowclen,  John  Rea, 

Elijah  Orcutt,  John  Snowman, 

Fayette  Buker,  David  Montgomery,  Teamsters. 


12. 

Hosier  of  Castine  Light  Infantry^ — 1858 — 1860. 


Commanding  Officers. 


S.  K.  Devereux,  Captain, 
C.  W.  Tilden,  1st  Lieut., 
S.  W.  Webster,  2d  Lieut., 


A.  F.   Adams,  3d  Lieut., 
J.  B.  Wilson,  4th  Lieut., 


John  M.  Dennett,  Standard  Bearer. 
Non-commissioned  Officeks. 


D.  D.  Wardwell, 
H.  B.  Robbins, 


Charles  E.  Jarvis, 
Isaac  Doyle, 

S.  C. 


Otis  Hatch, 
J.  H.  Noyes, 
S.  P.  Hatch, 
Z.  H.  Webber, 
R.  H.  Bridgham, 
J.  S.  Norton, 
R.  A.  Bridgham, 
Jeremiah  Wescott, 
John  H.  Crawford, 
E.  F.  Davies, 
Samuel  Bowden, 
Ehsha  D.  Perkins, 
Sewall  Perkins, 
M.  P.  Perkins, 


Sergeants. 

Jas.  C.  Collins, 
P.  J.  Hooke. 

Corporals. 

H.  L.  Macomber, 
William  T.  Hooper. 

Murch,  Musician. 
Privates. 

John  S.  Perkins, 
Geo.  E.  Noyes, 
Charles  Blaisdell, 
Samuel  B.  Stevens, 
A.  M.  Noyes, 
E.  H.  Buker, 
Wm.  S.  Wescott, 
Joel  Perkins, 
Mark  P.  Hatch,  Jr., 
Otis  T.  Hooper, 
John  Lewis, 
John  Taylor, 
John  McLaughlin, 
James  Christian, 


MUNICIPAL    PEKIOD. 


365 


William  Jarvis, 
Andrew  Collins, 
A.  B.  Osgood, 
E.  S.  Perkins, 
Geo.  W.  Jarvis, 
John  Clark, 
James  B.  Crawford, 
Oeo.  I.  Brown, 

E.  F.  Collins, 
I.  G.  Shepherd, 

F.  A.  Hooke, 
James  S.  Moore, 
Richard  Tibbetts, 


Edward  A.  Lawrence, 
Orville  D:  Webber, 
Wm.  M.  Lawrence, 
Ellis  Peterson, 
Charles  Veazie, 
Wilson  Hutchins, 
Thomas  Reynolds, 
John  Donahue, 
Daniel  Bridges, 
Amos  Clark, 
B.  W.  Darling, 
John  F.  Surry, 
Augustus  Wescott, 
Albert  King. 


John  R.  Redman, 
James  Brophy, 
John  W.  Dr6sser, 


HONOEAEY   MeMBEKS. 

Geo.  S.  Vose, 
S.  K.  Whiting, 
B.  B.  Foster, 
F,  H.  Jarvis, 


47 


DOCUMENTARY. 


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MUNICIPAL  PERIOD. 


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375 


APPENDIX. 
1. 

List  of  Plants  Foukd  in  Castine   and  Vicinity. 
Indigenous. 

RANUNCULACE^  (Crow  Foot  Family).  Ane- 
mone— Nemorosa  (wood  anemone).  Hepatica — triloba. 
Ranunculus — Flammula  (Spearwort),  Acris  (Buttercups), 
Abdrtivus,  bulbosus^  (Buttercups),  Pennsylv aniens  (Bristly 
Crowfoot).  Coptis — trifolia  (Three-leaved  Goldthread). 
Aquilegia — Canadensis  (wild  Columbine.) 

NYMPH^ACEiE  (Water-lily  Family).  Nymphsea- 
Odorata  (White  Pond  Lily).  Nuphar — Advena  (Yellow 
Pond  Lily). 

SARRACENIACEiE  (Pitcher  Plants).  Sarrace- 
nia — purpurea  (Side-Saddle  Flower). 

CRUCIFERyE  (Mustard  Family).  Capsella—  Burra- 
Pastoris  (Shepherd's  Purse).  Cakile — Americana  (Sea 
Rocket).  Raphanus — Rapkanistrum  (Wild  Radish).  Sin- 
apis — Alba  (White  Mustard),  Nigra  (Black  Mustard). 
Sysymbrium — Officinale  (Hedge  Mustard). 

VIOLACEyE  (Violet  Family).  Y\o\?i—blanda  (Sweet 
White  Violet),  Cucullafa  (Blue  Violet),  Canadensis  (Can- 
ada Yiolet) ,  pubescens  (Yellow  Violet). 

DROSERACE^  (Sundew  Family).  D.  rotundifolia 
(Round-leaved  Sundew). 

HYPERICACE^E  (St.  John's  Wort  Family).  Hy- 
pericum— Mutiliim,  Canadense. 

CARY0PHYLLACEJ3  (Pink  Family).  Stellaria 
(Chickweed) — longifolia  (Stitch wort),  borealis  (Northern 
Stitchwort).  Cerastium — arvense  (Field  Chickweed). 
Spergularia  —  rubra  (Sandwort),  Anychia  —  dichotoma 
(Forked  Chickweed). 

PORTULACACEiE  (Purslane  Family).  Portula- 
ca — oleracea  (common  Purslane). 

MALVACEAE   (Mallow   Family).      Malva — sylves- 


376  APPENDIX. 

tris    (Higli    Mallow),    7'otiindifolia    (Common   Mallow), 
crispa  (Curled  Mallow.)* 

TILIACEiE  (Linden  Famlly).  Tilia  —  Americana 
(Basswoocl). 

OXALIDACE^  (Wood-sorrel  Family).  Oxalis— 
Acetosella  (Common  Wood  Sorrel),  stricta  (Yellow  Wood 
Sorrel). 

GERANIACEiE  (Geranium  Family).  Geranium. 
Maculatiim  (Wild  Cranesbill),  Rohertianum  (Herb  Robert). 

BALSAMINACE^  (Balsam  Family).  Impatiens— 
fulva  (Spotted  Touch-me-not). 

ANACARDIACEtE  (Cashew  Family).  Rhus  — 
typkina  (Staghorn  Sumach),  cojyallina  (Dwarf  Sumach). 

ACERINE.E  (Maple  Family).  A.  sacharinum 
(Sugar  or  Rock  Maple)  —  Var.  nigrum  (Black  Siigar 
Maple),  dasycarpum  (White  Maple),  ridirum  (Red  or 
Swamp  Maple),  P ennsylva7iicum  (Striped  Maple),  Spica- 
tum  (Mountain  Maple). 

LEGUMINOSiE  (Pulse  Family).  Trifolium— re- 
pews  (White  Clover),  Jri'ense  (R?bbit-foot  or  Stone  Clover.) 
pratense  (Red  Clover),  a^rarmm (Yellow  Clover),  Lathyrus 
— maritimus  (Beach  Pea),  palustris  (Marsh  Vetchling), 
Vicia — hirsuta  (Common  Tare).* 

R0SACEJ5  (Rose  Family).  Prmius  —  maritima 
(Beach  Plum),  pumila  (Dwarf  Cherry),  Pennsylvanica 
(Wild  Red  Cherry),  Virginiana  (Choke  Cherry).  Spiraea 
—  tomentosa  (Hardback),  sallcifolia  (Meadow  Sweet), 
Ulmaria*  Potentilla — Argentea  (Five-Finger).  Fragaria 
veaca  (Wild  Strawberry).  Rubus — trijiorus  (Dwarf  Rasp- 
berry), strigosus  (Wild  Red  Raspberr}^,  vUhsKS  (High 
Blackberry),  Canadensis  (Dewberry),  Hispidus  (SAvamp 
Blackberry.  Rosa — lucida  (Dwarf  Wild  Rose),  hlanda 
(Early  Wild  Rose),  ruhiginoscr  (True  Sweet-Brier). 
Cratalgus  —  coecinea  (Scarlet-fruited  Thorn).  Pyrus — 
arhutifolia  (Choke-berr}^),  Americayia  (Mountain  Ash). 

SAXIFRAGACEJ5  (Saxifrage  Family).  Ribes— 
lacustre  (Swamp  Gooseberry), pros^r«^i<m  (Fetid  Currant). 

HAMAIMELACEJ]:  (Witch-Hazel  Family).  Ham- 
amelis.      Virginica  (Witch  Hazel). 

ONAGRACE^  (Evening-Primrose  Family).     Epi- 

*Escaped  from  the  gardens. 


APPENDIX.  377 

loliium — ■anau^ti folium  (Great-Willow  Herb),  coloratum. 
QEnotliera — biennis  (Common  Evening  Primrose), ^j^ontYa. 

CRASSULACEJi:  (Oepine  Family).  Seclum—  tele- 
pJiium  (Live-for-ever).*     Penthorum — sedoides. 

UMBELLIFERiE  (Paesley  Fa^hly).  Carum— carwi 
(Caraway).  Liofusticnm — Scoticum  (Scotch  Lovage). 
Sium — linear e  (Water  Parsnip). 

ARALIACEtE  (Ginseng  Family^).  Aralia — racemosa 
(Spikenard),  nudieavlis  (Wild  Sarsaparilla). 

CORNACEiE  (Dogwood  Family).  C.  Canadensis 
(Bunch  Bervj^^  florida  (Flowering  Dogwood). 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE  (Honeysuckle  Family)— Lin- 
oea — horealis  (Twin  flower).  Viburnum — Ojjuhis  (Cran- 
berry Tree).  Sambucus — Canadensis  (Common  Elder), 
puhens  (Red-berried  Elder). 

RUBIACEiE  (Madder  Family)— Galium  — ^s^jreZ- 
lum  (Rough  Bedstraw),  triffidum  (Small  Bedstraw). 
Cephalanthus — Occidentalis  (Button  Bush).  Mitchella— 
repens  (Partridge  Berry).     Houstonia — Coerulea. 

COMPOSITtE  (Composite  Family).  Eupatorium 
— perfoliatmn  (Thoroughwort — Boneset).  Aster  (Star- 
worts — Asters) — JJndulatus^  Cordifolius,  Macrophyllus,  du- 
mosus^  Tradescanfi,  longifolius,  crecordes,  Multiflorus.  Erig- 
eron, — stricjosum  (Fleabane),  atmuiim.  Solidago  (Golden- 
rod) — bicolo')%  altissima,  angustifolia.  Ambrosia — trifida 
(Great  Ragweed).  Bidens — frondosa  (Beggar-Ticks). 
Achillea — Millefolium  (Yarrow — Milfoil) .  Tanacetum — 
vidgare  (Common  Tansy).*  Artemisia — Absinthium(JX oxxn.- 
wood).  Gnaphalium — polfjcephalum  (common  Everlasting,) 
decurrens  (Everlasting),  idiginomm  (Low  Cud  weed),  jcwr- 
pureu7n  (Purple  Cudweed).  Cirsium — Lanceolatum  (Com- 
mon Thistle),  arvense  (Canada  Thistle),  pn772ili(m  (Pas- 
ture Thistle).  Sonchus — oleracevs  (Sow-Thistle)  Naba- 
lus  Frazeri  (Lion's  Foot).  Taraxicum — Dens-leonis  (Dan- 
delion). Leontodon — Autunuiale  (Fall  Dandelion).  Maruta 
—  Coiida  (Mayweed).  Chrysanthemum  — Leucanthemum 
(White  weed).     Erechthites — Hieracifolia  (P'ireweed). 

LOBELLVCEyE  (Lop.ellv  Family).  Lobelia— e^r^i- 
nalis  (Cardinal  Flower),  inftata  (Indian  Tobacco),  Syphi- 
litica (Great  Lobelia). 

ERICACEyE    (Heath    Family).     Gaylussacia — resi. 

♦Escaped  from  gardens. 


878  APPENDIX. 

nosa  (Black  Huckleberry),  frondosa  (Dangleberry — Blue 
Tangle).  Vaccinium — Pennsylvanicum  (Dwarf  Blueberry), 
corymhosum  (Swamp  Blueberr}^),  Oxy coccus  (Small  Cran- 
berry), macrocarpon  (Common  Cranberry).  Kalimia — 
latifolia  (Mountain  Laurel),  angustifolia  (Lambkill),  Pyro- 
la — nionotropa. 

PLANTAGINACE^  (Plantain  Family).  Plan- 
tago — Major  (Common  Plantain),  maritima  (Sea-side 
Plantain) . 

PLUMB AGINACEJE  (Leadwokt  Family).  Statice 
— Limonium  (Marsh  Rosemary). 

PRIMULACEtE  (Primrose  Family).  Lysimachia 
— mimulasea  (Loosestrife). 

SCROPHULARIACE^  (Figwort  Family).  Verba- 
scum — Thapsus  (Mullein). 

LABIATtE  (Mint  Family).  Mentha — viridis  (Spear- 
mint), Canadensis  (Wild  Mint).  Hedeoma — pidegioides 
(Pennyroyal).  Nepeta  —  cataria  (Catnip,)  Crlechoma 
(Ground  Ivy).  Brunella — vulgaris  (Heal-all),  Stachys 
— palustris  (Hedge  Nettle). 

BORRAGINACE^  (Borage  Family).  Cynoglossum 
— 3Iorisoni  (Beggar's  Lice). 

CONVOLVULACE^  (Convolvulus  Family.)  Cus- 
cuta — Gronovii. 

SOLANACEiE  (Nightshade  Family).  Solanum — 
Dulcamara  (Bittersweet).*  Datura — Stramonium  (James- 
town Weed — Thorn  Apple). 

ASCLEPIADACEiE  (Milkweed  Family).  Asclepias 
— Cornuti  (Milkweed). 

OLEACE^  (Olive  Family).  Fraxinus — Americana 
(White  Ash),  samhucifolia  (Black  Ash). 

PHYTOLACCACEJE  (Pokeweed  Family).  Phyto- 
lacca— decandra  (Garget — Pigeon  Berry). 

CHENOPODIACE^  (Goosefoot  Family).  Salicor- 
nia — nuhacea  (Glasswort- — Samphire).  Suseda — maritima 
(Sea  Goosefoot).     Salsola — Kali  (Saltwort). 

POLYGONACE^   (Buckwheat  Family).    Polygo- 
num— aviculare  (Goose-grass)  ;  var.  erectum.     Persicaria — 
hydropiperoides  (Mild  Water  Pepper),  acre  (Smart  Weed), 
arifolium  (Tear-Thumb),   Convolvulus  (Black  Bindweed), 
*Escaped  from  the  gai'dens. 


APPENDIX.  879 

dumetorum  (False  Buckwheat).  Rumex — orMculatus,  ver- 
ticillatus  (Swamp  Dock),  crispus  (Curled  Dock),  acetosella 
(Field  or  Sheep  Sorrel). 

URTICACE^  (Nettle  Family).  Vlmus^Americanus 
(White  Elm).     Uvtica— gracilis  (Tall  Wild  Nettle). 

PLATANACE^  (Plane  Teee  Fajhly).  Platinus.— 
occidentalis  (Sycamore). 

CUPULIFER^  (Oak  Family).  Quercus — coccinea. 
(Scarlet  Oak),  rubra  (Red  Oak).  Fagus — -ferrugiyiea  (Amer- 
ican Beech).  Corylus — Americana  (Wild  Hazel-nut  Tree). 
Carpinus — Americana  (American  Hornbeam). 

MYRICACEiE  (Sweet-Gale  Family).  Myrica— 
Grale  (Sweet  Gale).  Comptonia — asplenifolia  (Sweet 
Fern). 

BETULACE^  (Birch  Faivuly.  B.  ^o/^^/^acea  (Paper 
Birch),  lutea  (Black  or  Sweet  Birch),  alia  (White  Birch.) 
Alnus — incana  (Speckled  Alder),  serrulata  (Smooth  Alder.) 

SALICACEiE  (Willow  Family).  Salix—cordata 
(Heart-leaved  Willow),  lucida,  Shining  Willow),  Populus 
tremuloides  (American  Aspen),  grandidentata  (Larch),  hal- 
samifera  (Balsam  Poplar)  —  var.  eandicans  (Balm  of 
Gilead). 

CONIFERS  (Pine  Fajuly).  Pinus — resinosa  (Red 
Pine),  strohus  (White  Pine).  Abies — halsamea  (Balsam 
Fir),  Canadensis  (Hemlock  Spruce),  nigra  (Black  Spruce), 
alha  (White  Spruce).  Larix — Americana  (Black  Larch — 
Hackmatack).  Taxus — Canadensis  (Ground  Hemlock). 
Thuja — occidentalis  (Arbor  Vitae),  var.  ericoides.  Junipe- 
rus — communis  (Juniper). 

ARACE^  (Arum  Family).  Ariscema — triphyllum 
(Indian  Turnip).  Symplocarpus — -foetidus  (Skunk  Cab- 
bage).    Acorus — calamus  (Sweet  Flag). 

TYPHACEiE  (Cat-Tail  Family).  Typhsi—latifolia 
(Cat-Tail). 

ORCHIDACEiE  (Orchis  Family).  Spiranthes— ^m- 
cilis  (Ladies'  Tresses),  cernua. 

NAIADACEiE  (Pondweed  Family).  Zostera — marina 
Eel-grass). 

IRIDACE J2  (Iris  Family).  Iris — virginica  (Blue  Flag). 
Sisyrinchium — Berniudiana  (Blue-eyed  Grass). 


380  APPENDIX. 

LILIACEtE  (Lily  Family).  Trillium — erectum.  Ery- 
thronium — Americanum  (Yellow  Aclder's-Tongiie). 

EQUISETACEiE  (Horse-Tail  Family).  Equisetum— 
arvense^  sylvaticum^  limosum. 

FILICES  (Ferns).  Polypodium — Vulgare,  Phegopteris. 
Pteris — aquilina  (Common  Brake).  Osmuncla — cinnamo- 
mea  (Cinnamon  Fern). 

LYCOPODIACE^  (Club-Moss  Family).  Lycopo- 
dium — dendroideum  (Ground  Pine),  clavatum  (Club-Moss), 
complanatnm.      Salaginella — rupestris. 

CYPERACEyE  (Sedge  Family). 

GRAMINE^*  (Grass  Family). 


Collectors  of  Customs   for  the  Port  of  Castine. 

John  Lee,  from  July  31,  1789—1801, 

Josiah  Hooke,  from  1801,  to  Sept.,  1814, 

William  Newton,  (British),  Sept.,  1814,  to  April,  1815. 

Josiah  Hooke,  from  April,  1815  to  1817. 

S.  K.  Gilman,  from  1817  to  1825. 

Joshua  Carpenter,  from  1825  to  1829. 

Rowland  H.  Bridgham,  from  1829  to  1841. 

B.  W.  Hinkley,         )    n         loMi-io^- 

Charles  J.  Abbott,    J    ^^'^^^^  ^^^^  *^  ^^^''■ 

Rowland  H.  Bridgham,  from  1845  to  1849. 

Charles  J.  Abbott,  from  1849  to  1853. 

John  R.  Redman,  from  1853  to  1861. 

S.  K.  Devereux,  from  1861  to  1870. 

WiUiam  H.  Sargent,  from  1870  to . 


Members    of   Congress     who   were    Residents    of 
Penobscot  or  Castine. 

Isaac  Parker,  from  1796  to  1798. 
Hezekiah  Williams,  from  1845  to  1849. 
♦Represented  by  many  species. 


APPENDIX.  381 

4. 

Members  op  Governoe's  Council. 

William  B.  Webber,  Castine,  1825. 
Otis  Little,  Castine,  1830. 
John  H.  Jarvis,  Castine,  1836. 
William  Grindle,  Penobscot,  1871— '74. 

5. 
State  Senators. 
Charles  Hutchings,  Jr.,  Penobscot,  1830 — '31. 
Rowland  H.  Bridgham,  Castine,  1832. 
John  R.  Redman,  Brooksville,  1837. 
Hezekiah  WiUiams,  Castine,  1839—1841. 
Rowland  H.  Bridgham,  Castine,  1842—1843. 
Benjamin  Rea,  Brooksville,  1849 — 1850. 
John  Bridges,  Castine,  1851 — 1853. 
William  Barker,  Brooksville,  1855 — ^56. 
John  Bridges,  Castine,  1860 — '61. 
Charles  J.  Abbott,  1866. 

6. 

Representatives  to  the  Legislature  prom  Penob- 
scot, Castine  and  Brooksville. 

To  General  Court  of  Massachusetts.* 
George  Thatcher,  1788.  Job  Nelson,  1801—1803. 

Gabriel  Johannot,  1789.  Otis  Little,  1806— '09— '12. 

Isaac  Parker,  1791—1795—  David  Howe,  1813. 

1796.  Thomas  Adams,  1814. 

Oliver  Mann,  1798—1807.      Thomas  E.  Hale,  1816— '18. 
Mark  Hatch,  1799.  Samuel  Upton,  1819. 

To  Legislature  of  Maine. 

[From  Records  in  Office  of  Secretary  of  State.] 

From  Brooksville. 

Suneon  Allan,  1839.  Joseph  P.  Parker,  1822— '28. 

Robert  J.  Blodgett,  1874.  WiUiam  Perkins,  1842. 

James  W.  Coombs,  1855.  Benjamin  Rea,  Jr.,  1837 — '44. 

Samuel  Condon,  Jr.,  1864.  Erastus  Redman,  1849. 

John  Devereux,  1857.  John  R.  Redman,  1833. 

Kenney  Grindle,  1861.  David  Walker,  1830. 

Lowell  Grindle,  1867.  Rufus  B.  Walker,  1851— '52. 

John  Hawes,  1847.  David  Wasson,  1835. 

George  V.  Mills,  1870.  William  Wasson,  1858. 

'Compiled  from  Town  Records. 

49 


382 


appendix. 
From  Castine. 


William   Abbott,   1820/22, 

'OQ     '9^;    '97 

Samuel  Adams,  1866. 
John  Bridges,  1813,  '45. 
John  R.  Bridges,  1869. 
Joseph  Bryant,  1831. 
Henry  Emerson,  1839,  '41. 
Timothy  Fernald,  1854. 


James  Hooper,  1837. 
Ithiel  Lawrence,  1863. 
Otis  Little,  1829. 
George  Vose,  1833,  '35. 
Frederic  Webber,  1857,  '60. 
David  W.  Webster,  1873. 
Benjamin  J.  Wilson,  1847,'49. 
Josiah  Wilson,  1838. 


From  Penobscot. 


John  Burnham,  1830. 
Isaac  B.  Goodwin,  1869. 
Benjamin  Gray,  1842. 
Jonathan  Hatch,  Jr.,  1846. 


Pelatiah    Leach,  1829,— *48, 

'50. 
Uriah  B.  Leach,  1866. 
Dan'l  M.  Perkins,  I860,— '63. 


Charles  Hutchings,  Jr.,  1823,  Isaac  Perry,— 1822. 

'26— 1844,— '53.  Leander  A.  Snowman,  1871. 

Ebenezer  Hutchings,  1834, —  Moses  Trussell,  1827. 

1855.  Jeremiah  Wardwell,  1836,— 

Ebenezer    Leach,    1831— '32.         '40. 


7, 


Selectmen  of  Castine.* 
[Including  the  old  town  of  Penobscot.] 


1787—1788. 
Joseph  Perkins, 
Jeremiah  Wardwell, 
Oliver  Parker, 
Joseph  Hibbert, 
Joseph  Young. 

1789. 

Joseph  Perkins, 
Joseph  Hibbert, 
Oliver  Parker, 
Pelatiah  Leach, 
John  Wasson. 
♦Compiled  from  Town  Records. 


1790. 

Oliver  Parker, 
Joseph  Hibbert, 
Daniel  Wardwell, 
Seth  Blodget\, 
Oliver  Mann, 

1791, 

John  Perkins, 
Elijah  Littlefield, 
David  Hawes, 
David  Wilson, 
Pelatiah  Leach. 


APPENDIX. 


383 


1792. 
Oliver  Parker, 
Oliver  Mann, 
John  Wasson, 
John  Wilson, 
Sparks  Perkins. 

1793—1794. 
Jeremiah  Wardwell, 
Pelatiah  Leach, 
John  Wasson, 
Oliver  Mann, 
John  Wilson. 

1795. 
Thatcher  Avery, 
Joseph  Binney, 
Thomas  Wasson. 

1796. 
Joseph  Perkins, 
Joseph  Young, 
David  Wilson. 

1797. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Jonathan  Foster. 

1798. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Ephraim  Blake. 

1799—1803. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Israel  Redman. 

1804—1806. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Francis  Bakeman. 

1807—1809. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 


1810—1811. 
David  Wilson, 
William  Abbott, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 

1812. 
David  Wilson, 
David  Howe, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 

1813—1814. 
David  Wilson, 
Thomas  Adams, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 

1815. 
David  Wilson, 
Thomas  Adams, 
Elisha  Smith. 

1816. 

Thomas  Adams, 
Hezekiah  Rowell, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 

1817. 

Thomas  Adams, 
Bradshaw  Hall, 
Rogers  Lawrence. 

1818. 
Thomas  Adams, 
Bradshaw  Hall, 
William  Freeman. 

1819. 
William  Abbott, 
Otis  Little, 
John  Wilson. 

1820. 

William  Abbott, 

Otis  Little, 

Theodore  B.  Mclntyre, 

1821—1824. 
Otis  Little, 
Joseph  Bryant, 
Theodore  B.  Mclntyre. 


384 

1825. 
Otis  Little, 
William  Witherle, 
Theodore  B.  Mclntyre. 

1826—1831. 
Otis  Little, 
Joseph  Bryant, 
Theodore  B.  Mclntyre. 
1832. 

Otis  Little, 
Joseph  Byrant, 
Henry  Emerson. 

1833—1835. 

Samuel  Adams, 
Hezekiah  Williams, 
Henry  Emerson. 

1836—1838. 
Charles  J.  Abbott, 
Charles  Rogers, 
John  A.  Avery. 

1839. 
Charles  J.  Abbott, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Jonathan  Perkins. 

1840—1842. 
Silas  H.  Martin, 
Rowland  H.  Bridgham, 
Jonathan  Perkins. 
1843. 

Hezekiah-  Williams, 
Charles  Rogers, 
William  B.  Webber. 

1844. 
Hezekiah  Williams, 
Charles  J.  Abbott, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1845— 184T. 
Charles  J.  Abbott, 
Stover  P.  Hatch, 
Joseph  Wescott. 


APPENDIX. 


1848—1849. 
Stover  P.  Hatch, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1850—1851. 
Frederic  A.  Hooke, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1852—1854. 

Stover  P.  Hatch, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1845. 

Mark  P.  Hatch, 

Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1856—1857. 

Charles  A.  Cate, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1858. 

Frederic  A.  Hooke, 
Stover  P.  Hatch, 
Joseph  Wescott. 

1859—1860. 

Samuel  Adams, 
Charles  Rogers, 
Joseph  Wescott. 
186L 

Stover  P.  Hatch, 
Stephen  W.  Webster, 
Zadoc  Witham. 

1862. 
John  R.  Redman, 
Stephen  W.  Webster, 
Zadoc  Witham. 

1863—1865. 
Frederic  A.  Hooke, 
William  H.  Witherle, 
Jefferson  Devereux. 


APPENDIX.  385 

1866.  1871—1873. 

Frederic  A.  Hooke,  Stover  P.  Hatch, 

Otis  Hatch,  Philip  J.  Hooke, 

Jefferson  Devereux.  Joseph  Wescott. 

1867—1870.  1874. 

Josiah  B.  Woods,  Stover  P.  Hatch, 

Thomas  E.  Hale,  Philip  J.  Hooke, 

Jefferson  Devereux.  Jefferson  Devereux. 

8. 
Town  Dieectories.    1874. 

CASTINE. 

Collector  of  Cttstoms — Hon.  William  H.  Sargent. 

Deputy  Collector — L.  G.  Philbrook,  Otis  Little. 

Postmasters — Charles  Rogers ;  North,  Samuel  Dunbar. 

Selectmen — Stover  P.  Hatch,  Philip  J.  Hooke,  Jeffer- 
son Devereux. 

Town  Clerk — Philip  J.  Hooke. 

T